control the population

The still-empty 23-gallon setup for a pair of wild bettas. I was in touch with a betta albimarginata breeder that was going to sell me a pair, but I haven’t heard back from him since Friday, so…

I had lots of leaf litter in here but recently cleaned it out as an attempt to control the pest snail population some. I’ll probably put more leaves in, but won’t leave them in as long.

4

Hanzo: brother no.

Genji: brother yes.

Hogwarts Headcannons
  • Give me Dean, muggleborn that he is, imitating Steve Irwin in Care of Magical Creatures class, much to everyone's confusion except for Harry and Hermione who are. On the ground. Unable to breathe. And refusing to explain why.
  • Give me Harry, demisexual that he is, realizing that the reason he can't stop obsessing over Draco is because Draco is the one who saw - and subsequently disliked - 'Harry', and not The Boy Who Lived. Realizing that Draco was the only one to first talk to him for HIM, in that robe shop, and not his parents or fame (because even Ron and Hermione did that at first). And thus, leading to him randomly starting crying in the middle of lunch and claiming he's doomed, much to everyone's fear.
  • Give me Seamus, pyro that he is, super happy one Christmas when Hermione buys him a book on fire caution, flammable materials, and elements such as magnesium. Thus afterward, the mysterious fires that have always happened are far more safe and controlled.
  • Give me Luna, wonderful airhead that she is, being stared at as, calm as anything, she waltzes right into the Slytherin common room and starts talking to the mermaids like its absolutely normal. A first year drops a book he's staring so hard, because HOW DID SHE KNOW THE PASSWORD. Draco just sighs, gets up, goes over to her, and offers her tea.
  • Give me Draco. Who looks on as Neville offers Harry rhubarb pie that he made himself, as Harry stares forlornly at his Treacle Tart, and makes and annoyed sound. "Dammit Longbottom he hates bittersweets." The Slytherins stare and Pansy just mutters "How do you even know these things. Merlin, help him realize."
  • Give me Parvati, who is being constantly mistaken for her sister by Ron, who panics and screams "IM A LESBIAN" when it gets to be too much.
  • Give me Ron, who stares wide-eyes from a distance whenever he sees Padma from that moment on for a full week, until Padma flips out too and hexes him. Parvati awkwardly wonders why Ron starts getting scared whenever she tries to approach from then on, since she knows Ron doesn't have problems due to that sort of thing from how he handles Harry.
  • Give me the thirty or so of the school's Muggle-raised, who made the mistake of showing their folks howlers, and react accordingly whenever one of the families sends one that is just a recording of Rick Astley, or High School Musical, or spoilers for Doctor Who. And the Wizard-raised just... staring... in fear... watching their savior and multiple other students as they run around screaming and crying in an absolute panic for some reason even though it was a different student that got the weird howler.
  • Give me Harry, whose hair surprises people by being dark red like his mother's when in direct sunlight. And usually at the Weasley den they're inside, but one day Harry joins them outside for a picnic, and Molly is so confused about where Harry went to then has do do a mental tally of her children.
  • Give me George, who in the midst of the final battle, hit Lucius with an Anaticula curse, so that every spell he tries makes a duck instead. And the Death Eaters are just so confused. "Lucius... is that a duck?"
  • Give me the Gryffindor common room. The new first years suggest Monopoly for game night. The entire room goes dead silent. One first year tries to ask what they did wrong. "Never mention that game again," is the only response they get. "But why-" "NEVER TALK ABOUT SIXTH YEAR. WE NEVER TALK ABOUT SIXTH YEAR." Their brave upperclassman Neville yells, trembling. Hermione starts crying. Harry goes into a panic attack. Ron whispers, "There are many reasons we don't talk about sixth year. If The Incident had been the only thing that happened, we would only not talk about The Incident. Many things happened that year. Thus, we do not speak of that year, or of that game."
  • Give me McGonagall, who struggles to control the cat population, because while students are told to have their cats fixed you know not all 100 students that brought cats did so. Her curling up around a litter that lost their mother to illness. Training them to stalk the corridors. Albus had his ways of getting information, and hers is the spy network of cats.
  • Give me muggleborns singing everything from Phantom of the Opera to Katy Perry in the corridors. Singing We Will Rock You to a pureblood who disses them for it. The purebloods thinking the weird songs and their tunes are some kind of Rite of Passage and fleeing whenever a muggleborn student starts singing. Altering song lyrics. "I throw my ferret in the air some-times, singin EEEEEEEYO, this is DRAAAAAACO!"
  • Give me muggleborns that are really confused about the whole quill instead of pens things, throwing transfigured pokeballs in Care of Magical Creatures, the band students bringing kazoos and harmonicas and the wizrd-raised students that are just so confused as to how those things even work, because it must be some sort of air magic, right??
  • Give me muggleborns making entire conversations out of pop culture references specifically to confuse some Slytherin who just called one girl a Mudblood. "These are not the droids you were looking for." "I'm right on top of that now Rose, I promise." -jazz hands-
  • Give me muggleborns with Patronus that are things like Pikachu, velociraptors, the quiet Canadian transfer student with a moose patronus the size of a SMALL HOUSE, the one whose is a angeled-out Castiel, the one whose patronus is the democrat donkey and another the republican elephant and the two, previously best friends, become mortal enemies rivaling the fame of Harry and Draco.
  • Give me muggleborns hugging each other before break, promising to 'call' each other, trading weird codes, how they can't wait to go for 'sushi' or planning that trip together to 'disneyland' where they can go flying?? But no one's allowed magic?? Or flying?? And the wizard-raised think that somehow, shockingly,<i> these children totally new to our world have developed a way to cheat the system?? Muggleborns are badasses!!</i>
  • Give me muggleborns who are fully aware that the anti-tech wards were made when, like, radios barely even existed, much less cellphone towers and microprocessors, so while they can't turn them on inside the stone school walls there's this group that Harry joins constantly that just sit there in silence staring at these tiny things and sometimes randomly laughing hysterically, and every now and then standing and just running all the way across to the other side of the lake all at the same time with no signal whatsoever. The purebloods are <i>terrified</i> of this frequent happening.
  • Give me Harry, Hermione, Dean, and Justin from the D.A, muggleborns they are, doing a movie night every week to help the D.A. relax and bond. They re-start this after the battles, during eighth year, with several other people such as the returned Slytherins joining in. The entire year they play things like Tangled, The Breakfast Club, Brave, Lion King. But then the last four weeks, they announce they don't want to mislead everyone that everything is all fun and rainbows. The last four movies are My Sister's Keeper, The Shining, Marley and Me, and for the last week, a marathon of the entire Jurassic Park series.
  • Give me Hufflepuffs, who secretly are very relieved to be the 'normal' House. Jocks over there, know-it-alls over there, goth wannabees over there, now lets go camp out by the kitchens we're gonna need it to survive the next seven years like this.
  • Give me Ravenclaws who are so done with the riddles when they stumble back at midnight after having fallen asleep in the Library. "What's the truth?" "THE TRUTH IS THAT I WILL SET YOU ON FIRE IF YOU DON'T LET ME IN."
  • Give me the Trio, who use the Marauder's Map to find the most absolutely ridiculous routes to class, knowing every single one of the shortcuts. It's not odd for them to simply appear out of the ceiling. One day the new first years try to follow them, to learn the school better, but it doesn't go so well because then they try to go through a disappearing wall the Trio just did they instead run headfirst into it, and the next time they do behind a tapestry, down a waterside, around some sort of tower, causally past an entire doorless room full of bats, and somehow come out on the complete other side of the castle.
  • Give me Draco whose just completely had it with Harry's staring and confronts him, like they always do, and Harry just blurts out that he likes Draco's new haircut and can he touch his hair, and Draco so shocked he lets him. "Potter stop treating me like a cat I'm evil remember? Bloody hell have you gone daft?!" "But... it's soft..." "I hate you." But he just can't find any anger over this, so there's like no venom whatsoever in it and Harry can't stop giggling.
  • Give me Ginny, who can't stop giggling as Luna confuses the fuck out of an entire crowd with her way of speaking, and who during seventh year could 100% get away with insulting the Death Eaters because of the way she said things. Who after Luna used said tactic to get her out of a Crucio punishment just clung to Luna, shaking, and realizing that she loves Luna so much for this very reason. That there will never be another person like Luna in her life, ever.
  • Give me Harry, who was not really well educated while living at the Dursleys, who couldn't read very well but was wonderful at sneaking around, little tricks like hiding things, and loved music. He taught himself magic tricks, and MERLIN ALMIGHTY THIS 11 YEAR OLD KID HAS MASTERED VANISHING SPELLS, WHAT, HOW, and Percy, uptight prefect he is, just looses it.
  • Give me Ron walking in on Harry talking to some random snake in their dorm room, laughing like the snake said a particularly good joke, tipping his head and smiling as he responds, the python slowly curling up his arm to rest over his shoulder. Ron freezes, stares, and then slowly backs away, closes the door and stands there staring at it for a full half hour in absolute horror.
  • Give me the rest of the D.A. walking into the Room of Requirement and hearing screaming, Dean shrieking that he's going to murder someone, Hermione crying, Justin cursing like a sailor yelling for everyone to stop, and the rest panic and run around the corner and there the four Muggle-raised students are. With some sort of odd device in their hands. Playing Mario Kart.

