controversy era

historical women 17/?: Hürrem Sultan, 1502-1558

Hürrem Sultan was the favourite and later the chief consort and legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent… She was one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and a prominent and controversial figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was “Haseki Sultan” when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan. She achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire… Hürrem became Suleiman’s partner not only in the Sultan’s household, but also in state affairs. Thanks to her intelligence, she acted as Suleiman’s chief adviser on matters of state, and seems to have had an influence upon foreign policy and international politics.

the end of The Daemons aka the UNIT Dating Controversy is real
  • Jo’s love for Three destroys the monster
  • Three tells UNIT not to hurt the Master because he wants to visit his problematic boyfriend in prison for secret funtimes “deal with him”
  • Jo and Three and Benton dance around a maypole
  • Yates asks the Brigadier to dance
  • The Brig suggests a drink instead and they run off to the pub together

this will never not be funny and utterly perfect

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TGIFRIDAY FASHION FACT! Several of you have asked me to talk about the history of hobble skirts. It’s not surprising, since it is such a controversial garment, even shocking to a modern eye. It seems to embody the restrictions and oppression women throughout history had to endure. The name itself flat-out states that it is a garment which hinders movement. So how did this binding style become fashionable?

To start with, what exactly is a hobble skirt? It’s pretty self explanatory. It is a skirt that narrows at the bottom, forcing the wearer to take small steps. There were several different types of hobble skirts. A stereotypical hobble skirt was cinched in at the knees or ankles. Other styles tapered in towards the hem. Yet they were not always quite as restrictive as they appeared. Some styles had hidden pleats or a cross-over design that allowed for greater range of movement.

It is believed that the first true hobble skirt was created by Paul Poiret in 1908 (read his bio here). The rumor is that he was inspired by Edith Berg, who tied rope around the knee of her skirt to prevent it from flying up when she joined Wilbur Wright aboard his plane to become the second woman in history to take flight. However, the tapered style of hobble skirt likely stemmed from a case of miscommunication.

Bodices and skirts at the time were becoming more form-fitting, as the exaggerated proportions of the early Edwardian Age fell aside. The narrow styles were depicted in Parisian fashion plates and sent across the ocean for American dressmakers to replicate. It was not uncommon for fashion plates to be slightly exaggerated in order to emphasize the desired silhouette. As a result, Americans interpreted the look as much more restrictive than it was intended to be. However the look came about, it quickly caught on. 

The key thing you should realize about hobble skirts is that they, like many modern women’s fashions, may not have been the oppressive garments they initially appear to be. Compare them to stilettos or make-up. Many people see these things as demeaning or even dehumanizing fashions inflicted by the patriarchy. Yet many women find them to be empowering. The interpretation ultimately lies with the wearer. This dichotomy also applied to the hobble skirt.

The hobble skirt reached peak popularity in the early 1910s, coinciding with women increasingly entering the workforce, as well as gaining social and financial independence, both main rallying points of the suffragette movement which was in full swing at the time. Of course, women were not about to wear hobble skirts to the workplace. They were reserved for more formal occasions, or situations intended to flaunt high fashion. Yet many women felt that shedding their large petticoats in favor of a style that emphasized their curves was a sign of empowerment. It didn’t matter that they had to measure their steps, the scandalous style commanded attention. Some critics of the fashion saw it as vulgar, while others thought the restrictiveness dangerous. Some proponents took the opposite view and thought that the limitation of movement would stop women from becoming too wild. It was certainly a subject of dispute.

Practical or not, refined or salacious, there is no doubt that the controversial hobble skirt was incredibly popular. It became so prevalent, in fact, that public transportation cars were even modified to be closer to the ground so that women would not have to take to large a step to climb on. It was only when World War I struck, and practicality became priority in dress, that the hobble skirt fell out of fashion. It has not completely disappeared, though. Just look at the classic pencil skirt, and you will realize that the descendant of the hobble skirt is alive and well today.

Have a question about fashion history that you want answered in the next FRIDAY FASHION FACT? Just click the ASK button at the top of the page!

