Rotating supercell over the U.S. Great plains. I can’t tell if this is actual video or if this artists works to animate still frames, but I think some of their clips are the latter.  Almost time for tornado season to start moving up to the central U.S.


The First Climate Model Turns 50, And Predicted Global Warming Almost Perfectly

“The big advance of Manabe and Wetherald’s work was to model not just the feedbacks but the interrelationships between the different components that contribute to the Earth’s temperature. As the atmospheric contents change, so do both the absolute and relative humidity, which impacts cloud cover, water vapor content and cycling/convection of the atmosphere. What they found is that if you start with a stable initial state – roughly what Earth experienced for thousands of years prior to the start of the industrial revolution – you can tinker with one component (like CO2) and model how everything else evolves.”

In 1967, a groundbreaking paper in climate science was published, detailing the inputs and feedbacks for the first accurate climate model. You don’t have to look far to find contentions that climate models are wrong, inaccurate and unreliable: 8 of the first 10 results on google state it. Yet if you look at the science, the original model, even at age 50, does a remarkable job of getting things right. The biggest success? Understanding how large-scale processes work, including the thermodynamic effects of adding additional greenhouse gases to Earth’s atmosphere. The increase of temperature – approximately 2 degrees C for a doubling of CO2 – was well known then, and continues to be well known today. There are uncertainties and difficulties in modern models, but that doesn’t mean there’s uncertainty surrounding global warming. Quite to the contrary, the evidence has never been better.

The time for debate has long since passed, and claiming we live in a post-fact era doesn’t change the scientific truth or the urgency and necessity of global action. Come get the science today.


Excerpts of 8 hours of staring at and filming the lava lake in Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga Volcanoes National Park, Congo


three separate off duty commercial aviators photographed cumulonimbus clouds illuminated by flashes of lightning from their planes.

otherwise known as thunderclouds, cumulonimbus are the only cloud type that can produce hail, thunder and lighting. the base of the cloud is often flat with a very dark wall like feature hanging underneath, and may only lie a few hundred feet above the earth’s surface.   

cumulonimbus clouds are created through convection, often growing from small cumulus clouds over a hot surface.they get increasingly big until they represent huge powerhouses, storing the same amount of energy as ten hiroshima sized atom bombs. 

although the storm looks formidable, today’s airliners have advanced equipment to circle around storms this big without entering any dangerous zones.

(photos xx

A 00Q Chocolate Cake worth coming home to.

A good chocolate cake is worth its weight in gold, and its true value is in its dual ability to taste as decadent and sinful as James looks in a Tom Ford while touching that spot in you that longs for something soft and domestic. The one you feel when you and your quartermaster lean together, mentally, physically, emotionally exhausted, against the kitchen counter post-mission, hours before dawn. Wearing only pajamas, in silence you eat mouthfuls of cake straight from the platter, sharing the only clean fork in the flat. Every heavy bite pulls you closer to much-needed sleep, and you soften a little, knowing you won’t have to sleep alone. It tugs at that spot in your chest that reminds you you’re safe – someone’s looking after you. It’s not glamorous, not one bit. But it all tastes like home. Novel, that.

Chocolate Cake

For the cake you’ll need:

  • 2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 2 cups granulated white sugar
  • ¾ cup Dutch-process cocoa powder
  • 2 tsp baking powder
  • 1 ½ tsp baking soda
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 cup whole milk, or whatever milk you have on hand
  • ½ cup vegetable oil or coconut oil
  • 2 eggs
  • 2 tsp vanilla extract
  • A ~*splash*~  (roughly 1 ½ tbsp if the vagueness of that gives you hives) of hot, freshly-brewed coffee OR 1 tsp espresso powder
  • 1 cup boiling water
  1. Preheat your oven to 350F degrees, or 325F if you’re using a convection oven. Butter and lightly flour two 9” cake pans and set aside.
  2. Combine all dry ingredients (flour, sugar, cocoa powder, baking powder, baking soda, salt and espresso powder if using instead of coffee) in the bowl of a stand mixer or a large bowl if using an electric mixer. Use the stand mixer’s paddle attachment to combine, or a whisk if using an electric mixer.
  3. Add the milk, oil, eggs and vanilla. Mix at a medium speed until combined.
  4. Lower the speed and add the hot coffee and boiling water so you don’t burn ya self.
  5. Distribute the batter between the two pans and tap on the counter to remove air bubbles. Bake for 30-35 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean.
  6. Let them cool in the pans on a cooking rack for about 15 minutes before turning out to cool completely.