daughtersoftime  asked:

....why did you post that hunting thing? Like, I know you are probably in favor for it and stuff. Since you didn't tag it with anything there was no way for me to avoid it + it makes me super upset that a wolf who actually likes humans will get betrayed and killed for that interest? And you don't want us to protest it or help them so why would you post it? Why make your followers super upset like that I actually cried? I can't fucking deal with more bad news and how fucked up humanity is.

@daughtersoftime​ Hi! My blog posts factual content about wolves, including news or articles. In order to be able to create a realistic view on what’s going on, I share áll wolf related news - not selectively just the positive news, because it’s important to be aware of what’s going on. That includes upsetting news. I usually post the original articles without adding anything myself such as my own opinion, unless I consider it needed/useful.

I do support regulated, sustainable wolf population control - it is one of the most beneficial ways to help keep their own population, other species’ populations, and the environment they live in safe and healthy, and is beneficial to the conservation of wolves as a whole*.
But I’m against the hunting of wolves for other reasons than effective wildlife conservation. I often post petitions of cases in which the culling of wolves is not beneficial to the concerning wolf population. When needed, I speak out against culling practices that have nothing to do with sane wildlife conservation.
If people feel like they want to take action after reading news on my blog by let’s say starting a petition, I fully support that.

This case of the wolf in Saxony doesn’t concern hunting, it concerns conservation - a less pretty side of conservation, yes. I understand that you’re upset - so am I. Cases like this are always painful and sour, especially considering it was probably humans who made this wolf a threat. But there’s no denying this wolf became a legitimate threat that needs to be dealt with anyhow.

There aren’t unlimited resources for conservation, so you’ve got to pick your battles. Realistically, there is very little chance a very expensive rehabilitation program for this wolf would work. So unfortunately, this case is a “pick your battles” one, and a preventive action for the greater good, because the general public holds a very ignorant and irrantional fear towards wolves, and will not be open for reasoning if this wolf causes serious problems. Those people won’t hear to the fact that this concerned a habituated wolf who acted very unnatural, and that wolves normally don’t act like this. An attack on livestock, a pet, or a human being will do severly further damage to this already very negative public opinion on wild wolves, and will only give governments and hunters yet another argument to cull more wolves in said region, or the whole of Germany, or all over the world.

The feeding of wild animals is the cause of this problem, so preventing problems like this is mainly a matter of educating the public to not feed wildlife. There is no wildlife conservator that wants to kill an animal. But until we have fixed the cause (the feeding of wild animals), we will have to deal with the consequenses in a way that fits the bigger picture. Knowing how these politics work, there’s a very big chance that in this case protesting/petitions/etc. won’t make a difference, and even if you cóuld somehow stop them from killing this wolf, it’s just a matter of time before the wolf will cause an accident and it will then be shot either way ánd will be used as an ignorant example of the misinformed, fear-mongering idea that wolves are vicious man-eaters.

I do apologize for forgetting to tag this post with “wolf hunting”, which I normally tag posts like these with. I totally understand that news like this is upsetting, but it’s not okay assuming things about people you don’t know and accusing people of things when you don’t know what and how.

This message was in response to this post


(*some proper sources on wolf population control in case people want to read more about this topic:

anonymous asked:

I loved reading your reply about spaying and neutering in dogs. I was wondering if you could talk about the pros and cons for cats.

The age of desexing cats is not discussed as much because there is far less controversy compared to dogs. Cats are already very long lived and are prone to less variety of cancers compared to dog breeds.

The benefits of desexing female cats are:

  • Population control
  • Uterine infection prevention
  • Mammary cancer prevention
  • Prevents undesirable or distressing oestrus behaviour (eg screaming like they have a broken back)
  • Less attractive to tom cats (as in, neighborhood toms wont come to your house and piss on everything. Your cat will still be as lovely as she always was.)

