cosmetic-industry

y’all ever wonder why half the beauty/cosmetics industry is geared towards anti-aging but they market almost none of it to men. i’ve never seen an ad for wrinkle cream for men, or age spot corrector for men, or youth serum for men, or crows feet treatment for men, like why are they allowed to age in peace but women aren’t. why can’t I just get fuckin old without every corner of every drugstore telling me it’s bad

i like makeup a lot but i hate makeup culture and i hate that the cosmetics industry profits off of the insecurities of grls. also i don’t have any solutions for this so ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ 

i quit sephora and now i feel much more comfortable being able to talk about my issues with makeup culture as it has evolved, so here’s a bit of a venting session from me! wall of text ahead!

to start: i think makeup is great, it’s incredibly fun, and i will alway stand by it as an invaluable method of immediate and non-permanent self-modification. it can help a lot of people with self expression and (mostly gender) presentation, and the fact that there are so many people who feel truer to their internal selves with the help of makeup is wonderful. 

BUT, that said, makeup culture itself is awful. i was in cosmetic sales for about 3 years, i’ve been an avid makeup enthusiast for a good decade, and it disheartens me the way people come to view themselves because of makeup culture. before i worked at sephora i was much more optimistic about makeup, and y’all would see me go blue in the face defending it– working in cosmetics shed a LOT of light on the things i would prefer to ignore. 

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anonymous asked:

question: opinion on shoplifting? ive read that it has made several poor employees lose their jobs. what is a better way to smash the state on a personal level that won't hurt the poor or poc?

I think what you’ve read is corporate propaganda. Large stores and especially corporate stores have theft calculated into their costs. 

What I’ve read though is that shoplifting has made life better for hundreds of thousands of employee-shoplifters and customer-shoplifters, by taking some of the profits away from the bosses, that don’t really have a right to those profits anyway.

Think of it like this; Every ten-dollar mascara you steal is probably about 8 dollars you keep out of the pockets of the shitty investors in the misogynistic and bodyshaming cosmetics stores or pharmaceutical industries.

The wages of individual shop workers selling these things are only the tiniest fraction of the profit, and theft is covered by insurance.

But of course: No, you won’t help smash the state by shoplifting, but you will help yourself, and thats important too! The corporate bosses suffer a loss they wont even notice, but you have will have something concrete and tangible that will improve your life in some way! 

Some people will react to this post with tales of shops where thefts are directly taken out of employees’ checks, but you should ask yourself: Is the problem there the thief who takes the tiniest percentage point off of corporate gains, or is the problem the bosses who move the weight of that (for the company) entirely insignificant loss to an employee for whom that (otherwise corporately  insignificant) loss might mean paying or not being able to pay for healthcare for a family member.

Clearly the bosses who shift losses from theft to their workers are the problem here, not the occasional thieves. 

Steal away, my dear followers! Just be safe!

not only does capitalism cause people to starve even though we have more than enough food in the world, but because of capitalism a lot of people who are satiated in terms of food quantity are still nutrient-starved.

food companies don’t want you to be healthy, they want to sell their food. so they add all sorts of chemicals, first to make it look and taste better, and then to make you crave more, and then to prevent you from feeling satiated, so that all you want to do is continue buying and eating that food.

so much of obesity and unhealthiness is because in general, people are uneducated about what they should eat and what they’re actually eating, and because the food industry does everything it can to obscure that information so people keep buying their products.

and THEN once people have gained weight and have dull hair and skin and nails, the cosmetic and fitness industries swoop in. they make you feel ugly and worthless and terrible, and then they offer you magical products and supplements and programs to make yourself better looking. 

these industries only exist to make money. they cause us to be overweight and sick, then shame us for it so that we’ll buy other products to counteract it, all while taking in money by the billions.

we’re living inside the prison of these industries, our brains and bodies being warped by all of these toxins and chemicals and psychological warfare, and people still try to argue that this is an economic system about freedom.

anonymous asked:

Can you give some information on Jonghyun and his family and growing up? I've always wondered

these are just some bits of information on his childhood / family. he told a lot of predebut stories when blue night radio was still airing which you can read through at the link!

family

1) he has one sibling: an older sister named sodam. even though it’s hard to find the original quotation she was apparently born in 1988, making her around two years older than jonghyun and around twenty nine. she was born when their mom was twenty one. she’s a well known shinhwa changjo and has a job working within the cosmetics industry, based on a comment jonghyun made a year or two back but that could’ve changed by now.

