copper miners

Spanish Vocabulary - La historia y el museo
  • la arqueología = archaeology
  • la historia = history
    la historia = (long) story
    el cuento = (short) story
  • la leyenda = legend
  • el mito = myth
  • la mitología = mythology
  • el folclore = folklore
  • la costumbre = custom, tradition
  • la tradición = tradition
  • el pueblo = a people [in some cases it means “population” or “a town”]
  • la tribu = tribe
  • la civilización = civilization
  • la sociedad = society
  • la gente = people


  • el siglo = century
    el siglo XV [quince] = the 15th century
  • el milenio = millennium
    los milenios = millennia 
  • la era = era / age
  • la edad = age
  • el año = year
  • la década = decade
  • la cronología = chronology
  • el sitio = site / place
  • el reino = kingdom
  • el imperio = empire
  • el templo = temple
  • la ciudadela = citadel
  • el palacio = palace
  • la iglesia = church
  • el foro = forum
  • la biblioteca = library
  • el gimnasio = gymnasium / gym
  • el hospital = hospital
  • la universidad = university
  • el coliseo = colosseum
  • el estadio = stadium
  • la fragua = forge
  • la cantera = quarry
  • la cantería = stoneworking
  • la albañilería = masonry [related to el albañil which is is “bricklayer” or “construction worker”]
    la mampostería = masonry [related to el mampuesto which is more like “rough brick” used for stone walls and parapets etc]
  • la granja = farm
    la finca = farm [in the context of “farm” it’s something closer to “estate” or “plantation”… normally la finca is related to “real estate”]
  • la armería = armory
  • el arsenal = arsenal / storehouse
  • el almacén = warehouse [in modern context this would be “department store”, but it used to refer to storehouses and warehouses since almacenar means “to stockpile”]
  • el campo = countryside
  • la villa = villa / country estate [sometimes meaning “villa” as in a vacation home]
  • la panadería = bakery
  • el mercado = market
  • el bazar = bazaar
  • la tienda = shop [or in some cases “tent”]
  • la carnicería = butcher shop
  • el boticario = apothecary [today la botica or la farmacia for “pharmacy” are more common]
  • la sastrería = tailor’s shop
  • la herrería = blacksmith’s / foundry
    [specially related to iron and steel since it’s el hierro; la platería is “silversmith” etc]
  • la fábrica = factory
  • el astillero = shipyard
  • el taller = workshop
  • la presa = reservoir / dam
  • el tesoro = treasure / treasury
  • el banco = bank
  • la banca = banking
  • la tesorería = treasury
    el erario = public funds [sometimes called la Hacienda Pública]
    la Hacienda = treasury [more common today; this is like the ministry of finance or something like that]
  • el acueducto = aqueduct
  • la columna = column
  • la muralla = city wall / large defensive wall
  • la arena = arena / sand
  • el hipódromo = hippodrome / racetrack (for horses)
  • la piedra = stone
  • el metal = metal
  • el hierro = iron (Fe)
  • el estaño = tin (Sn)
    la hojalata = tin-plated
  • el cobre = copper (Cu)
  • el plomo = lead (Pb)
  • el mineral = mineral / ore
    el mineral de cobre = copper ore
    el mineral de hierro = iron ore
  • el carbón = coal
  • la aleación = alloy
  • el bronce = bronze
  • el latón = brass
  • el acero = steel
  • el vidrio = glass
  • el barro = clay
  • el oro = gold (Au)
  • la plata = silver (Ag)
  • la cerámica = pottery / ceramics
  • la Edad de Hielo / La Edad del Hielo = the Ice Age
  • la Edad de Piedra = the Stone Age
  • la Edad de Bronce / La Edad del Bronce = the Bronze Age
  • la Edad Dorada = Golden Age [antiquity; not to be confused with el Siglo de Oro]
  • el artefacto = artifact
  • la herramienta = tool
  • la riqueza = wealth
    las riquezas = riches
  • la pobreza = poverty
  • la guerra = war
  • la paz = peace
  • el ejército = army
  • la marina = navy / marina
    la armada = armada
    la flota = fleet (of ships)
  • la contabilidad = accounting
  • la agricultura = agriculture
  • el negocio = business
  • la ley = law
  • la corte = court
  • el arte = art
    las artes = the arts
    las bellas artes = the fine arts
  • la música = music
  • la ciencia = science
  • las matemáticas = mathematics
  • la astronomía = astronomy
  • el comercio = commerce / trade
  • la religión = religion
  • la filosofía = philosophy
  • la escritura = writing
  • el abecedario = alphabet
  • la cultura = culture