Follow with chocolate buttercream frosting (recipe below).

Note: This is a REALLY thin batter, so don’t panic if you feel like you just made chocolate soup. It sets up just fine. Also, I hate to go all Ina Garten, but the quality of the cocoa powder in the cake AND frosting really makes all the difference. It needs to be Dutch-process to reach its dark, deadly potential.

Chocolate Buttercream Frosting

For the frosting you’ll need:

  • 1 cup unsalted butter, softened
  • ¼ tsp salt
  • 2 tsp vanilla extract
  • 3 ½-ish cups confectioner sugar
  • ½ cup Dutch-process cocoa powder
  • 4 tbsp heavy whipping cream
  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer (you can use either the paddle or the whisk, but I like fluffy frosting so I always use the whisk) beat the butter for a minute or two until it’s fluffy.
  2. Add the salt and vanilla and beat to combine.
  3. Add the confectioner’s sugar until combined, and then the cocoa powder.
  4. Add your heavy whipping cream one tbsp at a time until it’s the consistency you like! Beat it in on medium for a minute.

Note: If you like enough frosting to bathe in, be sure to double this recipe. It’s plenty to cover the cake (and very rich), but if you’re looking for a solid inch of coverage on each side… yeah. Double it. 

I spent a lot of time imagining what sorts of bizarre upgrades Q would give a KitchenAid stand mixer while making this.

Klaus Mikaelson CHRISTMAS PART 2

Words count: 881

Warning: None




After everyone was done opening their gifts, you all drifted into your own conversations. You were taking to sage and Finn when you felt a hand sneak around your waist and you were suddenly pulled back into a muscular chest. You smiled and leaned back into your boyfriend.

“Excuse me, but I’m going to steal y/n for a moment.” Nik told Finn and Sage who gave Nik a knowing look that caused you to frown.

“Sure, enjoy.” Sage said and sent you a wink, before you could question her you were suddenly in the big balcony in your shared bedroom, this is where you and Nik had your first kiss.

“What was that all about” You asked Nik.

“You’ll find out soon enough”


“So…” You trailed of waiting for Nik to tell you why he pulled you away from your friends.

“(y/n)…” Nik started to say before stopping and rethinking his words. “You know I love you right?”

“I do.” You became worried. “Nik is something wrong?”

“Quite the opposite love.” Nik gave you an assuring smile. “We’ve been together for quite some time, and you basically know everything about me, and I know that you care for me and my family, I see how you consider my siblings as your own. You have sacrificed so much for me and for Hope, and after all the danger you were put in because of me you still stayed and for that I can never repay you.”

Tears collected in your eyes you had a feeling where this was going. Nik too had tears in his eyes, and no matter what the situation is, whenever you see him tearing up it just triggers your own tears.

“I just want to make if official and make you mine, for every single person to know.” Nik continued again, while getting the small velvet black box from his pocket and opening it to revile a stunning engagement ting. “So well you give me the honor of becoming my wife, for now and forever?”

You let out a strangled laugh and nodded. “Nothing will ever make me happier than being your wife.”

Nik laughed and slipped the ring on your right hand and scooped you up in his arms and hugged you close.

“I was scared you’d say no.” Nik whispered in your shoulder. You pulled back just enough to look him in the eyes.

“Nik, I love you and I can’t imagine my world without you in it.” You told him your eyes filled with so much emotion and love for the man that is holding you. “You have to get it through your thick skull that I would never leave you and that you are the man -well hybrid in this case- for me.”

