counter revolutionary

@ people who fetishise hierarchy, obedience, rape, slavery, coercion, & sexism: do you know what would be really, truly counter-culture, ‘queer’, and revolutionary? building sexual + romantic relationships on gentleness, equality, partnership, & mutuality. because what you’re doing isn’t breaking any new ground

Man Leftbook really loves their gulag jokes 

like the discussion about what to do with counter revolutionaries is a real one and the question of “should we create a new system of prison labor?” is a fucking massive one but sorry I’m not gonna trust that question to a bunch of people who seem insistent on joking about it or who seemed hyped about seeing another human being in chains

March 17, 1991: 26 years ago today, the Soviet people voted to preserve the USSR.

The referendum held on March 17, 1991, stated: “Do you consider necessary the preservation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a renewed federation of equal sovereign republics in which the rights and freedom of an individual of any nationality will be fully guaranteed?”

In defiance of the counter-revolutionaries who had seized the governing apparatus and the leadership of the CPSU, an overwhelming majority of Soviet citizens IN EVERY REPUBLIC voted “Yes.” The only exception was in a few republics where the “democrats” in power did not allow the vote to take place. Elsewhere there was 80 percent voter turnout.

For: 113,512,812 - 77.8%
Against: 32,303,977 - 22.2%

Despite the vote, the U.S.-backed Gorbachev-Yeltsin leadership illegally dissolved the USSR on December 26, 1991.

Full figures here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union_referendum,_1991

“Ici on noie les Algériens” - “Here we drown Algerians

-Graffiti on the Saint-Michel Bridge, after the massacre
 

The Paris Massacre of 1961

In 1961, France found itself embroiled in a fierce counter-revolutionary war against its colony of Algeria. The war started in 1954, and as it dragged on, anti-Algerian laws and attitudes seeped into mainland France. In retaliation of the brutal suppression of the Algerian independence fighters, several police buildings were bombed in Paris. French police began to ruthlessly target Parisians with Algerian backgrounds; other minorities, like Moroccans, Tunisians, Spaniards, and Italians, were sometimes targeted out of ignorance. Those stopped by police were met with harsh interrogation and outright violence - a disturbingly common method used by French police was to beat, handcuff, then throw a suspect into the Seine, effectively executing them through drowning. Established law followed this trend, and by 1961, it was illegal to merely protest against the Algerian War.

On October 5th, a general curfew of 8:30 PM was enforced against all “Algerian Muslim workers,” “French Muslims” and “French Muslims of Algeria.” Pro-Algerian movements urged Parisians to protest this curfew on the night of the 17th. French police responded by mobilizing some 8,000 + police officers and riot suppression specialists and blocking access to the capital by severing all routes of ingress and egress. Out of the 150,000 Parisians who had Algerian backgrounds, about 40,000 assembled to protest on the night of the 16th. French police cracked down, arresting some 11,000 of the protestors.

However, some 4,000 protestors avoided arrests and were able to peacefully protest on the Grand Boulevards. Stopped by police at the Opéra de Paris, the protestors turned around and reversed their route.

The massacre began shortly after. Near the Rex Cinema, police open fired on the crowd with live ammunition, then charged. A similar scene unfolded on the Neuilly-sur-Seine, with protestors being shot and beaten without cause. French police began to throw dead or unconscious protestors into the Seine, sometimes within sight of the Notre-Dame.

Other protestors were arrested and brought to different locations, like the Palais des Sports, Stade Pierre de Coubertin, or various police headquarters. For almost a week, the prisoners were beaten and tortured, or outright executed. French police who carried out the acts were noted to have stripped all identification off of their uniforms. Bodies and half-alive prisoners were dumped into the Seine at night.

For weeks, bodies washed up on the banks of the Seine. The entire massacre was deliberate and planned, penned and ordered by the head of the Parisian Police, Maurice Papon. Papon would receive the Legion of Honour from Charles du Gaulle later that year.

France never officially recognized the existence of the massacre until nearly four decades later, in 1998. However, official statements only mentioned 40 dead, when other estimates place the toll at closer to 200.