The risks of desexing female cats are:

  • Weight gain.
  • Conditions associated with weight gain.

The benefits of desexing male cats are:

  • Less desire to roam (and be hit by car)
  • Less offensive smell
  • Less urine marking
  • Less likely to fight (and get associated FIV infection)

The risks of desexing male cats are:

  • Weight gain
  • Conditions associated with weight gain, including urinary blockage.

It used to be thought that desexing male cats to early would result in an underdeveloped penis and higher risk of urethral blockage. This hasn’t proved to be the case, and we have large numbers of cats in long term studies that have been desexed at the youngest possible age (1kg bodyweight, usually under 12 weeks) and the risk of urethral blockage correlated with weight gain and inactivity, not age of desexing. The same is true of UTIs and FLUTD in female cats.

Accidental pregnancy is a major concern in managing cat populations, even now. There are so many people who still simply don’t do it. It’s maddening.

So desex your cats. We still need a strong message going out to the public for population control, because there are always more kittens than there are homes every year.

Cats do not have the same risk factors in juvenile desexing that dogs might (size and breed dependent) so desexing at 6 months (or earlier, some go through puberty at 4 but from 8 weeks still seems to be no greater risk) is fine. Younger animals also tend to have shorter surgery time, and seem to recover quicker.

The delayed desexing of dogs post is here.

The Domestic Garden Witch: Making Pets Happy

So maybe you’re a college witch with limited space and money, limited to the one window in your dorm. Or, maybe you’re a witch without extensive backyard space who wants to start up a magical garden. Perhaps you’re a kitchen witch who wants the freshest herbs right at her fingertips.

For many witches, having a garden seems to be a bit of a no-brainer. After all, plants and magic go hand-in-hand. Plus, when thinking of a witch, it’s hard not to think of a cottage in the woods with a little vegetable garden out front. Unfortunately for the majority of us, our cottage in the woods is a tiny flat, and our garden out front is a windowsill with limited space.

This is when it comes time to embrace your craftiness and bring your garden indoors! Not only does it place your garden in a convenient location, it also allows you to freshen the air, recycle what would otherwise harm the earth, and embrace your witchy green thumb!

Gardening for Your Familiar

This past weekend, I went to one of my coven sisters’ place to run a game of Dungeons and Dragons. This in itself isn’t that unusual - I usually play about a game a week, and every other week is held at her place. However, she is definitely a witch who spends plenty of time both in the garden and in the kitchen! A fellow animal lover, with three cats and a couple of dogs, it’s always enjoyable to visit. What surprised me, though was an addition to her home’s normal features: a little garden close to the ground meant for her cats!

Whether a college witch or a witch who’d been practicing for a long time, it’s fair to say that many of us - dare I say that perhaps most of us - have dogs, cats, or some other kind of pet. And while there are plenty of spells out there for familiars and pets, it’s rare that I see spells focusing on gardens for them. So of course, my sister’s garden is featured this week, because it is absolutely brilliant!

A simple project, done in the same way you would any container garden, consider growing plants that your furry friends can safely consume. Where the magic comes in is the intent with which you grow your plants and with which you pot them. The example above makes use of cat grass, catnip, mint (which the kitties love to rub up against), cilantro, and parsley.

But let’s take it a step further, as there are plenty of other animals out there!

Aquatic Gardens: Just like with terrestrial pets and plants, live plants can be added to an aquarium with care. Not only do they breathe new life into your fishes’ home, but they help oxygenate the water and depending on the species of plant and fish in the environment, could provide a food source. Sometimes the plant itself is the pet, as in the case of marimo moss balls!

Terrarium Gardens: In the past, I’ve mentioned bottled gardens and terrarium gardens. Whether reptile or amphibian, plants can help provide a more natural surface for climbing, can provide a food source for herbivorous friends, and - as before - help bring more life to the terrarium!

Formicarium Gardens?: Admittedly, not everyone has a colony of ants as a domestic pet. But as with any animal, ants require care and maintenance, and a proper formicarium usually has a larger area for foraging. Though the ants will be healthy with a steady supply of feeder insects and sugars, adding plants will not only make the “outworld” a more aesthetically pleasing environment, but a more diverse one for the colony as well. In addition, ants have been known to tend to plants, harvesting sap and nectars while also keeping the plant nourished and maintained. Take it a step further by adding pitcher plants - a plant that could easily be a pet itself - which not only help control the colony population, but also promote a mutual relationship with ants (the plant offers nectar to the ants from its inactive pitchers, and while it does “eat” ants, the ants will still take care of the pitcher for the sake of the nectar).

Bringing it Outside: Some of us count horses and other outdoor animals as pets. The same principle applies - set aside a box garden specifically to help nourish your friends and bring some joy to the stable. Similarly, if you don’t have any pets, you could set up a garden to encourage wildlife. It’s not uncommon to see beautiful flower gardens for hummingbirds, fruit trees and berry bushes to encourage wild birds to visit, and gardens set off to the side specifically for deer.

What This Brings to a Witch

Part of being a witch or of being pagan is nurturing a relationship with nature. There are many ways of doing this, from adopting an organic lifestyle to assisting in conservation efforts, to even learning how to forage and to recognize various plants. But it goes without saying that pets, plants, and animals can all do much to help us learn about our role in the world. They teach us how to be ourselves, how to live in the moment. Even the ants in a formicarium can teach us about how to naturally be efficient and productive.

This in itself is magical. It’s a natural spell that is meant to enliven the spirit and while it does do quite a bit to make the animals in our lives happy and healthy (even more so when planted and grown with intent), it also turns around and gives us the very same blessing.

Grow your garden, and tend to it and your animal friends with love, and they will teach you far more than you may realize!