Nik had couple tears slip from his eyes before his lips met yours in perfect sync. God couldn’t have made a more perfect couple. He was strong where you are weak and you are strong where he is weak whither it is physically or emotionally. You may have tamed his anger but you haven’t changed him, because you believed if you love someone you should love them for who they are not who you want them to be. You were grateful for the day Niklaus Mikaelson came into your life. When you finally pulled away you both had a smile on your faces.

“Did everyone know?” You asked Nik.

“Yes, actually it was Rebekah, Fraya and Cami who insisted on me proposing today.” Nik said and you shook your head.

“Sounds like them.” You told him let out a chuckle. “Let’s go tell everyone the good news.”

“They probably already know.” Nik said and you nodded in agreement, but you both left the room anyway.

First thing you heard Rebekah screaming and vamp speeding to you, she nearly knocked you of your feet if it wasn’t for Nik behind you.

“Finally you’ll be officially a part of the family.” You giggled and hugged her back.

“Please Rebekah don’t kill the poor girl.” Kol called for his sister.

“Yes, Rebekah please don’t kill her, at least wait until after the wedding.” Cami said and you glared playfully at her.

“And I thought we are friends Cami.” You told your best friend faking hurt.

“All I want to do is see the ring, Klaus wouldn’t show it to me.” Hayley said and pulled you away from Rebekah. And your hand was in a circle or all the females that were present.

You already felt as you were a part of the family, your eyes met Nik’s and you smiled you truly were the happiest girl in the world. You couldn’t have asked for a better person to stay by your side for forever.

“We have so much to do.” Rebekah stated making you turn to look at her. “We need to do a party, and start planning the wedding and…”

“Rebekah we’ll tackle one thing at a time.” You said and Rebekah took a deep breath and nodded, you all laughed at how excited she is. You were pulled to Nik’s side, and Davina got her phone and you two took a few pictures alone and then with the family and everyone. It was heaven.


- 2 c flour (all purpose)
- 1 T sugar
- ½ t baking soda
- ½ t salt
- 1 c + 2 T buttermilk

Preheat oven to 400 F (or 375 for convection). Mix dry ingredients in bowl, then slowly add buttermilk and mix until just combined. Allow to rest 10-15 min, then turn out onto floured surface and knead VERY SPARINGLY, only enough to reach a doughy consistency. Shape into a round and cut an X into the top, then place on baking sheet with parchment paper (note: if convection, pan must NOT have a lip or sides). Bake 45 min or until golden brown.

-Chief Moderator Bee

astrophobe replied to your post:Speaking as somebody who owns a slow cooker: don’t…

many people have enthusiastically told me to get a slow cooker and then they can never explain why

Ostensibly it’s a push-button solution to safely braise or simmer anything. The trouble is that slow cookers 1) don’t get hot enough to brown food, so you have to either brown it separately, which defeats the concept of push-button, or accept that your meal will lack in caramelized goodness; 2) don’t get hot enough to break down plant fibre, so they’re inefficient for a lot of their prime use cases, like tomato sauce, or vegetable stock; 3) actually are the single greatest cause of kitchen fires, broken down by appliance, while convection ovens are the safest (it’s unclear if this is just because misled (well-advertised-to) or cavalier cooks leave their slow cookers unattended more often than their convection ovens)

10 Technologies That Are Changing the Game

Earlier this year, we hosted a Game Changing Technology Industry Day for the aerospace industry, and in October our engineers and technologists visited Capitol Hill showcasing some of these exciting innovations. Check out these technology developments that could soon be making waves on Earth and in space.

1. Wearable technology

With smartwatches, glasses, and headsets already captivating users around the world, it’s no surprise that the next evolution of wearable technology could be used by first responders at the scene of an accident or by soldiers on a battlefield. The Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) is an interactive optical computer that works for smart glasses. 

It has a transparent display, so users have an unobstructed view even during video conferences or while visualizing environmental data. 

And while the IDEAS prototype is an innovative solution to the challenges of in-space missions, it won’t just benefit astronauts – this technology can be applied to countless fields here on Earth.