2) his mom is named lee eun kyung. she was born on march 1st, 1967 making her fifty years old (in international age). she’s a christian (and sodam seems to be as well, though jonghyun is non-religious). jonghyun has mentioned the many jobs that his mom held in the past in order to keep their family above water, including (but not limited to): selling stickers at a stationary shop and being the principal of a daycare center. she went back to university late in life where she studied both women’s and children’s psychology and now works as a psychosocial therapist.

3) his grandmother was a haenyeo which is a female sea diver that works exclusively within or around jeju island. they’re often referred to as mermaids in korea and prided for being independent / highly determined / having iron and strong will, and are representative of the semi-matriarchal structure of family on jeju island.

4) he once said that he has a lot of older female cousins and that, as a child, he’d refer to them as “unnie” rather than “noona”.

5) to give a response about his dad: he’s not really in the picture and, though jonghyun has never confirmed it, it’s very likely that his parents are divorced and have been for awhile now. i once responded to a question about this, but it seems that jonghyun’s relationship with him is either extremely strained or nonexistent. he never mentions him when thanking his family for bringing him up (only his mom and sister). he has never been seen at any shinee or solo related event since debut, etc. any mention of him from jonghyun has been negative, such as: telling a story about how his dad was both against him partaking in a music career and attending a music school, and implying that he was a “bad” guy who dated women far too young for him in regards to his parents’ relationship. so, that’s really all that can be said about him.

childhood

1) jonghyun once said that his mom, sister and him used to play harmonica together during their spare time when he was in elementary school.

2) it’s been mentioned on various occasions under different circumstances but he used to practice taekwondo, kendo, etc. during his early childhood. he won a bronze medal in kendo once~.

3) his parents were married in 1994 when his mom was twenty seven, sodam was six and jonghyun was four. jonghyun once mentioned on blue night that, in their wedding video, he can be seen crying throughout the entire ceremony.

4) jonghyun revealed in late 2015 that his family was on welfare at least through his middle school years.

5) jonghyun once mentioned that his sister and him lived with his grandparents (on his mom’s side) for two years.

6) jonghyun once said that he doesn’t like thinking back on his childhood. when he was visiting his childhood home back in 2015 for monthly live connection he was quoted as saying: “i don’t want to think back or reminisce about my childhood memories. i have no good memories as i was in a period of storm and stress while living there”. he also said on the show that he doesn’t like looking at childhood pictures for the same reason, but you can view some baby photos of him here.

7) his “first love” was fellow classmate from his first year of elementary school. he basically followed her around like a puppy and wasn’t sure himself if it could be regarded as a “first love” or not.

8) he briefly wanted to be a police officer as a child. he then wanted to become a korean language teacher or writer before turning to music.

9) jonghyun once said that there was a period during his childhood where he was very sick often and it caused his mom a lot of stress. he’s also said that he used to get hurt quite a bit during elementary and middle school.

10) his parents briefly owned a record store very early on during his childhood.

11) he used to dye his fingernails different colors with his sister by using garden balsam as a child.

12) jonghyun attended an all boy’s middle school and then a christian high school named mount zion where he was part of a band named zion where he played the bass. it was through a performance with this band that sm scouted him to audition for the company (based on his visuals). he transferred from this school after becoming a trainee to attend the prestigious seoul music institute which he dropped out of before graduating. he later went on to receive his ged.

I realized yesterday that the batfam definitely has to use makeup frequently to cover bruises from all their vigilante-ing, so it got me thinking and 