May all your harvests be bountiful! )O( 

Mother Teresa is going to be declared a saint... and she shouldn’t be

I’m not shocked but honestly I’m so disappointed. I’m a girl who grew up in Kolkata, someone who grew up hearing about Mother Teresa and to be honest I hate the fact that the liberal, white, Western media has held this woman as some sort of paragon of virtue. And she really wasn’t. Here are some things she did:

  1. She was so anti-abortion that she actually used her Nobel Peace Prize speech to rail against population control, family planning and abortion. 
  2. She supported Indira Gandhi’s declaration on the state of emergency in 1975, saying “People are happier. There are more jobs. There are no strikes.”
  3. She idolised poverty and suffering, stating that she thought it was beautiful that the poor had accepted their lot in life. But when it came to her, she would check herself into expensive clinics, in the West, in order to treat her own illnesses. 
  4. She was also associated with and supported corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell, as well as the dictatorial Duvalier family and Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha. 
  5. She encouraged members of her order to secretly baptise dying patients with no regard for their own faiths. 
  6. Her public image was super misleading because  only a few hundred people are served by even the largest of the homes. In 1998, among the 200 charitable assistance organisations reported to operate in Calcutta, hers wasn’t even ranked among the largest organisations- there were others doing a much better job.
  7. In 1991, a journalist visited the home and described the medical care the patients received as “haphazard” and he observed that sisters, who had no medical knowledge, had to make decisions about patient care, because of the lack of doctors there. 
  8. Her order did not distinguish between curable or incurable patients, so that people who could otherwise survive would be at risk of dying from infections and lack of treatment. She herself described her houses as the Houses of the Dying.
  9. She reinforced the popular colonialist image of the white woman giving up her life to save the souls of the “wretched” brown people.

There are more shady things about her but I’m over this beatification of Mother Teresa. I’m over her, and I’m over this constant fawning. Kolkata isn’t the “city where Mother Teresa lived”. It has it’s own identity and Mother Teresa doesn’t, at least in my opinion, deserve this honour that the Catholic Church is bestowing on her. 

glassslippers-and-tinywhiskers  asked:

Could you discuss delayed desexing and the alternatives like an ovary sparing procedure? It seems clear that in breeds like the GSD it benefits their health, but do we know much in regard to smaller breeds? (I know this topic can be controversial so if you'd prefer not to delve into it, or already have I understand) Also I've been loving the breed posts, thank you for taking the time to write them up!

I don’t at all mind discussing the topic when everyone remains civil about it. It’s very interesting and an aspect of veterinary medicine that’s bound to change as we gather more information. I’m happy to discuss it as long as all participants refrain from making personal insults.

It’s a long discussion folks. I’d grab a cuppa tea if that’s your thing. Also, unfortunately I can’t hide it under a ‘read more’ because it’s an answer to an ask, and Tumblr will eat the hidden part if I do. I will try to make it look pretty if you’re not interested.

Traditionally in dogs we have performed desexing (spey) by performing an ovariohysterrectomy, removing both ovaries and the uterus. Some alternatives have been suggested including tubal ligation, hysterectomy (removing only the uterus), ovariectomy (removing only the ovaries) or doing nothing. This is good. Science as a process should periodically review data, question the knowledge base and make recommendations based on new research. Otherwise it’s just dogma.

I don’t think you can claim that it is ‘clear’ that leaving the ovaries benefits the health of breeds like the GSD. The practice is still controversial at best, with some veterinarians outright labeling it at malpractice. There is some breed variability in terms of what relative benefits and risks might be expected, but I really wouldn’t call it ‘clear’.

Originally posted by wolfyoubemyvalentine

Before I talk about various cancer risks, let’s talk about relative risks of non-cancerous conditions.

With an ovariohysterectomy (traditional spey)that is properly performed, there is zero risk of pyometra. Stump pyo can occur if remnants of the uterus or ovaries are left behind. Cruciate tears are affected by multiple factors, but desexed dogs seem more prone to them than entire dogs. Weight gain and obesity is more common in desexed dogs.

The relative risk of pyometra in non-desexed dogs is about 25%. Risks typically increase with age.

With an ovary sparing spey (hysterectomy), only the uterus is removed. Pregnancy is prevented. Pyometra can still occur if any uterine or cervix tissue remains (a stump pyo). With the apparent influence of oestrogen, these dogs may be less at risk of cruciate disease and are less at risk of obesity.

With an ovariectomy, only the ovaries are removed. This renders the dog infertile and removes the influence of oestrogen. The uterus will atrophy and shrink down without stimulation from female hormones, rendering the risk of pyometra basically zero. It may still increase the risk of obesity and cruciate disease like the traditional spey.

Considering that pyometra is often lethal, while cruciate disease is painful but treatable, personally I would err on the side of preventing pyometra. Also keep in mind that obesity in dogs can be moderated with owner control of the diet, and obesity will predispose to cruciate injury. I would recommend removing at least the ovaries.

Male dogs have less surgical options. Vasectomy can be considered, but these dogs are basically entire but infertile.

An entire male dog is more at risk of perineal hernia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal adenoma and inter-male aggression. A castrated male dog is relatively more at risk of, again, obesity, cruciate ligament disease, and possibly diabetes.

With the information above, and I haven’t brought cancers into the equation yet, you might wonder of preventing obesity in desexed dogs might reduce the incidence of cruciate disease and subsequently other conditions that we know are more common in obese dogs, namely cruciate ligament disease and diabetes. You might conclude that there is little benefit to leaving a dog entire if you’re able to control its weight.

I think that’s a reasonable assumption so far, though it’s clear to me that the benefits of traditional desexing are more pronounced in females.

Originally posted by heartsnmagic

Now lets talk about cancers.

There are multiple types of cancer. Some are more devastating than others. Some are more common than others. In terms of highly malignant cancers that show up relatively commonly in dogs, the ones we talk most about, and of most interest in this topic, are mammary cancer, haemangiosarcoma (HSARC), Mast Cell Tumor (MCT) and osteosarcoma (OSC).

  • Mammary cancer is extremely common in entire female dogs. In European countries where prophylactic desexing is not routinely performed mammary tumours make up 50-70% of all cancers seen. They are relatively rare in countries with a high desexing rate but extremely predictable in dogs desexed late in life or not at all. Speying earlier appears more protective compared to being left entire: speying before the first heat reduces risk to 0.05%, before second heat to 8%, and before 3rd heat to 26%. after the third heat there is negligible reduction in risk of mammary cancer compared to intact dogs.
  • Osteosarcoma may be three times (3x) more common in desexed large breed dogs.
  • Mast Cell Tumors maybe up to three times (3x) more common in desexed dogs of certain breeds. Lymphoma may be up to 10% more common in desexed dogs of certain breeds.
  • Haemangiosarcoma may be more common in neutered dogs of some breeds, but less common in neutered dogs of other breeds.

There isn’t much consensus across ALL dog breeds in ALL situations. There are numerous retrospective studies, and more coming out all the time (Science!) but more data needs to be analysed.

What is fairly clear is that there is a dramatic reduction in otherwise common mammary cancers by early desexing of females. There is probably some benefit in reducing other cancer risks to later desexng, or not desexing, dogs also.

So do you? Or don’t you?

There’s certainly more incentive to desex female dogs, as even pyometra on its own is a sneaky, life threatening condition. I recommend desexing most female dogs in their senior years if they haven’t already been done for this reason alone.