In 1998, Maurice Papon was first convicted of crimes against humanity due to his aiding in the deportation of French-Jewish citizens during the Vichy Regime. In 1999, he was also found guilty of perpetuating the 1961 massacre. He lost all rank and decorations, including his Legion of Honour, but was released in 2002 on the grounds of ill-health.

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Lookbook 06 - Tori Goth

The new wife of Alexander Goth and a renowned counter-revolutionary. I love seeing this little bub on the streets protesting.

the cc-

Against Thought Leaders

To those of us who grew up through the Bush administration, one grew up used to seeing protests.  Against the war, against torture, against the collapse of our wellbeing.  But these were abbreviated affairs, we would march, perhaps some of us would fight against the police and get tut tutted by the New York Times, but then we would return home and the resistance would dissipate.  We would return to our ‘ordinary’ lives, go back to watching the Daily Show, to laughing at some new Bushism, to listening to punk music.  

To the radicals among us, this was a horrid state of being, a state which the reader can easily identify with: of not being able to do enough, of seeing horrors on the TV and wanting to do something about it, but not knowing what, of wanting to see a better world while knowing that the current one is a hellscape.

This isn’t a unique situation, it has been the situation every generation of Leftists has faced since the Second World War.  This fear has led to a similar reaction across the whole of the ‘West’, across all of these generations.  A certain kind of person looks the revolutionary future and the counter-revolutionary present and draws a line, connected by an imaginary dot.  This dot can be any kind of thing, depending on one’s ideology: for some it is the Third-World Worker, for some it is the spontaneous proletariat, for some it is the Party, for some it is Movement.  Without an exception, however, is one simple fact: that this ‘dot’ is not a thing that the artist need interact with, indeed, the less interaction the better. To interact with this Object is to diminish it’s usefulness as a palliative, to weaken the illusion, that this revolution can happen without you needing lift a finger, without you needing to ‘do the hard work’.

A curious thing happens to these sorts of people: they begin to develop more of an attachment to the revolution (and by extension the revolutionary) which exists in their minds than the one which can potentially exist in the here-and-now.

When Occupy Wall Street happened, when the Black Lives Matter movement started, when the resistance to the North Dakota Pipeline began, we could see these Leaders of Thought, who come to teach us about Marxism, or about hierarchy, who appear to tell us that we’re doing it wrong.  This was very well true, one cannot pretend that these movements are perfect or were perfect.  But here is the crucial difference, which separated the mere critic from the Thought Leader: if we were only to accept the Thought Leader’s wisdom, if we were only to toe their theoretical line, if we were to accept their knowledgeable leadership, they promise us that we would somehow have gained the power to defeat the police, to defeat the national guard, to turn the occupation of a city park into a revolution.

To a Thought Leader, who has a whole revolution that has never breached the outskirts of their skull, the knowledge they have gained, the books they have read, the ink they have spilled, has given them a perfect ability over the situation, and thus makes them uniquely capable for leading us.  They tell us they would sacrifice anything to participate in the revolution, but what they mean is that they would be willing to give up anything to enter a fantasy world, wherein they are the chosen one, where their credentials are accepted and they are catapulted into the Management of the Left.

And in order to protect this imaginary revolution, in which they are parachuted in, Lenin-like, to save the day, they will criticize any and every actually revolutionary activity, with the secret held that if only you would shut up, if only you were to exist like the revolutionaries in my thoughts, we would win.  This ignores the material reality of revolution, which is rarely won by spilling ink, which is not something to be ‘controlled’ by an intellectual leadership.  If our resistance requires leaders, I apologize my friend, but it is not you!  Our leaders will emerge from our practices, they will have done the work we have done, they will know us personally, they will not interact with us as Objects in their mind.

But fear not, Thought Leader, the revolution has a role for you! It is the same role it has for everyone else, to help where you can, to fight where you can. Your credentials are not up for consideration!  Your CV will not give you a managerial role over us!

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Rules of the Black Panther Party - Central Headquarters, Oakland, California

Every member of the Black Panther Party throughout this country of racist America must abide by these rules as functional members of this party. Central Committee members, Central Staffs, and Local Staffs, including all captains subordinated to either national, state, and local leadership of the Black Panther Party will enforce these rules. Length of suspension or other disciplinary action necessary for violation of these rules will depend on national decisions by national, state or state area, and local committees and staffs where said rule or rules of the Black Panther Party were violated. Every member of the party must know these verbatim by heart. And apply them daily. Each member must report any violation of these rules to their leadership or they are counter-revolutionary and are also subjected to suspension by the Black Panther Party. 