  • Bruce is the King of Invisible Makeup. He’s been doing this the longest and he’s gotten really, really good at covering bruises and cuts in a way that looks like he isn’t wearing any makeup. Probably has the color lineup of his favorite concealer brand memorized, can usually match someone’s skin color on the first try.
  • If any of the Justice League members ever noticed and made a comment on it he would just turn to them and say “Not all of us can heal bruises instantly.” in That Voice™ and they’d immediately shut up.
  • Dick grew up in the circus, so obviously he’s been using stage makeup since he was very young. He is by far the most skilled at makeup application – his blending techniques are legendary. Probably wears a light bb cream sometimes just for the heck of it, because it makes his skin look nice and who needs gender roles? 
  • Barbara doesn’t wear makeup every day, and when she does she keeps it pretty natural. Is the queen of drugstore makeup because why would she spend $40 on an eyeshadow palette when there’s an almost identical one at Walgreens for $11.99??? 
  • Jason doesn’t bother to cover his bruises with concealer or foundation like the others because he doesn’t really have much of a civilian identity anyway. Besides, bruises and split lips are kind of part of his aesthetic. Has definitely experimented with eyeliner at some point and probably still wears subtle smoked-out kohl sometimes because he likes how it makes his eyes look even more green.
  • Tim is so pale that he sometimes has trouble finding concealer and foundation that matches his face?? He uses a different brand because the brand Bruce likes has a lot of yellow tones and it doesn’t look right on Tim’s ivory skin. This brand doesn’t stay put as well as Bruce’s, so he has to reapply several times over the course of the day. Because of this, Tim has at least one concealer palette on him at all times.
  • Stephanie is the most into makeup out of all of them. She watches makeup tutorials for fun and to learn new techniques, and unlike Barbara she’ll sometimes shell out for an expensive product if it’s really good. Is the queen of contouring, and has been known to wear red lipstick on patrol. She and Dick exchange application tips and product recommendations.
  • Damian was resistant to wearing makeup when he first joined Team Batman, because he’s always been taught that injuries sustained in battle are an honor and should be worn with pride, but he realizes that to preserve his civilian identity he has to look like he doesn’t get beaten up regularly. He was absolutely appalled when he found out about animal testing in the cosmetics industry, and he made everyone switch over to certified cruelty-free products.
  • Cass doesn’t go out much so she doesn’t really bother with makeup. She doesn’t like how it feels on her face. If she ever has to wear makeup for whatever reason she’ll probably ask Stephanie or Barbara to do it for her.
  • NO ONE in the fam has the same skin color, so there’s always approximately six thousand concealer palettes laying around the Batcave. It’s a mess.
  • If Stephanie runs out of highlighter, she’ll use Tim’s foundation because it’s light enough to be a highlight on her lmao
  • Tim, Damian, and Cass are all really bad about forgetting to wash their makeup off before they go to bed and it stresses Dick and Stephanie out so much bc like??? It’s so bad for their skin??? They’re going to get premature wrinkles do they not love themselves
  • Jason tries to wash his makeup off before bed but usually can’t get all of his eyeliner off so imagine… Jason, still half-asleep, drinking coffee in his pjs… leftover black eyeliner smudged all around his eyes… he’s like a disgruntled racoon 

idk I just really love makeup and really, really love the batfam

i feel like the narrative on women and makeup has become so muddled and confused and misguided. there is honestly an industry at this point based on denying that makeup has anything to do with patriarchy in any way, shape or form. despite the obvious fact that, no, the vast majority of men do not wear makeup–and yes, we still consider many of them beautiful without it, and without even thinking about it. 

the beauty industry has become attuned enough to the change in culture and women’s increasing liberation over time that they can no longer get away with marketing all their products as “fixes” for your “flaws.” no, they’ve actually co-opted feminist/activist rhetoric to sell their products to you. this imbues their product with a significance and a weight that, without this language, it simply does not have. sadly a lot of this language is similarly used by makeup blogs/vlogs/instagrams/etc without understanding that the capitalist machine has pushed this nonsense on us for years to dupe us. let’s actually take a look at some modern advertising in the beauty industry:

wow! it’s almost like “having it all” sounds familiar? hm, where have i heard that?

this is just one of dozens of products that compare their makeup to a revolution.

the beauty industry has been steadily using rhetoric to suggest that cosmetics bring women power and the like, such as:

but when all else fails, don’t convince women that beauty products will empower, change, enliven them, or make them assertive. just tell them it’s a part of who they are!

because how could the real you shine through without the help of some new foundation or lipstick?

there is such an absurdity to these slogans and such a sexism to the idea that these products are going to change women’s lives, bring them confidence, give them power or anything else. these products, nine times out of ten, are going to paint women’s faces in order to make them more appealing to the patriarchy.

it’s even gone far enough that women online have recently created a hashtag #thepowerofmakeup (?) to insist that makeup is not due to insecurities or a desire to please boys, but simply a personal choice and pleasure that exists in a vacuum and has nothing to do with anything else ever. this is the extent of the brainwashing. i don’t condemn these women in any way because their lack of understanding is not their fault and is a product of growing up in the society they have. to make myself perfectly clear, i do not condemn any women who wear makeup in any context. however the hashtag creator’s notion that “nowadays…it’s almost a crime to love doing your makeup” is literally baffling. makeup has never been more popular or beloved than it is right now, and the small group of people criticizing its misogynistic origins are nothing compared to the millions of women who feel compelled to spend hundreds every year on these products. it’s incredible to see women who do wear makeup portrayed as the outcasts, while women who don’t wear makeup know that they’ll have a tougher time getting jobs, be consistently assumed tired/upset/having a bad day, and be generally considered less desirable and inadequately feminine on the whole. 