Assuming you do chose to desex, and I’m talking about procedures that involve at least removal of the gonads, it becomes a matter of when. If you don’t remove the ovaries then you have no benefits from desexing other than infertility. There’s no significant benefit in leaving the ovaries compared to leaving the dog entire.

For a small dog, OSC is incredibly rare. HSARC is rare. MCT can happen to anything. We weight up those relatively low risks compared to the very high risk of mammary cancer and pyometra, and I would advise speying before the first heat. With males timing is not as critical unless behavioural factors are involved.

For a larger dog, I personally think it’s worth delaying desexing to between the first and second heat. I would get too nervous about mammary cancers to wait beyond the second heat but there may be some benefit in preventing osteosarcoma by delaying surgery until more skeletal maturity, and same for cruciate injuries.

(I have a theory that osteosarcoma occurs in its predilection sites due to increased bio-mechanical forces in these areas, so waiting for skeletal maturity before removing the gonads might be helpful.)

On the other hand, screening for hip dysplasia and desexing if the dog definitely has it so you can perform a JPS also has benefits, because you’re addressing pathology the dog definitely has right now.

There are so many unknowns in these hypothetical scenarios. This makes it a challenge to make recommendations when clients just want the ‘right’ answer.

The best plan for the individual dog may depend on breed or breed mix (genetic testing would be ideal, but an added cost) or any known predispositions within the family or bloodlines.

So, this explanation is getting rather long, but there’s so much interesting information on this topic and it’s growing all the time.

Originally posted by mensweardog

TL:DR there is probably a benefit to delayed desexing in dogs prone to OSC, cruciate injury and HSARC. Some of the other risks may be mitigated by weight control. There is minimal if any benefit, and definitely some risk, in delaying desexing for small breeds.

But this field may change as more information is gathered. It will be worth watching over the next decade.

NB: shelters and rescues will always desex as young as possible, because their primary aim is population control. They are justified in doing this and their cases shouldn’t be considered in these scenarios.

(Majority of these statistics come from ‘The spay/neuter controversy’ presented at the OVMA by John Berg, DVM, DACVS and ‘ Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers‘ by Hart, Hart, et al)

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The legal institution of citizenship is SO fucked up, like it’s a way of categorizing people’s bodies based on states and their ability to project power over certain boundaries, and a way of controlling those populations, naming them, controlling their movement and human geography itself - to incredibly violent ends 

whether or not you have a little blue book that says you’re a US citizen on you determines whether or not your life has value, whether you have the right to a fair trial, whether you are the innocent victim of terrorism or the potential embodiment of violence/terrorism/crime itself

7

No Más Bebés: New PBS Documentary Reveals Population Control Of “Poor Who Cannot Adequately Feed Or Clothe The Children They Already Have”

Mothers like Consuelo Hermosillo were in labor when medical staff urged signed consent for a “life saving” treatment. Unbeknown to the mothers, doctors performed a tubal ligation, by clamping, cutting or burning of the fallopian tubes without disclosing the exact procedure.

A small group of Mexican immigrant women sued county doctors, the state and the U.S. government after they were sterilized while giving birth at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

bmc kids as college students either i or other people i know have encountered

jeremy: 

  • sat in a class for funsies until the prof said “i really don’t like sit ins.” gets so nervous and doesn’t say anything. ends up getting as far as answering a quiz and participating in class before he confesses he’s a sit in very quietly, nearly on the verge of tears.
  • his phone ringtone accidentally went off in the library blaring “BOOTY BOOTY BOOTY ROCKIN’ EVERYWHERE” to the entire building. later tweeted “i cant go to the library anymore ever”
  • post it note left the freedom board that said “im single! im anxious! im dtf! call me!” w/ no number.

michael:

  • wears a plant hair clip on his head every day. every. day. even during tennis, plant guy has the plant on his head and it does not move.
  • doesnt go to any of the lectures for one class because his grades last sem were high enough to reward unlimited absences. shows up only for the final. gets the highest score.
  • The Dude Who’s Always Playing The Guitar At That One Table But He’s Hot So You Don’t Ask Him To Fuckin’ Quit It

christine:

  • in three different theatre organizations. that one girl who’s always like “i cant. i have rehearsals.”
  • did a movement piece to high school musical 2′s Bet On It in the middle of the hallway
  • a dead rat is left in the hallway and not cleaned up for 3 days. she builds it a paper tombstone and leaves it flowers, thus resulting in everybody taking pictures of The Dead Rat In The Hallway. rat is cleared away in a matter of hours.

rich:

  • guy who got really distracted seeing somebody really hot while crossing the road and almost gets hit by a car
  • says “if i was DRUNK could i do THIS?” and proceeds to run straight into a urinal
  • prof asks “what is a possible way to control population?” and he raises his hand and answers with “oral.”

jake:

  • came to a 8am 2hr class one hour late with no bag but with a container filled with at least ten pancakes and an entire bottle of maple syrup. has breakfast during remaining lecture time.
  • academic genius but keeps pulling on doors that say “push”
  • brought spray lubricant to school and fixed every single creaky door he found

chloe:

  • “so i just cried for an hour and that sucked but it tested the waterproof capabilities of my eyeliner. it’s fantastic. look. it’s still perfect.”
  • brings a knife to school every day just so she can open the the power outlet in the lecture hall.
  • this one girl in ballroom class who ended up with a shitty partner and literally led both roles of the tango through sheer force of will and terrifying eye contact. steps on the dude’s foot "by accident” at the last pose. 

brooke:

  • you dont know her but she’s braided your hair in class at least three times now
  • The Google Docs Note Taker, AKA Savior Of The Slumbering Students
  • messages the groupchat “i just saw the most handsome boy!” and then sends a picture of a bearded lizard in a terrarium

jenna:

  • buys a coffee from the vending machine infamous for dispensing bullshit. she takes a sip, looks down at the paper cup, and says. “this…reminds me of flavor.” 
  • accidentally sends a 3 paragraph rant to a class groupchat
  • tasked to bring a sapling for lab but forgets all about it. steals a fully grown potted plant from the dorm. is not called out for what is obviously a stolen plant and gets full credits.

retr0spectre  asked:

Speaking of sexist fighting advice! There's this really great fiction writing advice blog I read years ago, written by a lady, shut down ages ago. But it claimed a few times that there was no way a woman could physically handle a zweihander or the like. I've always had a feeling that's nonsense, but confirmation from a good source such as yourself would be great.