1. No party member can have narcotics or weed in his possession while doing party work.

2. Any part member found shooting narcotics will be expelled from this party.

3. No party member can be drunk while doing daily party work.

4. No party member will violate rules relating to office work, general meetings of the Black Panther Party, and meetings of the Black Panther Party anywhere.

5. No party member will use, point, or fire a weapon of any kind unnecessarily or accidentally at anyone.

6. No party member can join any other army force, other than the Black Liberation Army.

7. No party member can have a weapon in his possession while drunk or loaded off narcotics or weed.

8. No party member will commit any crimes against other party members or black people at all, and cannot steal or take from the people, not even a needle or a piece of thread.

9. When arrested Black Panther members will give only name, address, and will sign nothing. Legal first aid must be understood by all Party members.

10. The Ten-Point Program and platform of the Black Panther Party must be known and understood by each Party member.

11. Party Communications must be National and Local.

12. The 10-10-10-program should be known by all members and also understood by all members.

13. All Finance officers will operate under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance.

14. Each person will submit a report of daily work.

15. Each Sub-Section Leaders, Section Leaders, and Lieutenants, Captains must submit Daily reports of work.

16. All Panthers must learn to operate and service weapons correctly.

17. All Leaders who expel a member must submit this information to the Editor of the Newspaper, so that it will be published in the paper and will be known by all chapters and branches.

18. Political Education Classes are mandatory for general membership.

19. Only office personnel assigned to respective offices each day should be there. All others are to sell papers and do Political work out in the community, including Captain, Section Leaders, etc.

20. Communications–all chapters must submit weekly reports in writing to the National Headquarters.

21. All Branches must implement First Aid and/or Medical Cadres.

22. All Chapters, Branches, and components of the Black Panther Party must submit a monthly Financial Report to the Ministry of Finance, and also the Central Committee.

23. Everyone in a leadership position must read no less than two hours per day to keep abreast of the changing political situation.

24. No chapter or branch shall accept grants, poverty funds, money or any other aid from any government agency without contacting the National Headquarters.

25. All chapters must adhere to the policy and the ideology laid down by the Central Committee of the Black Panther Party.

26. All Branches must submit weekly reports in writing to their respective Chapters.

Fidel Castro: Dictator NOT a Revolutionary Leader

As a Cuban refugee I rejoice that the symbol is dead. But I still know that the ideology is very much alive. 

Fidel Castro has terrorized us for years. And now the day has come, he is dead. But nothing has changed my fellow Cubans who have remained will continue to endure the regime and swallow the renewed hope that has come with these news. 

And here I sit, watching people (Read: Non Cubans) mourn the death of a “monster” as stated by his own sister, Cuban exile Juana Castro. Castro was not a good man.

He ripped families apart. He took our liberties. He silenced our people. Do not let the media fool you into thinking he was a President or cared for anything but the success of his regime. 

Here is just a small list of what Castro has done:

Mass executions of counter-revolutionaries by Castro’s firing squads. An estimated 30,000 deaths solely from this since he came to power. 

He shut down all independent newspapers upon his rise to power. 

He held over 15,000 political prisoners. 

He created re-education camps for LGBT to correct ‘deviations’. Effeminate males were heavily prosecuted without trial or charge. as well as forced incarceration for anyone that tested HIV positive. 

One July morning in 1994 a group of 72 Cubans boarded a state-owned tugboat (named 13 de Marzo) with the intent to navigate it to freedom. Within minutes the vessel was under attack by other state-owned tugboats. By the time the incident was over 41 Cubans were dead. 10 of them were children.

Denied the right to vote against Castro and his party in ‘free elections’

Castro formed Committees for the Defense of the Revolution(CDR) which operate on almost every block in Cuba. Spying on neighbors and reporting back to the regime. Negative reports can land one in jail.

School children ‘pray’ to Castro. 