2. Every breath they take: life support technologies

Before astronauts can venture to Mars and beyond, we need to significantly upgrade our life support systems. The Next Generation Life Support project is developing technologies to allow astronauts to safely carry out longer duration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. 

The Variable Oxygen Regulator will improve the control of space suit pressure, with features for preventing decompression sickness. The Rapid Cycle Amine technology will remove carbon dioxide and humidity and greatly improve upon today’s current complex system.

3. 3-D printing (for more than just pizza)

New Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT), such as 3-D printing, can help us build rocket parts more quickly and aid in building habitats on other planets. 

These manufacturing initiatives will result in innovative, cost-efficient solutions to many of our planetary missions. Back in 2014, the International Space Station’s 3-D printer manufactured the first 3-D printed object in space, paving the way to future long-term space expeditions. 

The object, a printhead faceplate, is engraved with names of the organizations that collaborated on this space station technology demonstration: NASA and Made In Space, Inc., the space manufacturing company that worked with us to design, build and test the 3-D printer.

4. Spacecraft landing gear

Large spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Mars will be traveling over five times the speed of sound, exposing the craft to extreme heat and drag forces. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) is designed to protect spacecraft from this environment with an inflatable structure that helps slow a craft for landing. 

To get astronauts and other heavy loads to the surface safely, these components must be very strong. The inflatable consists of a material 15 times stronger than steel, while the thermal protection system can withstand temperatures over 1600°C.

5. From heat shield technology to firefighter shelters

For the Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS) project, we partnered with the U.S. Forest Service to develop safer, more effective emergency fire shelters for wild land firefighters. 

Using existing technology for flexible spacecraft heat shields like HIAD, we are building and testing new fire shelters composed of stacks of durable, insulated materials that could help protect the lives of firefighters.

6. Robots and rovers

Real life is looking a bit more like science fiction as Human Robotics Systems are becoming highly complex. They are amplifying human productivity and reducing mission risk by improving the effectiveness of human-robot teams. 

Our humanoid assistant Robonaut is currently aboard the International Space Station helping astronauts perform tasks.

A fleet of robotic spacecraft and rovers already on and around Mars is dramatically increasing our knowledge and paving the way for future human explorers. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover measured radiation on the way to Mars and is sending back data from the surface. 

This data will help us plan how to protect the astronauts who will explore Mars. 

Future missions like the Mars 2020 rover, seeking signs of past life, will demonstrate new technologies that could help astronauts survive on the Red Planet.

7. Robotic repairs

Currently, a satellite that is even partially damaged cannot be fixed in orbit. Instead, it must be disposed of, which is a lot of potential science lost.

Satellite Servicing technologies would make it possible to repair, upgrade, and even assemble spacecraft in orbit using robotics.

This can extend the lifespan of a mission, and also enable deeper space exploration. 

Restore-L, set to launch in 2020, is a mission that will demonstrate the ability to grab and refuel a satellite.

8. Low-cost spacecraft avionics controllers

Small satellites, or smallsats, are quickly becoming useful tools for both scientists and industry. However, the high cost of spacecraft avionics—the systems that guide and control the craft—often limits how and when smallsats can be sent into orbit by tagging along as payloads on larger launches. 

Using Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA) technology, we could launch many more small satellites using an inexpensive avionics controller. This device is smaller than a stack of six CD cases and weighs less than two pounds!

9. Making glass from metal

After a JPL research team of modern-day alchemists set about mixing their own alloys, they discovered that a glass made of metal had the wear resistance of a ceramic, was twice as strong as titanium, and could withstand the extreme cold of planetary surfaces, with temperatures below -150 degrees Fahrenheit.

Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) gears would enable mechanisms to function without wasting energy on heaters. Most machines need to maintain a warmer temperature to run smoothly, which expends precious fuel and decreases the mission’s science return. 

By developing gearboxes made of BMG alloys, we can extend the life of a spacecraft and learn more about the far reaches of our solar system than ever before. Plus, given their extremely high melting points, metallic glasses can be cheaply manufactured into parts by injection molding, just like plastics.