Consider this: the zweihander weighs seven pounds. The display version is ten pounds. If you can lift a backpack crammed with textbooks, you can lift a zweihander. House cats weigh more than a sword.

The issue with the zweihander is length, not weight. It is not a heavy sword. No swords are actually all that heavy, because weight defeats the purpose of the weapon. The heavier it is, then the faster your arms wear out and grow tired. This is a terrible, terrible thing.

Combat is highly frenetic. An easy comparison is sprinting, and it’s not just a regular sprint but wind sprints. You gotta go, go, go. You need to be able to move. So, a heavy weapon is detrimental to the goal of being able to fight as long as possible. Especially when that weapon is designed to give you an edge in reach, and counter pole arms. You want to be able to swing the weapon around for long periods of time because if you wear out first, you’re dead.

Endurance, not strength, is the great necessity for any warrior. So, everything your PE teacher punished you with is what you’re looking for (except dialed to eleven). Once you understand fighting is about going for as long as possible between energetic bursts, combat starts to make more sense. This is also why most action movies feature the pressure cooker, the slow grind down of the protagonist by giving them little to no rest between fights as they accumulate more injuries.

So, when people say strength in regards to combat, they don’t usually mean physical strength in what you can lift. They mean how long you can go, what you can endure before finally keeling over. This gets misinterpreted, mixed in with the confusion by historians about parade swords (which were incredibly heavy and often the only surviving weapons) and we get the beefcake barbarian.

Like all swords, and even shields, the zweihander is awkward to use if you don’t know how to wield it or have never held one before. This has to do with its balance point. Swords feel heavier than they actually are when we hold them because the balance is midway up the blade and that strains the wrist, which strains the arm, and causes the whole thing to tilt forward. Sometimes, the sword even gets dropped. You’ve got to learn how to account for it.

When you’re looking at actual combat considerations on weight, that’s in the armor. Armor is comparatively heavy, the warrior has to get used to carrying around fifteen to twenty or so pounds, or more depending on what gear they’re lugging with them between battles. So, if you’ve got a character going into battle without plate then they’re not going to have those weight considerations. Even if they are, the point of training is to build your body up to be able to handle it.

At the end of the day, its important to remember that, historically, large scale combat has been about being able to get the most bodies on the field as possible. You ran the gamut between trained warriors and farmers yanked off their fields with a hastily cludged together pole arm thrust into their hands. There are plenty of people who went into battle with no freakin’ clue what they were doing. The concept of a military as we know it today is a mostly modern invention.

The mystique of the knight and others like them came with their training, which is… they had some. Whatever they’d have liked us to think, there was nothing different about them compared to the farmers except the money, the (sometime) power, the time, and the “luck” of their birth. In the end, it’s less about what humans can or can’t do but what society corrals them from learning. It’s easier to control your population when only the powerful have access to weapons, educations, and castles.

So, yeah, a woman can use a zweihander if she trains on the zweihander. It also won’t be her only weapon, mostly because one never knows when they’ll have to fight indoors. (That’s a joke, HEMA peeps. I know half-holds are a thing, and it’s not a katana so it can strike straight.)

-Michi

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Hiraeth | Pt.11

pt.1 | pt.2 | pt.3 | pt.4 | pt.5 | pt.6 | pt.7 | pt.8 | pt.9 | pt.10 | pt.11 | pt.12 |

Words: 5,690.

Genre: Zombie apocalypse au, angst.

Summary: A world full of dwindling hope and lost loves and yet you and Jungkook are all the other needs to feel at home.

Warning: Contains mature content (such as coarse language and violent themes).

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Random Anthropology Stuff

I’m studying for my Anthropology final tomorrow and one way I study is copying my notes down on paper and/or on a virtual document. So I thought I’d use Tumblr to write down some of my notes while also sharing with you guys some random Anthropology stuff.

Enjoy!


Medical Anthropology

  • It’s the study of health, illness, and healing across the range of human societies and over the course of human experience, with an emphasis on how members of the community direct their behaviors, articulate their ideas, and organize their resources in these realms.
  • Medicine: Any and all practices that are intended to address or alleviate what a given group of people consider to be an affliction in need of attention.
  • Biomedicine: The medicine of hospitals and mainstream doctors of the industrialized world.
  • Health: A dynamic condition combining individuals, society, and an adaption to the environment.
  • Sickness: diseases and illnesses
    • disease: a condition that is objectively identified with a medical label or diagnostic name, based on externally established signs. 
    • illness: the more subjective perception of the individual experience of suffering.
  • All medical systems, including our own, are shaped by culture.
  • Two Broad Divisions in Medical Anthro: biocultural and cultural
    • biocultural approaches: an anthropological view of the ways in which people adapt to their environment and change that environment that makes healthy conditions better or worse.
    • cultural approaches: emphasizes the role of ideas, beliefs, and values in creating systems of illness classification and medical programs for curing.

Language

  • Human communication by means of shared symbols which can be linguistic or non-linguistic 
  • No one is intrinsically superior (no language is better than another)
  • Sociolinguistics: the study of linguistic diversity; looks at language in its social context, examining relationships between social and linguistic variation.
    • style shifts: how you may talk to your boss vs. how you may talk to your best friend.
  • Gender differences: there is a linguistic variation between men and women.
    • Women are more likely to speak Standard English
    • Language reflects position of power
    • Women end sentences with an intonation of uncertainty. 
  • Linguistic variation reflects social, political, and economic forces
  • “Proper Langauge” is a strategic resource
  • Black English Vernacular (BEV): Ebonics is a systematic and rule-governed linguistic system.
    • there was a national debate about it in the mid-1990s
    • Standard English is not superior to BEV as a linguistic system, but they do have different prestige
  • Sign language: a complex, culture-laden system of communication.
    • a manual communication to convey words and thoughts.