Ordered doctors to inject mercury into patients who criticized the poor quality of Cuba’s free medical services

All media is heavily censored and the spreading of “unauthorized news” a criminal offence, with internet access heavily limited by cost and restrictions. (To give you an idea my family members in Cuba could be sent to jail if they were caught corresponding with me via e-mail)

Prior to January 13, 2013, Cuban citizens could not travel abroad, leave or return to Cuba without first obtaining official permission along with applying for a government issued passport and travel visa, which was often denied.

Following the Cuban Revolution all activities of the catholic church were severely limited and in 1961 all property held by religious organizations was confiscated without compensation. 

Castro’s regime violates almost every single article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

His regime has led to an estimated 3 million Cuban’s (more than 25% of the current population) fleeing the country due to persecution since taking power. 

But enough of this.

Today I am grateful for the strength and bravery of my mimi and papi who refused to conform to living under a communist and totalitarian nation. I am thankful that though fear clung to their bones they left everything they had in the hopes of freedom, in the hopes of a better life for me.  Today, I am thankful to hear my mom’s voice break with the strengths of her sobs. Today, I am thankful to see videos of my fellow Cubans embracing each other, crying, waving our flag, dancing, and singing (Our beautiful La Bayamesa).

There is still much work to be done. But today, I leave you with the words of Willy Chirino:

“Hoy que mi pueblo vive ilusionado yo me siento inspirado y un son estoy cantando anunciándole a todos mis hermanos que nuestro día ya viene llegando…”

#vivacubalibre

New athiesm in the left is really fucking annoying. Like I’m all for the decentralization of organized religion and returning it to the hands of the people, but the fetish people seem to have for the destruction of churches and the like seems counter revolutionary. Under a free anarchist society people should be able to worship as they wish so long as they don’t impose their views on anyone else.

On This Day: April 14
  • 1775: The first abolition society in N America established -“The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage”.
  • 1816: Bussa, a slave in British-ruled Barbados, leads a 400 other slaves in rebellion and is killed by British troops.
  • 1874: During the German Revolution, the Freikorps, counter-revolutionaries and fore-runners of the Nazis suppress Communists in Dresden.
  • 1892: Marxist archaeologist V Gordon Childe born.
  • 1905: Birth of Jean Pierre-Bloch in France. He was an activist, resistance member and anti-racist.
  • 1919: American individualist anarchist Josiah Warren died.
  • 1930: Over a hundred Mexican and Filipino farm workers arrested for union activities in Imperial Valley, CA. Eight are later convicted of “criminal syndicalism”.
  • 1930: 17 year old Jimmy Hoffa leads Kroger warehouse co-workers in job action, forcing the company to give in to their demands.
  • 1937: Spain’s Friends of Durruti Group issued a manifesto stating its opposition to celebrating the anniversary of the Second Spanish Republic.
  • 1964: Rachel Carson dies. Ecologist, activist and author of Silent Spring
  • 1968: The Easter Sunday “Love-In” is held in Malibu Canyon, CA.
  • 1978: Thousands of Georgians demonstrate against Soviet attempts to change the constitutional status of the Georgian language.
  • 1986: Death of French writer Simone de Beauvoir. She was an existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and intellectual.
  • 1988: French anarchist Daniel Guérin died.
  • 2005: United Steelworkers and Paper, Allied-Industrial and Chemical and Energy Workers merge to form North America’s largest industrial union.
  • 2007: At least 200,000 demonstrators in Ankara, Turkey protest against the possible candidacy of incumbent PM Erdoğan.

Calling yourself a socialist is almost like a political camouflage for tankies. All you have to do is call yourself a socialist and they’ll let you get away with literal mass-murder. Tankies actually care more about you feigning support for socialism than being an actual socialist, which is why they’ll go to bat for Assad but anarchists are sectarian and counter-revolutionary.

Anarchists unfurl “ROJAVA WILL BE THE GRAVEYARD OF TURKEY AND ISIS” banner in New York City

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While the world descends into a dark authoritarian nightmare, the guerrilla fighters in Rojava, in northern Syria, have forged a new path for revolutionaries everywhere. With a politic built on feminism, anti-capitalism, anti-state, and communal praxis, Kurdish revolutionaries assisted by anarchist and communist guerrillas are ushering in the most important revolution in the 21st century.