  • el arqueólogo = archaeologist (m)
    la arqueóloga = archaeologist (f)
  • el conservador = curator (m) [sometimes curador]
    la conservadora = curator (f) [sometimes curadora]
  • la exhibición = exhibit, display
  • la exposición = exhibit, display / exposition, exposé
  • el museo = museum
  • la estatua = statue
  • la figura de cera = wax figure
  • el retrato = portrait
  • la pirámide = pyramid
  • la tumba = tomb
    la sepultura = grave / tomb [more formal]
  • el ataúd = coffin
  • el sarcófago = sarcophagus
  • la momia = mummy
  • el dinosaurio = dinosaur
  • el esqueleto = skeleton
  • el remanente = remnant
  • los restos = remains
  • la cestería = basketweaving
    el cesto = basket
  • la artesanía = handcrafting, craftsmanship / craftwork, something made by an artisan
  • el artesano = artisan (m)
    la artesana = artisan (f)
  • la joyería = jewelry
  • la metalurgia = metallurgy
  • la exploración = exploration
  • la colonización = colonization
  • la conquista = conquest
  • la etapa = phase / age / period of time
  • el desarrollo = development
  • el apogeo = apogee / zenith / highest point
  • la caída = fall
  • el dios = god
    la diosa = goddess
    los dioses = gods
    las diosas = goddesses
    Dios = God
  • antiguo/a = ancient / former
    la Antigua Grecia = Ancient Greece
    la Antigua Roma = Ancient Rome
    el Antiguo Egipto = Ancient Egypt
  • la dinastía = dynasty
  • el legado = legacy
  • el gobierno = government


  • excavar = to dig / to excavate
  • descubrir = to discover / to uncover
  • aprender = to learn
  • investigar = to investigate
  • observar = to observe
  • enseñar = to teach / to show, to point out
  • inferir = to infer
  • suponer = to suppose
  • sugerir = to suggest
  • estar de acuerdo (con) = to be in agreement (with) / to agree (with)
  • debatir = to debate
  • construir = to build
  • destruir = to destroy
  • conquistar = to conquer
  • defender = to defend
  • vencer = to defeat
  • perder = to lose
  • emerger = to emerge
  • surgir = to arise / to come about / to spring up / to surge
  • llegar a ser = to come to be
  • enterrar = to bury
  • desterrar = to banish
  • prohibir = to forbid, to prohibit
  • permitir = to allow, to permit
  • castigar = to punish
  • sacrificar = to sacrifice
  • rezar = to pray
  • gobernar = to govern
  • reinar = to rule, to reign
  • celebrar = to celebrate
  • explorar = to explore
  • explotar = to exploit, to take advantage of / to explode, to blow up
  • aprovecharse de = to take advantage of
  • vender = to sell
  • comprar = to buy
  • forjar = to forge, to craft
  • hacer = to do / to make
  • crear = to create
  • yacer = to lie [said of places; as in “it lies upon the river”], to be located
  • vivir = to live
  • morir = to die
  • extinguirse = to die out / to go extinct
  • establecer(se) = to settle (down)
  • desaparecer = to disappear
  • estudiar = to study
  • leer = to read
  • encontrar = to find
  • buscar = to look for


  • el recurso = resource
  • la fuente = source (of information) / fountain, spring
  • la teoría = theory
  • la hipótesis = hypothesis
  • el análisis = analysis
  • la conclusión = conclusion
  • la investigación = investigation
  • la observación = observation
  • la prueba = proof
  • la evidencia = evidence
  • el método = method
6

Herbs, flowers, fruits, wood: The substitutes you can count on!

You’ll probably be using at least one of the above things in most magical workings. Here’s a quick breakdown! 

ROSEMARY: Rosemary can substitute for any herb. Used for its own properties, it is a good component in cleansing baths, can be kept under the pillow to remember dreams, and things associated with memory: memorable impressions, recall, and enhancement of one’s own memory. In cooking, it makes a delicious addition to savory dishes and meats, while also providing a complex flavor to sweet applications. Rosemary infused in honey or tea is strong and tasty, and it adds a sophisticated edge to simple sweets like sugar cookies.

ROSE: Rose can substitute for any flower. Make sure to only get roses for culinary applications or grow your own, since those from a florist will likely contain pesticides! Roses are known for their uses in love spells, but are also used in many applications calling for happy, benign energy. Rose can soothe an angry heart, especially if the anger is due to relationship issues. In cooking, rose is a delicate floral note that can easily be lost under intense flavor, and is best highlighted in sweet or mild applications. Rose petals and rosehips make great tea, and can be jellied for a vitamin-C rich treat. Rose petals can be infused into oil, honey, sugars, and alcohol. Rose water can be used to enhance the flavor, but be sparing—storebought rosewater does not taste as light as homemade, and can overpower and ruin natural floral flavors.