Social Inequality and Control

  • Social Stratified Societies: contain social groups that have unequal access to important advantages.
    • economic resources
    • power
    • prestige
  • Egalitarian: contain no social stratification
    • bands or tribes
    • tribes have “Big Men”
    • no differential access to power, prestige, or economic resources
      • same opportunity to gain prestige through sharing
      • same access to hunting areas
      • etc.
    • men hunt and women gather
    • younger men/women provide food and older men/women carry the myths and wisdom
    • the ecological base of hunters and gathers and tribes leads to an egalitarian society
      • must share - cannot hoard
      • everyone dependent on the other for survival
      • cooperation essential between members
      • environment dictates cooperation and sharing
  • Rank Societies: usually are agricultural or herding societies.
    • primarily found in chiefdoms
    • chiefs are different from “Big Men” in many ways
      • this position is ascribed even though it’s still kin-based
      • chiefs are full-time political specialists in charge of economic production, distribution, and consumption
    • slight inequality regarding prestige (aka @ the ascribed role)
    • Ecological base:
      • larger and more sedentary
      • have a surplus - can save up
      • have redistribution from different ecological areas
      • still kinship
  • Class Societies: unequal access to power, prestige, and economic resources.
    • found with states
    • Ecological base:
      • extremely sedentary and have large populations
      • much surplus
      • extreme specialization
      • nucleation, centralization of power, and diversification of labor
  • Social Control in Kin-Based Societies: social control is the responsibility of the kin groups.
    • kin act as mediators
    • personal intervention
  • Social Control in Class-Based Societies: punishment meant to be impartial and impersonal
    • more formalized
  • Four Types of Social Control: law, gossip and ridicule, witchcraft, and the threat of the supernatural.
    • law: a social norm whose violation is punishable by threat of or application of physical force by a legitimate official or body
      • focus is on harmony
      • not necessarily codified
    • gossip and ridicule: found in all societies and is especially important in kin-based groups
    • witchcraft: used to harm other people
    • supernatural: fear of punishment (hell, karma, etc.)
  • Power of the States: coercive powers, hegemony, appeasement, the anthropological other.
    • hegemony: the power of solidarity of the state as created by the consent of the governed.
      • it is in a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with the domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness”
      • the positive outcomes of development and “progress” are highlighted
      • the costs and inequalities are masked
      • often promises are made - “if you are patient, the costs of progress will eventually pay off”
      • often is it wrongly assumed that those suffering from inequalities are really to blame or that they just need to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”
    • appeasement: an industrial class base society gives the basic necessities to the poor/needy; meant to help control.
    • the anthropological “other”: lack power, legitimacy, and validity
      • their knowledge is dismissed
      • suffer from cultural poverty
      • dichotomy of otherness leads to mistreatment of the “other

Religion and Worldview

  • Religion: the belief in the supernatural and behavior for dealing with it; whether that power is forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons.
    • religion is a cultural universal
  • Supernatural: power believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature.
  • Probably dates back to the time of Neanderthal (religion)
  • Not all religions have a belief in a god or gods
  • Why is Religion a Cross-Cultural Universal? - Some Theories…
    • the need to understand: religion originates in people’s speculation about dreams, trances, and death
      • animism: belief that there is a physical body separate from a soul
      • Tylor’s student argues instead for animatism
      • animatism: the belief in impersonal, supernatural forces
    • reversion to childhood feelings: we look to religion to fulfill the role that our parents filled when we were children
      • all knowing and all powerful
    • anxiety and uncertainty: we turn to religion during times of anxiety and uncertainty.
    • the need for community: focus is on social needs
      • religious beliefs and practices affirm a person's’ place in society, enhance feelings of community, and give people confidence
  • Types of Supernatural Forces and Beings:
    • mana: a supernatural force that is impersonal and is thought to inhabit some objects, people, or animals, but not others
    • taboo: persons, objects, animals, or places that are not to be touched because their power can cause harm
    • gods: supernatural beings with non-human origins and are named personalities
    • ghosts and ancestor spirits: supernatural beings that may act in a guardian way doing good deeds
      • others act in mischief
      • they were once human
      • were born of a human woman
  • Structure of Supernatural:
    • monotheistic religions: have one supreme or high god with other lesser supernatural beings
      • the gods/spirits are ranked in power and prestige
      • ex: Christianity and Islam
    • polytheistic religions: recognize many important gods with no one supreme god
      • ex: Ancient Rome, Greek, Egyptian, Mayan religions
  • Non-Western Worldview
    • can’t separate natural and supernatural
    • equality between humans and their environment
    • personalized relationship between spirits, nature, and humans
    • power is manipulated through ritual
    • nothing happens by chance
    • based on origin narratives
  • All humans engage in rituals 
  • Ways of Interacting With the Supernatural:
    • prayer: asking for supernatural help; can take many forms
    • altering the body or mind: i.e. Yanomamo use of ebene, Native Americans and peyote, Native Americans and vision quests, and Kung San drumming and dancing
    • trance: common altered state, can be possession trances
    • stimulation: where one thing stands for something else; black magic voodoo
    • divination: getting the supernatural force to provide guidance
    • sacred meal(s)
    • sacrifice: some of value is given up to the gods, whether is be food, animals, or people
  • Magic:
    • magic vs. prayer:
      • magic- compelling
      • praying- pleading/asking
    • sorcery and witchcraft: both invoke the spirits to work harm against people
      • sorcery: may include the use of material, objects, and medicines to invoke the supernatural malevolence 
      • witchcraft: accomplishes the same ills as sorcery but by means of thought and emotion alone
      • Most seen in societies as a social control when the population is far too large for gossip and ridicule and when the population is much too small for judges, juries, and police
  • Ritual: a repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects, adhering to a cultrually defined ritual schema and closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in myth.
    • four elements to rituals: repetition, set off from everyday life, adheres to culturally defined ritual schema, and connected to ideas encoded in a myth
  • Rites of Passage: going from one status to another
    • a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another
    • three stages: separation, transition, reaggregation
Star (Poly!Hamilsquad x Reader)

Words: 4000+

Warnings: Cursing, mentions of sex, ?

A/N: an anon requested a poly!hamilsquad x reader soulmate au and i had no idea how to do it so it’s been in my inbox for like a month. im so sorry i took so long ;-; i never posted this late (or early before so enjoy!)


“Y/N, for crying out loud, aren’t you the tiniest bit curious as to who it might be? I mean, come on, you have an incomplete triangle on your wrist!” Angelica said, trying to pull up your sleeve. You swatted her hand away, pushing it back down. She always pestered you about the mark on your wrist. Since she does not have one of her own, she tells you that she lives vicariously through you.

There were only a handful of people in the world that had markings on their skin. It was what scientists called soulmate links, people you were meant to be with. Unfortunately for you, and this was your opinion, you hated being one of the few to have it. You didn’t believe in people “meant to be together”, and would rather just find someone that you loved for who they are, not what your skin says.

And the mark on your wrist was so small, it could just be a birthmark.

Keep reading

Gay people are saving the world.

If you think about it, gay people are pretty much saving the world through reducing the population. Like all of our pollution is due to an unsustainable growth in population (as well as laziness, lack of understanding, and human error) and the more gay people there are that choose to adopt or not have biological children the less people there are. So yeah, gay people are superheros.