10. Lighter, cheaper, safer spacecraft fuel tanks

Cryogenic propellant tanks are essential for holding fuel for launch vehicles like our Space Launch System—the world’s most powerful rocket. But the current method for building these tanks is costly and time-consuming, involving almost a mile of welded parts.

Advanced Near Net Shape Technology, part of our Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, is an innovative manufacturing process for constructing cryotanks, using cylinders that only have welds in one area. 

This makes the tank lighter, cheaper, and safer for astronauts, as there are fewer potentially defective welds.

Follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: 

A Kind Word Submitted by C3noz0ic

I think sometimes people just need a little attention, to have someone to talk to and be heard without said person wanting to reshape everything in their life. Someone who listens with out convection and is willing to help if the person feels comfortable enough to be there for them. Let’s be honest, You’ve wanted attention too, everyone needs it. Nobody likes to feel ignored or the feeling of being alone in this rough world. Being judged by others for things they didn’t choose or what they are going through doesn’t help people grow, it only makes them feel more alienated. To the people who think judging others is okay, do you think you are better than your neighbor? Sorry to inform you but this is not true, everyone has their daily conflicts/struggles just like you, so I recommend rather then judging, try being more understanding and respect eachother. The world is already full of those self-centered jerks who only know how to criticize other people. Be someone who you want others to be for you.

Right so, after a whole lot of research (and writing this post THREE times due to the fact Google Drive is being stupid and crashed twice on me), I’ve finally got the meaning of most of the symbols. 

Quick warning now though, the center symbol that looks like this ♀ kinda spiraled into my own theory that may or not really pertain to this? Eh going to mention it anyways. 

So here we go:

This was actually super hard to find, however its clear here that the bottom symbol means to “warn off evil spirits” which makes sense, and I also read somewhere that the “medicine man’s eye” could represent Bill due to his lack of a second eye, therefore put together its a sign warding off Bill. 

Then theres that symbol near the upper circle that most likely represents altocumulus, which is a type of cloud. 

Altocumulus is also commonly found between the warm and cold fronts in a depression, although this is often hidden by lower clouds. Towering altocumulus, known as altocumulus castellanus, frequently signals the development of thunderstorms later in the day, as it shows instability and convection in the middle levels of the troposphere, the area where towering cumulus clouds can turn into cumulonimbus.

(Found on wikipedia). 

The most interesting thing I find about this is the fact altocumulus clouds are often hidden behind lower clouds and bring storms, and Stan is a con man who hid his secrets behind his tourist trap, but when he’s plan was complete a “storm” came. 

The hardest thing to find was the ♀ symbol. 

I knew Venus was the Roman name for one of the Greek gods, and I was hoping it would be like a god of strength or war. 

For those of you who don’t know, Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty, feminism, and basically everything Stan is not. I tried to find some alternatives to this, however I could not find anything that was remotely similar to the picture at the very top. So I figured maybe the symbol represents someone Stan loved at one point, which brings me to the Carla Gleeful theory.

So in case your confuzzled, Carla was once Stan’s girlfriend before she dumped him for a hippie. After that Stan says his memory gets “hallucinationy”. Then in “The Hand That Rocks The Mabel”, we see this:

This was seen in Gideon’s commercial for his tent of telepathy, a commercial that was narrated by Bud Gleeful. But wait, Bud already has a wife right?

This poor woman?

According to the theory, Bud was too cowardly to tell Carla that he loved her, so instead he brainwashed her to believe that she was her girlfriend so that he wouldn’t have to. This is possible because we know Bud was apart of the blind eye society and because of this:

(Also going to point out, Pacifica’s memories are there too). 

Of course there are some physical differences:

The most disappoint thing to me being the difference in jawline. However in “Blendin’s Game” we also see this:

A happy rounded jawed Mrs. Gleeful. 

My guess is that Carla was pretty happy with Bud, until he started using the brainwashing wayyyy to much on her and she became the paranoid person we see today. 