speaking of the growing prominence of youtube channels, instagrams, tumblrs, etcetcetc centered around makeup and makeup products, i want to make a point. can makeup be art? absolutely! can makeup be fun? absolutely! can makeup exist totally separate from male dominant spaces? i’m not positive, but i think it’s possible. however, it is the dominant culture’s obsession with and need for these products which is harmful to women and girls. many will proclaim that, “i like how i look without makeup too!” and “i can still leave the house without it!” but, as someone who once constantly reiterated these phrases, unfortunately i know them to be denials in many many cases. i felt myself, over the years, insisting that i could leave the house without makeup, yet found myself doing that, at most, five times in an entire year. i told myself i liked how i looked without makeup, yet after two days in the house without a drop, i looked in the mirror and felt ugly, dirty, incomplete. and i know i am not alone. sure makeup makes you feel beautiful, but why?

if we want to talk honestly about makeup and the enormous influence it has on women and girls, we have to rid ourselves of patriarchal notions and delusions that makeup “just makes me feel good!” and embrace the idea that we can feel good, all the time, be beautiful, all the time, no matter what we look like, without makeup in any form. our choices do not exist in a vacuum, and there was a reason i cried hysterically to my mother at 13 for not being allowed to wear mascara. all women are beautiful, all the time. it’s okay that women wear makeup. we just need to start examining why we want to, and patriarchy’s role in that “choice.”

Fascinating Social Experiment: These Millions Of Women Tried Cheap Drugstore Makeup For Their Entire Lives

Every day, we are bombarded with ads telling us that we need top-of-the-line makeup to look beautiful, and anything less is unacceptable. But is this stigma surrounding low-end cosmetics really deserved? These millions of women decided to find out in a totally interesting way: They tried using cheap drugstore makeup for their entire lives.

Wow. What an absolutely incredible social experiment.

Ranging in age from 11 to 63, these millions of women have been walking into their local CVS or Walgreens, selecting some budget eyeliner, mascara, and lipstick straight off the shelves, and using those items as their exclusive sources of makeup. What makes this even more amazing is that unlike most social experiments, which only last a week or so, these millions of women showed complete dedication by being willing to spend their entire adult lives using these non-name-brand foundations and concealers. Incredibly, at no point over the decades that they’ve been illuminating how the cosmetics industry manipulates the way we view ourselves did these brave social experimenters drop more than $100 at Ulta to try out a new look.

Though it’s hard to imagine how anyone would be comfortable using $6 blush for even seven days, the scores upon scores of women went above and beyond, suffering through makeup hauls that didn’t even top out at $35 for years on end to prove a point about society.

While this undertaking already sounds crazy difficult, it gets even more impressive when you think about the many events that these women attended while wearing drugstore makeup. From job interviews to first dates and even weddings, these millions of women never caved and used an Urban Decay Naked eye-shadow palette or a Kylie Jenner lip kit. They simply toughed it out while contouring their faces with cheap drugstore highlighters and even cheaper drugstore beauty blenders, all in the name of a fascinating social experiment.

Simply amazing. To all the women who have been participating in this eye-opening trial, your point is well-made and totally inspiring. Now go treat yourself with a shopping spree at Bloomingdale’s. You’ve earned it!

Intern . Jay Park

Originally posted by slayli-ng

A/N: hi. how’s life. i’m home alone rn and life is greatttt. anyway. i’m gonna grab some tea and start writing another jay park fic because why not. anyway, continue. oh and i’m more def turning this into a series. 

NOT PROOF READ

\PT.2//

        Summary: being Jay Parks assistant can turn into so much more.

                                   Warnings: 10 year age gap

                


Many coffees held in Y/n’s arm, she quickly hopped out of her Uber and mumbled a ‘thanks’ before she shut the door with her butt. Heels clicking, she approached the AOMG building, walking through the spinning door after reaching it in a few moments. 

Taking the elevator to the 4th floor, she stops in the work room first where she hands out 2 out of 5 of the warm beverages, getting thanks from her co-workers. 

Then, making her way to the break room at the end of the hallway where her 3 best friends were. The three were sat on a couch in front of a large TV hung on the wall. They were all eating a box of donuts while cuddled together, watching the TV show Star as they did so. 