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Hurrem Sultan was one of the most powerful and influential women in the Ottoman history and a prominent and controversial figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was “Haseki Sultan” (chief wife of the Sultan) when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan. She achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire.

FED OFFICIAL: It's 'inevitable' that a controversial policy will return in the next recession

(REUTERS/ Keith Bedford)
The Federal Reserve has been debating how best to wind down its $4.5 trillion balance sheet, but that doesn’t mean policymakers are retiring the controversial recession-era policy tool, known as quantitative easing or QE.

Two top Fed officials, speaking at a Hoover Institution conference panel, argued that because estimates for the “neutral” interest rate are now around 3%, the central bank is likely to need to bring rates down to zero more frequently than in the past.

This means the Fed will find itself reaching for other policy tools to add stimulus to growth and employment, namely large-scale purchases of government bonds like the ones undertaken during and after the financial crisis.

“I think it is inevitable that we’re going to be talking about the balance sheet expanding during recessions,” said Eric Rosengren, president of the Boston Fed.

St. Louis Fed President James Bullard offered a similar view, saying there was a “distinct possibility” the Fed would again have to resort to quantitative easing or QE when the economy hits its next downturn.

The officials were responding to questions about the efficacy of bond buys and their pitfalls, including increased political scrutiny on the central bank.

The central bankers, including Chicago Fed President Charles Evans, pushed back against the notion that QE’s impact had been minor. They pointed to sharp moves in asset prices, including not only stocks but also Treasury bonds, as indicating a significant impact.

In addition, Evans argued that unemployment during the recession, while it peaked at 10% in 2009 but has since fallen to 4.4%, would have been much worse without the Fed’s interventions given where conditions stood during the worst slump since the Great Depression.

Evans said making sure the central bank actually meets its 2% inflation target, which it has undershot for most of the economic recovery, is another way to ensure the Fed can avoid needing to push official borrowing costs to zero again.

“The problem of the zero lower bound is very real,” he said. “We know what to do when inflation gets too high.”

NOW WATCH: People on Twitter are roasting United Airlines after a passenger was forcibly dragged off a plane



More From Business Insider
youtube
  • #’s 6-10
  • Adele being put at #5
  • THE NUMBER ONE CHOICE
  • Dementia Lovato being on this list 
  • the fact that they played Run Away With Me at the end as intentional Carly shade
  • the fact that this was obviously made by Taylor Swifferduster’s team since WatchMojo likes to ride her cock so damn much

HERE’S what the list should’ve looked like (all personal bias aside)

[in terms of success, record sales, hits, iconography]

  1. Adele or Rihanna (most album sales vs most record sales)
  2. Beyoncé (two iconic record breaking albums, longevity)
  3. Katy (only 2 albums this decade and snatched 8 #1′s and SB halftime)
  4. Gaga (biggest name in music from 2010-2011)
  5. Taylor (spent a lot of money buying her own albums+awards)
  6. Nicki Minaj (big hits, very popular)  
  7. Kesha (has 2 #1s and was a big deal during the beginning of the 10′s)
  8. Miley Cyrus (she was big during her Bangerz era, controversial)
  9. Carly Rae Jepsen (she has a #1 hit not everybody has that) 
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Prince's Controversy Era.

There’s something so dirty and raw about this period during Prince’s career, that is such a turn on. I love the Controversy era. The exploration of ones sexuality mixed with the battle of not letting society define who you are, is just so perfect during this time. He wasn’t going to allow anyone to control him or his ideas which is such a liberating thought. In this time and age, it resonates so well with me because we believe we have freedom, but we really don’t.  We are truly apathetic and mainstream music echoes that behavior. The controversy that Prince wanted to create wasn’t forced like many modern artists try to evoke today(I don’t need to name anyone in particular, I think we can all think of one) but rather a natural and untamed behavior, that needed to be released. His music was playful and not pretentious which creates a sense of freshness still to this day. He wanted to play with different ideas that created controversy such as politics,religion, sexuality and gender roles but through the ideas of a wild youth that was still discovering itself. Thanks Prince for creating such a great album full of rebellious ideas towards society and its norms and rules. 

/Miss X