The primary fighting units in Rojava, the YPG and YPJ, have faced insurmountable odds, battling Daesh, Bashar Assad’s forces, and various other counter-revolutionary forces in Syria. Armed with conviction and fighting against some of the most fascist forces in the world their battlefield victories have resonated all over the globe. The YPG/YPJ’s successes are so profound that their political model is the only viable political option for Syria, and has created a viable alternative for revolutionary movements worldwide.

This is the exact reason Turkey’s fascist leader, Erdogan, has chosen to intervene in Syria. He recognizes that Rojava’s anti-state, anti-capitalist, and anti-patriarchal values are a direct threat to his chauvinistic throne. The Turkish state has undermined the revolution since its inception and has supported every reactionary force in the region to crush the revolutions gains: funding and granting political support to Daesh and Al Nusra and recently colluding with Assad’s forces against the movement.

Turkey condoned Daesh’s sex slavery, beheadings, and conquests; it harbored Daesh fighters, provided money and arms, explosives, purchased oil and helped Daesh organize combat operations.

Turkey has ridiculously attempted to claim that it is merely liberating towns from Daesh, while simultaneously naming its invasion Operation Euphrates Shield, since it is shielding the area west of the Euphrates from the Kurdish-led revolution.

Turkey’s goal is clear: destroy the capacity of the liberatory armed forces and put an end to the most promising revolutionary movement in the world. Every day that Turkish troops attack revolutionary operations aimed at liberating towns from Daesh are halted.

For those who have built a new life in liberated territory Turkey promises a return to the reactionary days of the past. But the revolution in Rojava has already faced great odds and excelled.

We, at NYC Anarchist Action, urge all people to increase resistance against Turkey and to support the struggle in Rojava as they carve out a way forward for the liberation of all humanity. We placed this banner in solidarity with the fighters of Rojava and in complicity with their struggle, over the FDR highway during the convening of the UN General Assembly in New York.

Rojava’s example will be expanded with action, not words!
Rojava will be the graveyard of Turkey and ISIS.

As they say, ‘Resistance is life, silence is death!’

Long live Rojava!
Long live free life!

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10 Women behind great men

(7/10)  Joséphine de Beauharnais (wife of Napoleon I.)

Joséphine de Beauharnais Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoléon III. Through her son, Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of later Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her.

Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie was born in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique to a wealthy white Creole family that owned a sugar plantation, which is now a museum. She was the eldest daughter of Joseph-Gaspard Tascher (1735–1790), chevalier, Seigneur de la Pagerie, lieutenant of Troupes de Marine, and his wife, the former Rose-Claire des Vergers de Sannois (1736–1807).

The family struggled financially after hurricanes destroyed their estate in 1766. Edmée (Desirée for the French), Joséphine’s paternal aunt, had been the mistress of François, Vicomte de Beauharnais, a French aristocrat. When François’s health began to fail, Edmée arranged the advantageous marriage of her niece, Catherine-Désirée, to François’s son Alexandre. This marriage would be highly beneficial for the Tascher family, because it would keep the Beauharnais money in their hands; however, 12-year-old Catherine died on 16 October 1777, before leaving Martinique for France. In service to their aunt Edmée’s goals, Catherine was replaced by her older sister, Joséphine.

n October 1779, Joséphine went to France with her father. She married Alexandre on 13 December 1779, in Noisy-le-Grand. They had two children: a son, Eugène de Beauharnais (1781–1824), and a daughter, Hortense de Beauharnais (1783–1837), who married Napoléon’s brother Louis Bonaparte in 1802. Their marriage was not happy, leading to a court-ordered separation during which Josephine and the children lived at Alexandre’s expense in the Pentemont Abbey. On 2 March 1794, during the Reign of Terror, the Comité de Salut public ordered the arrest of her husband. He was jailed in the Carmes prison in Paris. Considering Joséphine as too close to the counter-revolutionary financial circles, the Committee ordered her arrest on 18 April 1794. A warrant of arrest was issued against her on 2 Floréal, year II (April 21, 1794), and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until 10 Thermidor, year II (28 July 1794).