Originally posted by nightmarecosmic

White History Month

A Caucasian co-worker and I(Yup! The same one from the last post. Go figure.) were discussing why there should or shouldn’t be a “White History Month”. Nevermind the fact that EVERY MONTH is White History month. But I decided to humor him and play along…

“There should be White History Month” so we can expose all the evil things white folks have done in history and present that still affect the victims and their descendants till this very day like:

1 Cherokee Trail of Tears
2 Japanese American internment
3 Philippine-American War
4 Jim Crow
5 The genocide of Native Americans
6 Transatlantic slave trade, and the lies that Africans sold other Africans into slavery
7 The Middle Passage
8 The history of White American racism
9 Black Codes
10 Slave patrols
11 Ku Klux Klan
12 The War on Drugs
13 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
14 How white racism grew out of slavery and genocide
15 How whites still benefit from slavery and genocide
16 White anti-racism
17 The Southern strategy
18 The rape of enslaved women
19 Madison Grant
20 The Indian Wars
21 Human zoos
22 How the Jews became white
23 White flight
24 Redlining
25 Proposition 14
26 Homestead Act
27 Tulsa Riots
28 Rosewood massacre
29 Tuskegee Experiment
30 Lynching
31 Hollywood stereotypes
32 Indian Appropriations Acts
33 Immigration Act of 1924
34 Sundown towns
35 Chinese Exclusion Act
36 Emmett Till
37 Vincent Chin
38 Islamophobia
39 Indian boarding schools
40 King Philip’s War
41 Bacon’s Rebellion
42 American slavery compared to Arab, Roman and Latin American slavery
43 History of the gun
44 History of the police
45 History of prisons
46 History of white suburbia
47 Lincoln’s racism and anti-racism
48 George Wallace Governor of Alabama
49 Cointelpro
50 Real estate steering
51 School tracking
52 Mass incarceration of black men
53 Boston school busing riots
54 Man made Ebola and A.I.D.S.
55 Church Bombings and fires in deep south to Blacks
56 Church Shootings
57 How the Irish and Italians became white
58 The Perpetuation of the idea of the “model minority”
59 Housing discrimination
60 Systematic placement of highways and building projects to create ghettos
61. Medical experimentation on poor poc especially Blacks including surgical and gynecological experimentation
62 History of Planned Parenthood
63 Forced Sterilization
64 Cutting children out of pregnant Black mothers as part of lynchings
65 Eurocentric beauty standard falsification
66 Erasure and eradication of all achievements of Ancient Africa and Kemet
67 White washing of history and cultural practices of poc’s
68 Media manipulation and bias
69 Perpetuation of the myth of reverse racism
70 The history of white cannibalism
71 White fragility
72 White on white crime and white on everybody else crime
73 Irish slavery, Jewish slavery, African slavery, Native American slavery
74 White police officers murdering unarmed men, women, and children and not being convicted for it
75 Population control warfares worldwide
76 Chemtrails
77 Oil spills and chemical dumping in oceans worldwide
78 Water fracking
79 Gmo foods worldwide
80 Monsanto
81 World Wars 1 and 2
82 Wars on indigenous peoples throughout the world
83 Stolen inventions and blueprints from African people and other indigenous people worldwide
84 Steal concepts from cultures worldwide and then corrupt it
85 Mass murders and massacres worldwide
86 Eugenics and the history of sterilization of poc and history of fetal abortions worldwide
87. Flint Michigan water poisoning crisis

and too much more….

Yet you all have convinced the world and your delusional selves that melanated human beings “black” people are perceived as dangerous, unruly, racist, uncivilized, thugs, gangsters etc… Yeah ok not according to historical and present day facts.

Needless to say… We don’t have these types of discussions anymore. 😎😉😂

cloudchasersakonige  asked:

After seeing your post about "I do support regulated, sustainable wolf population control" I did a search for "why population control is a bad excuse for hunting" and found several articles on exactly that. Wolves did just fine for thousands of years without the Native Americans "managing" their population, why can't we?

@cloudchasersakonige Hi! Yes, it’s true that unfortunately a lot of hunters misplacedly throw around terms like “conservation” or “population control” as a selfish excuse to be able to hunt wolves.

How the ecosystems in the area you are talking about (or any other place on earth for that matter) used to be can’t be compared with today’s environmental situation. A lot has changed - mostly because of humans. 

Also, it might have seemed like everything did fine back then without the interference of humans, but nowadays we have the scientific evidence that shows us that ecosystems can get in great imbalance without our interference, and do not do just fine. You can see examples of this nowaday where we let the animals live and where you can see what happens when we do.

For example in Norway, the population of moose is way too big because of lack of predators. If the moose are not hunted by humans, they will overpopulate even more, leading to problems on different levels. The moose will suffer from starvation, more diseases and more conflicts. Humans are affected through numerous severe and deathly traffic accidents involving moose. When the moose overpopulate, they “push” other animals out of the ecosystem which often results in chain reactions that threathens the whole ecosystem, and possibly the survival of endangered species.

In my own country the Netherlands, there’s a nature preserve called Oostvaardersplassen where the ungulates (Konik horses, red deer, and heck cattle) are extremely overpopulated and where are no natural predators to prey on the ungulates. The government hasn’t really interfered yet, because they are taking way too long in taking decisions (talking about years here). In the mean time, Oostvaardersplassen it has become a perfect example of how an ecosystem gets greatly imbalanced when humans don’t interfere when needed. The obvious effects are that the ungulates overpopulate, eat all the flora until there’s nothing left for them or anyone else, and because of that are now starving to death. Less obvious effects for example are that certain insects that have a key role in the ecosystem there can’t live there anymore because there are no plants to cause shadows in the water where they live - something they need in their habitat in order to be able to live there. In both examples. the ecosystem could easily be restored and become balanced again by the interference of humans.

Here’s a quote from retired state wildlife biologist and supervisor David Johnson about an example involving the population control of wolves in order to go from imbalanced to balanced ecosystem: “When we started the Tanana Flats wolf control program in the mid-1970’s moose and caribou numbers were low and falling. Wolf numbers were high. Ten years later, and some years after the program ended, there were more of each: more moose, more caribou, and…here’s the punch line….the wolf population had bounced back to a larger size than when we started.” Read more about that here [x]

Also adding something important I forgot to mention that @millenniumvulcan commented on this post: Many ecosystems are closed systems because they are bordered, meaning animals can’t travel the distances they could before humans. This way, closed ecosystems can easily become overpopulated or unbalanced once an ecosystem engineer species is allowed to breed unchecked without migration to offset the numbers in that area. Those ecosystems would be destroyed if numbers weren’t managed.