“Hey, bitches.” Y/n greeted them, a small smile in her words. She handed her friends Egypt, Taiwon, and Aspen their drinks, snuggling between Egypt and Taiwon. 

“Wassup, bitch. When we get off, dance room downstairs?” Egypt suggested, taking a sip from his Pumpkin Spice Latte. Y/n immediately nodded, checking her phone to see that break didn’t start until 10 minutes later but here they were already slacking off. 

Keep reading

5

I’ve struggled with increasingly severe acne on my cheeks for about a year and a half. Believe me when I say: I tried EVERYTHING. No amount of OTC products, herbal remedies, facials, fruits/veggies/water, expensive Lush products, or “positive vibes” cured my acne; in fact, it just got worse and worse.

I finally got to the dermatologist, where I found out it was due to a hormonal imbalance, and that I wouldn’t have been able to prevent it even if I tried. I’ve had to spend hundreds (if not thousands tbh) of dollars at the dermatologist and had several failed treatments before finally having to start heavy duty, hellish accutane to clear me up. Now, my skin is mostly cleared, save for scarring, but it literally took SO MUCH TIME AND EFFORT to get here.

As a society, we have this idea that clearing your skin is easy and anybody who has acne is simply lazy, unhygienic, ugly, and not trying hard enough. I received countless unsolicited comments on my face and recommendations for products that, most of the time, I’d already tried. It was humiliating, to say the least. But it makes sense: we’re constantly fed ads from cosmetic industries telling us that getting clear skin is as easy as using their products. And frankly, it’s bullshit.

So, if you have acne, let me just say this: you’re not gross, you’re not a disgrace to society and you deserve to feel comfortable in your skin, no matter how severe it may be. You’re not a failure just because washing your face and drinking water didn’t work for you like it did for everybody else. It’s okay if you don’t feel 100% confident looking in the mirror or going out in public, you’re still beautiful no matter what. Just remember, you’re not alone and I’m here rooting for you.

A few words on prostitution, “whorephobia” and stigma:

There’s a conflict going on between radical feminists and liberal feminists over the very nature of prostitution. Liberals see prostitution and the sex industry as an industry similar to (for example) the garment industry—one plagued with problems of exploitation and mistreatment of workers, and particularly exploitative to women, but one which could be successfully reformed into a non-oppressive industry, were some changes to be made. Radicals see prostitution as fundamentally different, a special kind of industry that cannot directly be compared to others and must be examined on its own unique terms. The same way that the healthcare business is fundamentally different than cosmetics, the sex industry (encompassing porn, strip clubs, prostitution, “escorting,” camming and other sex-related services) cannot be simply compared to other industries with shady business practises.

Liberals believe that sex workers (an umbrella term I will use for anyone that uses their body directly in the sex industry) suffer from the social stigma, and that, were the stigma to be lifted, they would enjoy better working conditions and more integration into mainstream society. They believe it is possible for sex work to exist without stigma. I disagree. Sex work is stigmatized for a reason. It’s got a long and complex history and that history is one of people—mainly women—being forced into sexual work by economic desperation or military force or slavery or by abusive “boyfriends” and husbands. The tiny minority of upper-class women who are privileged enough to pick and choose the kind of sex work they want to do is a drop in the ocean of brutal (male) violence that backs and enforces this system. Part of the stigma against sex workers is that everybody knows that almost nobody wants this kind of work. Of course, almost nobody wants to be a sewer worker either, but working in a sewer is fundamentally different than being a prostitute or stripper, which brings me to my next (more important) point.

The job of a prostitute (and a pornstar, and a stripper) is to be stigmatized. It can’t be separated from the job, because the job itself is to be a vessel, a target for the abuse and frustration and anxieties of men who see sex workers as little more than objects that absorb male rage. And no matter how poorly a man treats his wife or girlfriend, you can bet he treats the prostitute he sees way worse. What frustrates me about hearing middle and upper class women argue that sex work is a choice not better or worse than restaurant work is that there is, unconsciously, a kind of sense of security that exists amongst these privileged women because we know…we KNOW that deep down, what keeps us safe from the worst of men’s sexual desires (painful anal penetration, deepthroating, etc.) is the existence of prostitutes as a class, a class of desperate women whose job it is to suffer that which the wife or girlfriend cannot bear. Of course, this sense of security is false, because the abuse of any type of woman actually increases the abuse of all women, but the individualistic desire for self-protection at any cost remains. When a boyfriend told me about some of the disgusting porn he watched, deep down I thought “Thank fucking god he can just watch this as porn and not do it to me.”