Anyways, going back to the tattoo, maybe the ♀ is another sign we’re going to a see a reappearance of Carla? In “The Hand That Rocks Mabel”, at the end of the episode the code reads “Carla, why won’t you call me?”. Maybe we’re going to see her again in future episodes?

I realize theres probably a whole list of things we should be worried about OTHER than this, for example:

- Aftermath of the portal

- Whether or not Gideon escaped jail during the destruction

- How Bill will react to the return of the author

- Dipper’s relationship with Stanford

- Dipper’s relationship with Stanley

- Dipper’s relationship with Mabel

(As you can see I’m very worried about Dipper xD). 

However, I thought this was pretty cool nonetheless and if I’m correct and Carla DOES have something to do with that tattoo, (though its more likely that these are just two different theories based on the evidence), the fact that she, bill and a symbol that means “wards away evil” is what Stan has chosen to be his tattoo is pretty interesting and I’m really excited to see how this all plays out. 

to you, i thee wed (chapter seven)

They didn’t know they were marrying each other until the bride got to the altar. And then panic ensued. Married at First Sight AU.


Parts: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

WC: ~5.3K

Thank you so much @sarahcada for the lovely edits!

“You gave me the wrong coordinates?” the pilot asks someone in air traffic control.


“I asked you several times if this was the right way to Palma–”

“I know…”

The pilot sighs. “I hope Mr. Agreste is…understanding…to say the least.”

Adrien slams the courtesy phone into the receiver with a frustrated groan.  The weather matches his mood as icy wind kicks up fresh snow and howls into the dark night. They had hotel reservations for Palma, Majorca—a sunny little island off the coast of Spain via Nathalie and yet—

Keep reading

The above is a mesocyclone. It’s a vortex of air within a convective storm. It is air that rises and rotates around a vertical axis, usually in the same direction as low pressure systems in a given hemisphere. 

Quick Drop Biscuits

Adapted from The Joy of Cooking. These biscuits go together in about 25 minutes, so if you’re fast, they’re even doable for a weekday breakfast.

Makes: 24 1.5″ biscuits, serves 12. Or fewer, if you don’t have restraint. They’re good!

1 c. all-purpose flour
¾ c. whole wheat flour
1 Tbsp. baking powder
1 Tbsp. sugar
Pinch salt
4 Tbsp. butter, cold (do not use room temperature butter for this)
1 c. milk


Preheat your oven to 475°F, 450°F if you’ve got convection. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper if you want to, for ease of cleanup. Otherwise just a plain baking sheet is fine. No need to grease.

Combine the flours, baking powder, sugar, and salt in a medium bowl. Cut the butter into the flour mixture with a pastry cutter or a fork until the pieces are about the size of peas. You could also do this in the food processor, but more dishes. Eh.

Add the milk and stir until combined into a thick but spoonable dough. Add a little more milk if you think it needs it.

Drop the mixture by rounded tablespoons onto the baking sheet. Brush the tops of the biscuits with a little milk if you’d like, to help them brown. 

Bake for 10-12 minutes at 475°F, or 8-10 minutes at 450°F with convection.

A delicious part of your balanced breakfast! (;


This post was created in partnership with Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker. All opinions are my own.

Heat and heat and heat and rows and rows and rows of soft serve ice cream machines. The streets of Avignon, France were a convection oven, circulating 100º air in and around honking cars, cursing pedestrians, centuries-old building facades. Everything was old, and beautiful, and sweaty. Which is where the ice cream came in. Flavors my twenty year-old brain had never imagined before: licorice, pink grapefruit, bacio, amarena, gianduja, all dispensed from gleaming, golden soft serve machines.

It was the summer between my sophomore and junior years of college, and my friend Julie and I were there to study and attend the Festival D'Avignon—Europe’s biggest theatre and dance festival. In true French fashion, the performers went en grève (on strike) that season, and we were left to our own devices of ice cream eating and ancient city exploration. The days were sticky with a rainbow of melted soft serve and the wilted efforts of a few performers still willing to go on stage.

Read more and get the recipe here.