Okay so my friend and i were arguing for fun about antimatter, dark matter, and antigravity, but couldnt prove if one of us was correct. Could you help us out with some facts about these, or the differences in these things
Sure So I’ll just run through some facts for you. I’ll start with definitions and I’ll try to make it as simple as possible. I’ll include as many sources as I can so everyone can fact check and let me know if I need to change anything.
You should also check out this NASA page on the subject: http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy/
Antimatter: is matter made from antiparticles (duh?) So the followup question would be: what are antiparticles? well, now we’re getting into Quantum Physics so buckle in! [side note, CERN has several definitions for these small scale phenomenon available at their ATLAS experiments glossary (link here).]
Antiparticle: has the same mass as its partner particle, but the opposite charge. This charge could be either the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. When a particle meets its antiparticle it “evaporates“. A nice gif of particle - antiparticle annihilation (credit & source):
Quick Quantum Rundown: There are 2 classifications of particles in QM (Quantum Mechanics)
- Fermions: any particle that follows the Fermi-Dirac statistic models. Fermions include all Quarks and Leptons. All of these have a property know as odd-half-integer spin (not important to the casual person).
- Quark: 3 of these combine to form Hadrons - such as Protons and Neutrons. More info here:
- Lepton: this is a particle that has only half-integer spin. The best known example of these are electrons.
- Bosons: any particle that follows the Bose-Eisenstein statistics models. Bosons are either elementary or composite.
For those of you who like charts:
Dark Matter: is a hypothetical kind of matter that does not interact with the electromagnetic spectrum. Because dark matter does not emits or absorbs light we can only measure it indirectly. It is, without a doubt, one of the greatest mysteries in modern Astrophysics.
It is mostly related to large scale structures within our cosmos. There seems to be more dark matter than actual matter within out universe.
This Video Shows how dark matter clubs form in large scale structures:
About “Anti-gravity”: sorry to disappoint you but it doesn’t technically exist. However, anti-gravity is hypothetically the theorized graviton is discovered. For “false gravity“ applications in human space flight you can read this previous ask: Rotating Torus in human space flight. I think you may find that interesting if you’re trying to find a way to “cheat“ gravity.
P.S. A serious shout out to all of my followers who ask me the best questions, I’m sorry I can’t answer them all but I will try my best to answer them when I can as best as I can. You are all seriously awesome curious people! Thanks for the great questions & support!