There can be no sex work without stigma, because the stigma against sex work isn’t hatred: it’s pity and fear and objectification. I pity the woman who has to be used by men as a punching bag and a sponge, and I fear that economic circumstances could one day force me to become one. As for objectification, the sex worker exists as a human barrier between me and the true depth of violent depravity that male sexuality and male rage can be. As an individual woman, I fear what will happen when men no longer have a class of specific women to inflict the worst of their abuse on, but as a feminist standing in solidarity with all women, I cannot defend the existence of a class of human beings whose job it is to absorb this abuse. This is not “whorephobic.” I am not afraid of sex workers (there is no such class of people who are innate “whores,” because sex work is an occupation and whore is an insult and a slur and I consider no woman to be a whore.)

 You know what I am afraid of? I’m afraid of pimps and johns and men who wants to anally rape women and ejaculate on their faces and deep throat them till they vomit and who want to see women beaten and tortured for their sexual gratification. I guess you could call me johnphobic or pimphobic, but I am not whorephobic.

Distillation of Essential Oils, Part Two

Hydrosols: A By-product of Distillation

Hydrosols (also known as hydrolats, floral waters, distillates, or “water of _____”) are the by-product or product (depending on the distiller’s purpose) of the distillation process.

Hydrosols are fragrant waters that contain the essence of a plant in a milder, more accessible, and easier to use form than essential oils. They are suitable for all manner of applications for which essential oils are too strong – for example, they are clothing safe, non-comedogenic, hypoallergenic, and pet safe (provided they are the hydrosols of plants that are non-toxic and poisonous to pets, for example, lily hydrosol would be dangerous to cats, but most medical grade essential oils are dangerous to pets due to chemical burn concerns.)

They are quite like essential oils, but are far less concentrated. During distillation, the water-soluble constituents of the aromatic plant and the essence of a plant is released as steam, which condenses into two products – the essential oils, also offered through Haven Craft, and the hydrosols.

Hydrosols also retain a small amount of essential oil. Every liter of hydrosol contains between 0.05 and 0.2 milliliter of dissolved essential oil, depending on the water solubility of the plant’s components and the distillation parameters.

*Please Note: The addition of essential oils to water is not at all the same as true hydrosols, and it is recommended that you read the ingredients label on products to ascertain whether or not you are getting a true hydrosol. When water and essential oils are mixed together with or without a dispersant, this is called a “spritzer” or “aromatic spritzer,” and this product should not be confused with a true hydrosol.

Hydrosols do not need to be shaken before use.

Expression

Expression, also referred to as cold pressing, is a method of extraction specific to citrus essential oils, such as tangerine, lemon, bergamot, sweet orange, and lime. In ancient times, expression was done in the form of sponge pressing, accomplished by hand. The zest or rind of the citrus would first be soaked in warm water to make the rind more malleable in the pressing process. A sponge would then be used to press the rind, thus breaking the essential oil cavities. The sponde would then absorb the released essential oil.

Once the sponge was filled, it would then be pressed over a collecting container. The expression would then stand to allow for separation of the essential oil from any released water or juice. The essential oil would then be siphoned off.

A more modern method of extraction, much less labor-intensive, has been termed the “ecuelle a piquer” process. It involves a prodding, pricking, sticking action to release the essential oil.

During the ecuelle a piquer process, the rind of the fruit is placed in a container with spikes that punctures the peel while the device is rotated.

The puncturing of the rind releases essential oils that are then collected in a small area below the container. The end process is the same as above.

The majority of modern expression techniques are accomplished by using machines using centrifugal force. The spinning centrifuge separates the majority of essential oil from the fruit juice and water.

Some aromatherapy and therapeutic oil companies sell both a distilled and an expressed citrus essential oil from the same species. The main differences between a distilled and an expressed citrus essential oil  are their toxicity, volatility, and aroma.

Distilled citrus oils deteriorate more quickly and are considerably more unstable than the expressed oils. Distilled citrus oils are not recommended for aromatherapy use.

The one exception would be for distilled lime essential oil, which is considered to be superior in aroma to its expressed counterpart.

Both the expressed and distilled essential oil of bergamot contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene. The aroma of distilled oil is considered to be of lower quality than the expressed oil.

Expressed lemon oil contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, where as the distilled lemon oil is considered to be non-phototoxic. And like bergamot, the aroma of the distilled oil is considered to be of lower quality.