LEMON/ORANGE: Fruit substitutions are less straightforward than others, but lemon, orange, and occasionally apple are considered solid go-tos. Pick whichever is right for the working or recipe, based either on intent or the other spell components! Lemon is associated with water and the moon, and used frequently in purifying and cleansing—both magical and non-magical. Lemon and honey in hot water is a great remedy for sore throat and indigestion, and the smell of lemon will perk you right up on a sleepy morning. Lemon (or any citrus) peel infuses fantastically in sugar, honey, booze, etc. Avoid using pith (the white stuff) and stick to the flavorful zest and juice. Zest is great in practically any baked good, and simply pouring hot water over used lemon rinds will make you entire house smell amazing.

PINE: Pine is regarded as a good substitute for most resins and woods. Pine resin is easy to collect, as are the needles, with a little reading on the species of tree. Pine is thought to banish sickness and bring in prosperity and luck, and often hung over doors or mixed into fragrant sachets to place under pillows. Pine needle tea is bitter, but rich in vitamins A and C; it should be incorporated sparingly to cooking applications, and you may want to enhance it with mint to avoid overuse of the bitter pine taste. In outdoor cooking, pine smells beautiful under a grill or in a fire.

CLARIFICATION: Some people have pointed out that pine can be dangerous to burn due to the high quantities of resin in the wood. This is not untrue! Pine can produce larger quantities of creosote and smoke, due to the resin and tar in logs. However, unless you cook with an all-pine fire regularly, it is not likely to reach dangerous levels (which you wouldn’t anyway, because all-pine fires will make your food taste like a BUTT). I also specified that it should be outdoor flame, since in a wood stove it can cause dangerous buildup. Also, not a great idea to use exclusively pine wood in a fire, as it won’t burn as well/won’t taste great; it’s best when cut with oak. Since pine burns hot, I like to start my bonfire/grill with it, and then pile apple or cherry wood on for the actual cooking an hour later. A few good pine logs/handful of chips will burn well, smell great, and be largely harmless. So like most spell components, research well and use in moderation! 

TOBACCO: Substitute for any poisonous herb. NOT FOR CULINARY USE. It is worth mentioning only in the case that someone is adapting a non-edible spell or ritual into an edible recipe that includes a poisonous herb—NEVER bring toxic plants into the kitchen, at risk of cross-contamination, and instead substitute tobacco by burning a cigarette near the pot (or, if you don’t want that in the house, burning it outside and catching a little smoke in a bottle to bring in). Do not add ashes to the cooking, as they are also poisonous. Don’t let this anywhere near your mouth.

QUARTZ: Not exactly a cooking ingredient, but stones are often used in magic and it is possible to bring them into the kitchen. Clear quartz is a good substitute for any stone you may not have, as it cleanly amplifies energies. While I wouldn’t ever put stones IN something you intend to eat, if you insist on soaking a stone/crystal in liquid recipe ingredients (water, tea, milk, etc), use quartz or another safe stone; malachite, copper, and many other minerals become poisonous when introduced to liquid environments. Don’t put any stone in something acidic, like juice, unless you are POSITIVE it will 1. not erode, and 2. not poison you. Don’t put crystals or stones in overly hot or boiling water, as this could cause them to crack and explode. And if they DO, don’t eat anything with sharp little crystal bits in it! Seriously, treat small shattered crystals like you would glass shards.

Most of these substitute ingredients are entirely edible (or at least mostly harmless) in some form, so if you’re trying to adapt a nonedible spell to baking or cooking, consider using some of these subs in the place of less…digestible…spell components. There are usually plenty of other subs with the properties you need, but these steadfast six are not only reliable, but pretty easy to acquire!

Cyanotrichite

Cu4Al2SO4(OH)12·2H2O

Locality:

Hilarion Mine, Hilarion area, Kamariza Mines, Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine], Lavrion District Mines, Lavrion District, Attikí Prefecture,  Greece

Field of View: 6 mm  

Deep blue Cyanotrichite sprays.

Copyright: © Stephan Wolfsried

Cyanotrichite is a hydrous copper aluminium sulphate mineral. Cyanotrichite forms velvety radial acicular crystal aggregates of extremely fine fibres. It is an oxidation product of primary copper mineralisation in a weathering environment with abundant aluminium and sulphate.

4

One mineral, to the tune of another

The world we live is ever changing, including the rocks and soils beneath our feet. Metamorphism of many kinds is transforming minerals into ones more appropriate to their pressure/temperature environment. Similarly exposed deep crustal and mantle sourced volcanic rocks are being chemically weathered towards their stable form at the surface, ending up as clay minerals. Nearer to the surface, as anoxic rocks that are gradually being exhumed by erosion encounter oxygenated and carbonated groundwater on its journeying beneath the ground, minerals are changing.

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