Her husband was accused of having poorly defended Mainz in July 1793, and considered an aristocratic “suspect”, was sentenced to death and guillotined, with his cousin Augustin, on 23 July 1794, on the Place de la Révolution (today’s Place de la Concorde) in Paris. Joséphine was freed five days later, thanks to the fall and execution of Robespierre, which ended the Reign of Terror. On 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor), In June 1795, a new law allowed her to recover the possessions of Alexandre.

Joséphine de Beauharnais had affairs with several leading political figures, including Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras. In 1795, she met Napoléon Bonaparte, six years her junior, and became his mistress. In a letter to her in December, he wrote, “I awake full of you. Your image and the memory of last night’s intoxicating pleasures has left no rest to my senses.” In January 1796, Napoléon Bonaparte proposed to her and they married on 9 March. Until meeting Bonaparte, she was known as Rose, but Bonaparte preferred to call her Joséphine, the name she adopted from then on.

Prominent in Parisian social circles during the 1790s, Joséphine married the young general Napoléon Bonaparte

The marriage was not well received by Napoléon’s family, who were shocked that he had married an older widow with two children. His mother and sisters were especially resentful of Joséphine as they felt clumsy and unsophisticated in her presence.  Two days after the wedding, Bonaparte left to lead the French army in Italy. During their separation, he sent her many love letters. In February 1797, he wrote: “You to whom nature has given spirit, sweetness, and beauty, you who alone can move and rule my heart, you who know all too well the absolute empire you exercise over it!”

Joséphine, left behind in Paris, began an affair in 1796 with a handsome Hussar lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles. Rumors of the affair reached Napoléon; he was infuriated, and his love for her changed entirely.

In 1798, Napoléon led a French army to Egypt. During this campaign, Napoléon started an affair of his own with Pauline Fourès, the wife of a junior officer, who became known as “Napoléon’s Cleopatra.” The relationship between Joséphine and Napoléon was never the same after this. His letters became less loving. No subsequent lovers of Joséphine are recorded, but Napoléon had sexual affairs with several other women. In 1804, he said, “Power is my mistress.”

The coronation ceremony, officiated by Pope Pius VII, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804. Following a pre-arranged protocol, Napoléon first crowned himself, then put the crown on Joséphine’s head, proclaiming her empress. Shortly before their coronation, there was an incident at the Château de Saint-Cloud that nearly sundered the marriage between the two. Joséphine caught Napoléon in the bedroom of her lady-in-waiting, Élisabeth de Vaudey, and Napoléon threatened to divorce her as she had not produced an heir. Eventually, however, through the efforts of her daughter Hortense, the two were reconciled.

When, after a few years, it became clear she could not have a child, Napoléon while he still loved Joséphine, began to think very seriously about the possibility of divorce. The final die was cast when Joséphine’s grandson Napoléon Charles Bonaparte who had been declared Napoléon’s heir, died of croup in 1807. Napoleon began to create lists of eligible princesses. At dinner on 30 November 1809, he let Joséphine know that—in the interest of France—he must find a wife who could produce an heir. From the next room, Napoléon’s secretary heard the screams.

Joséphine agreed to the divorce so the Emperor could remarry in the hope of having an heir. The divorce ceremony took place on 10 January 1810 and was a grand but solemn social occasion, and each read a statement of devotion to the other. On March 11, Napoléon married Marie-Louise of Austria. Even after their separation, Napoleon insisted Josephine retain the title of empress. “It is my will that she retain the rank and title of empress, and especially that she never doubt my sentiments, and that she ever hold me as her best and dearest friend.”

After the divorce, Joséphine lived at the Château de Malmaison, near Paris. She remained on good terms with Napoléon, who once said that the only thing to come between them was her debts.

Joséphine died of pneumonia in Rueil-Malmaison on 29 May 1814, four days after catching cold during a walk with Tsar Alexander in the gardens of Malmaison. She was buried in the nearby church of Saint Pierre-Saint Paul in Rueil. Her daughter Hortense is interred near her.

Napoleon learned of her death via a French journal while in exile on Elba, and stayed locked in his room for two days, refusing to see anyone. He claimed to a friend, while in exile on Saint Helena, that “I truly loved my Joséphine, but I did not respect her.” Despite his numerous affairs, eventual divorce, and remarriage, the Emperor’s last words on his death bed at St. Helena were: “France, the Army, the Head of the Army, Joséphine.”(“France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine”).