Expressed lime oil contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, whereas the distilled oil is not considered to be phototoxic. The main difference with lime is that the distilled essential oil is considered to have the superior aroma. The distilled lime is considered the superior of the lime oils because it has greater similarity to the natural lime scent.

Extraction Techniques for Absolutes (Extracted Oils) & CO2 Extracts

Enfleurage

Flowers were being processed via enfleurage in the Grasse region of Southern France long before the modern method of solvent extraction was in widespread use. In the antique perfume trade of France, many flower scents were extracted via enfleurage.

Enfleurage is now considered an ancient art that is passed down through family lines, from generation to generation.

Enfleurage is a cold-fat extraction process that is based upon the principles that fat possesses a high power of absorption, particularly animal fat. The fat used must be relatively stable against rancidity. It is a method used for flowers that continue developing and giving off their aroma even after harvesting (e.g., jasmine and tuberose).

This technique involves placing the flower petals on a layer of glass that is first spread with a thin layer of fat, called “chassis”. The volatile oil diffuses into the fat, then the fat is collected and the oil is extracted from the fat using alcohol.

Once the alcohol evaporates what is left behind is called the absolute.

Today, Grasse continues to be one of the few areas in the world that continues to employ enfleurage as a method of extraction, although it is rare in the aromatherapy market due to the expense. If one finds a jasmine enfleurage on the market, this would typically be considered an absolute.

Some of the therapeutic grade absolutes (extracted oils) carried by Haven Craft were created using enfleurage.

Solvent Extraction

Some plant material is too fragile to be distilled – the heat will break down the material to unusability long before oils are released – and so an alternative method must be used. Solvent extraction is the use of solvents, such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, or hexane, to extract the odiferous lipophilic material from botanicals.

The solvent will also pull out the chlorophyll and other plant tissue, resulting in a highly colored and thick, viscous extract.

The first product created during solvent extraction is known as a concrete. A concrete is the concentrated extract that contains the waxes and the fats of the botanical material, as well as the odoriferous oils from the plant.

The concrete is then mixed with alcohol, which serves to extract the aromatic principle of the material.

The final product is known as an absolute or as an extracted oil.

Solvent extraction is used for jasmine, tuberose, carnation, gardenia, jonquil, violet leaf, narcissus, mimosa, and other delicate flowers.

Neroli (orange blossom) and rose can be distilled or solvent-extracted.

The name neroli typically implies the essential oil, whereas the name orange blossom is commonly used for the absolute or hydrosol of neroli. The name rose is used to describe either the essential oil or the absolute.

Companies selling essential oils should rightfully clarify whether the product you are purchasing is an essential oil or absolute. This information should be on the label and in the product catalog. It often isn’t, though, so reflect upon the price – if it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

After the solvent extraction process has been completed, the resulting absolute will have an extremely low concentration of solvent residue, approximately 5 to 10ppm (parts per million). The current European Union standards are for less than 10 parts per million solvent residues in a finished absolute.

This does not interfere in their use as therapeutic oils – some believe it does, but my teacher did not.

It may interfere in their use as medical grade essential oils. Even with such a potentially small residue (less than .0001%), many holistic herbalists disagree with the use of absolutes for individuals with a compromised immune system, due to the potential effect of the residual pesticide.

However, absolutes do have therapeutic value and are often used for psychological purposes and for animals, particularly horses. Many therapists incorporate absolutes, such as rose, jasmine, and tuberose absolutes, as a valuable part of their therapeutic applications of aromatherapy. Ultimately the decision to use absolutes is up to the practitioner and personal preferences.

Absolutes are used extensively in the cosmetic and perfume industries due to their strong aromas – they often smell more like the botanical material than essential oils do.

There are also different grades of absolutes.

The top grade is the uncut, which can be a thick or semisolid substance, making them difficult to work with.

Less expensive grades are diluted with alcohol or a carrier oil, called a “filler”, to make them more user friendly, although often the strength of aroma is slightly diminished.

If the absolute pours very easily and is thin or runny, it has likely been “cut” or “filled”.

Most bath oils and gels, candles, shampoos, toothpaste, fly spray, aromatherapy suppliers, and air fresheners (somewhere around 98 percent), use absolutes rather than medical grade essential oils.

CO2 Hypercritical Extraction

Hypercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction is a relatively new process, developed for for the extraction of aromatic products.

CO2 under pressure will turn from a gas into a liquid, which can then be used as an inert liquid solvent.

This liquid solvent is able to diffuse throughout the botanical material, thus extracting its aromatic constituents.

CO2 extracts contain most of the same constituents as their essential oil counterparts, although they can contain some elements not found in essential oils. For instance, the essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) does not contain the bitter principles, however the CO2 extract does. Also, the CO2 extract of frankincense (Boswellia carterii) has immune enhancing and anti-inflammatory activity not found in the essential oil.

CO2 extracts are known for their strong similarity in aroma to the actual plant aroma, sometimes stronger than the abolutes produced from pressure extraction.

Other common CO2 extracts on the market include German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Calendula (Calendula officinalis).

The three main disadvantages for this process are cost, potential pesticide residue, and the lack of information regarding their safety, therapeutic benefits, and medical benefits.

With regard to pesticide residue, carbon dioxide extraction has been demonstrated to concentrate from 7 to 53 times more pesticide residues in the final extract. Therefore, it seems pertinent to only use organic plant material for CO2 extraction.

Perhaps as more CO2 extracts become available and more practitioners use them, further details regarding their applications will become apparent.

Two of the most common essential oils available via CO2 extraction include frankincense and ginger.

Phytonic Process

The Phytonic process is a one of the newest methods of extracting essential oils using non-CFCs (non-chlorofluorocarbons). It is also called Florasol Extraction. The oils produced are called phytols.

The oils are promising and are very close to nature; however, it does use fluoro-hydrocarbons which can be potentially harmful. The process also has some potentially negative environmental effects that need to be addressed.

More research needs to be done into phytol oils and the process itself before Haven Craft will carry phytol oils.

Warm Oil Infusion

It is possible to extract the volatile oils from plants into warm carrier oil by gently macerating the botanical materials and placing them in a carrier oil and slowly bringing that oil up to heat. These are not considered essential oils or absolutes, but they are good for home therapeutic when a great deal of oil is called for, such as in producing a salve or balm to be used all over the body.

Freeze Distillation

There is a method of solvent extraction that can be done at home to obtain a kind of extracted oil. It would not be considered a therapeutic or medical grade essential oil or absolute, but it is considered an alchemic oil and suitable for use in magick.

The process generally uses undenatured ethyl alcohol or very high proof grain alcohol. It does not use rubbing alcohol.

The plant material is macerated in alcohol for some time, then the plant material is strained out. The alcohol is then placed into an environment below the freezing point. The oil will congeal on top of the alcohol, which will not freeze, and can then be extracted. This method is very good for delicate materials that will burn before steam distillation releases the oils, such as jasmine.

anonymous asked:

The entire cosmetics industry is a mindfuck for money. Women spend their youth being told they need to look older, sexier, and that they need makeup to be taken seriously and once we hit 30 we're suddenly told we need to look like we're 15 years old.

I was watching this like 19 yr old beauty youtuber and she was like yeah guys I follow an anti aging skin care regimen because you can never start too early :) I’m like GIRL…… WE’RE ALL GONNA GET WRINKLES AND DIE SAVE UR MONEY

Disability & Cosmetics

How To Maintain Your Love Of Cosmetics Without Tossing All Your Spoons In The Garbage

A few people messaged me to make a version of this as an actual tumblr post, so the rest of the piece is under the readmore. (If you have trouble reading this format, visit the google document here which was formatted with legibility in mind.)

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The current Surgical Age is, like the Victorian medical system, impelled by easy profits. The cosmetic surgery industry in the United States grosses $300 million every year, and is growing annually by 10 percent. But as women get used to comfort and freedom, it cannot continue to count on profit from women’s willingness to suffer for their sex. A mechanism of intimidation must be set in place to maintain that rate of growth, higher than that of any other “medical specialty.” Women’s pain threshold has to be raised, and a new sense of vulnerability imbedded in us, if the industry is to reap the full profit of their new technology acting on old guilt. The surgeons’ market is imaginary, since there is nothing wrong with women’s faces or bodies that social change won’t cure; so the surgeons depend for their income on warping female self-perception and multiplying female self-hatred…

If women suddenly stopped feeling ugly, the fastest-growing medical specialty would be the fastest dying… They depend for their considerable livelihood on selling women a feeling of terminal ugliness. If you tell someone she has cancer, you cannot create in her the disease and its agony. But tell a woman persuasively enough that she is ugly, you do create the “disease,” and its agony is real. If you wrap up your advertisement, alongside an article promoting surgery, in a context that makes women feel ugly, and leads us to believe that other women are competing in this way, then you have paid for promoting a disease that you alone can cure.
—  Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth