control genes

What Is The Shape Of Your Monster? – Get Out and Thought-out Horror

Get out.

No, I’m dead serious. If you haven’t already seen Jordan Peele’s Get Out yet, I need you to do me a massive favor. I need you to bookmark this page, close this page, and absolutely do not read this page— or any other essay or article on Get Out— until you’ve finished watching it.

I’m not just saying this because this essay will contain major spoilers for a movie that is best enjoyed going in knowing as little as possible— I mean, yes, it will— but most of all I just want as many people to see this movie as possible. It is by far the most socially relevant American movie to come out this year, at time of writing, if not one of the most socially relevant pieces of American art of the past decade.

It’s also just a very good movie.

(SPOILERS START NOW)

Keep reading

theguardian.com
Exceptionally rare 'pale tiger' photographed in the wild
Animal spotted by photographer in jungles of southern India may be the fairest known tiger living outside captivity.
By Michael Safi

What’s important to note here is that this is not a white tiger in the wild. The article emphasizes that “pale tigers, distinct from white tigers, are thought to have a genetic mutation that results in what biologists call colour morphism.’” That’s kind of an academic way of saying that ‘this is another color tigers can be’ but what it emphasizes is that this color is caused by some type of random mutation in the genes that control the coat, leading to a lighter (but still orange-based) pelt - rather than the animal having two copies of the specific mutation that creates the actually white tigers we’re familiar with. 

th3mstrmind-deactivated20170607  asked:

Hey there. I was at the pet store today and saw a beautifully colored albino cornsnake; fall colors of reds+orange and a little yellow, with some white. It made me wonder, why are they called albino's if they come in such vibrant colors?

GOOD QUESTION! So basically, albinism is a condition that knocks out a pigment called melanin. This is the primary pigment in many animals, including mammals and birds. It colors skin, hair, scales, feathers, and eyes. There’s different types of melanin that produce colors on a spectrum ranging from deep black to sandy blonde. But while melanin is the primary pigment in mammals, it’s not the only pigment in reptiles! Reptiles actually have two types of pigment-producing cells. The first, melanocytes, produce melanin. In an albino animal, those are basically turned off and the skin is white or pinkish from the blood circulating beneath it. But reptiles also have what’s called chromatophores. Chromatophores produce many other pigments. Two of these are xanthophores (yellow) and erythrophores (a range of red to purplish, depending on the species). Some reptiles have iridiophores (which produce iridescent colors) and there’s two other common pigments known as guanophores and leucophores (two different versions of white). Each of these pigments is affected by different mutations! So for example, my Kenyan sand boa is anerythristic, which means that the genes that control red pigment (the erythrophores) have been turned off- giving me a black and white snake instead of a black and orange snake like a normal KSB. My ball pythons are both axanthic, which means that the genes that control yellow pigment (xanthophores) have been turned off. These snakes don’t produce these pigments, and so that changes their color!

So that snake you saw was an albino in that they don’t produce melanin! But their other pigments are unaffected by the mutation, so they can still exhibit gorgeous shades of red, yellow, and orange! 

7

Today is the 84th birthday of Gene Kranz, whose most famous quote is “Failure is Not an Option”. He also famously ordered the mission controllers to write “Tough and Competent” on their blackboards after Apollo 1. Those are the quotes I know him by.

He was the flight director during the scary Apollo 13 mission, leading mission control to bring Apollo 13′s crew home safely as portrayed by the 1995 Apollo 13 movie. His wife made mission vests for him also. Before his NASA career, he fought in the Air Force in Korea. He helped with the mission control on the Mercury-Redstone 1 flight with Chris Kraft, which only flew four inches high.

I recently read in an aviation maganize by EAA that he built a working full-size airplane in his garage during his retirement. He sadly never got to fly it. He got busy so he lent the plane to a nearby Texas museum, then in 2008 a hurricane came through, ruining the plane. 

Handedness arises from genes in the spinal cords of embryos

Our nervous systems have left-right differences that are important for correct functioning. Handedness is probably the best-known asymmetry arising from the development of the nervous system. This is observed very early on: embryos of eight weeks already tend to move their right arms more often than their left arms. At this ‘age’ signals are not sent from the brain to the arms yet, but only from the spinal cord. A few weeks later, left-right differences also become visible in the shape and size of the premature brain.

A team of scientists from the Netherlands, the UK and China searched for genes that contribute to left-right differences in the nervous system, in the period between four and eight weeks after fertilisation. The genetic analysis showed that the left and right sides of the spinal cord develop at different paces.

The left side of the spinal cord matures slightly faster than the right side. Sets of key genes that control growth and maturity were found to reach a more advanced profile of activity on the left side than the right. In the hindbrain, an area which is the predecessor for some adult parts of the brain, this was the other way around.

“This seems logical, since many nerve fibers cross over from one side to the other at the boundary between the hindbrain and spinal cord,” says Carolien de Kovel, lead author of the study and researcher at the Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics (MPI). “How exactly this left-right genetic difference in the spinal cord leads to right-handedness is, however, not yet clear.”

Clyde Francks, head of the MPI research group ‘Brain and behavioral asymmetries’ and Research Fellow at the Donders Institute at the Radboud University, explains, “We think that these very early left-right differences in the spinal cord may act to trigger some of the later asymmetries of the brain, such as the eventual dominance of the left hemisphere for language functions in most adults’.

Asymmetry and schizophrenia
"Around 85% of humans are right-handed; it seems the standard in human development,” De Kovel adds, “but genetic and environmental factors may provide alternative paths of development, such as left-handedness or two-handedness. Interestingly, disturbances in such asymmetries seem to be more common in people with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia.”

Hence, De Kovel and her colleagues also compared the results of their study with genetic factors that influence the risk of schizophrenia. It was found that genes which exhibit the largest left-right differences in the embryos also tended to be involved in the risk of schizophrenia. “The findings do not prove directly that these genes cause schizophrenia by their actions in the spinal cord, because the same genes are also active in the grown-up brain. However this does provide us with clues on which we can base further research,” De Kovel explains.

Discovery of nano ‘footballs’

Research from the University of York has unearthed a ‘simply breathtaking’ discovery.

The work states that genes are controlled by ‘nano footballs’ – structures that look like footballs but are in fact 10 million times smaller than the average ball.

Professor Mark Leake, Chair of Biological Physics at the University of York, and who led the project said, ‘Our ability to see inside living cells, one molecule at a time, is simply breathtaking.

‘We had no idea that we would discover that transcription factors operated in this clustered way. The textbooks all suggested that single molecules were used to switch genes on and off, not these crazy nano footballs that we observed.’

Leake and his colleagues – supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden – placed glowing probes on transcription factors, which are chemicals inside cells that control whether a gene is switched on or off. From this, it was determined that the transcription factors operate as a cluster of approximately seven to ten molecules.

The discovery could improve understanding about how genes operate and potentially provide more information on health problems associated with genetic disorders.

‘We found out that the size of these nano footballs is a remarkably close match to the gaps between DNA when it is scrunched up inside a cell,’ Leake added. ‘As the DNA inside a nucleus is really squeezed in, you get little gaps between separate strands of DNA which are like the mesh in a fishing net. The size of this mesh is really close to the size of the nano footballs we see.’

This, continued Leake, means that a nano football ‘can roll along segments of DNA but then hop to another nearby segment’, so it can find the specific gene it controls more quickly.

Kitten

Pairing: Bucky x Mutant Reader

Summery: You have been the Avengers intel person for a year now and one day after a long tiring 12 hours of work you accidentally get off on the wrong floor and accidentally hear something..

Warnings: Moans, Swearing (2 F words), mention of cat ear kink, mention of masturbation

Word count: 1,075

[So this is my first story I’ve written on here and also my first Y/N story format I’ve ever done. Grammar is my weak spot and I’m working on it but I really wanted to post this story so oh well. I hope you like it!]

You sigh as you tiredly stumble down the hall to your room not realizing you got off on the wrong floor. You just got back from a 12 hour day of repairing your bakery. It’s crazy that’s it’s been a year since you joined the Avengers as their intel girl.

You opened your bakery up 5 years ago as a safe place for mutants. But you never expected your bakery to become a place that everyone came too.. assassins, mob guys, mercenaries, hitters, bad guys, good guys, cops, you name it they come here. She didn’t mind all these different kinds of people coming to her place as long as they were happy and it was a safe environment. Everyone just leaves who they are at the door and just relax and enjoy baked goods and company. You didn’t care what someone’s back ground was outside your walls, everyone deserves a place where everyone puts differences aside, there’s not many places like yours.
You opened your bakery after years of being kicked out or denied service just because of your mutation. You were shunned for something you couldn’t control being. You were born a mutant, just like others are born with blonde hair or black hair, it wasn’t something you just chose. It was like you refusing to serve blond haired people because blondes make you feel uncomfortable or threatened. It’s not something they can control, it’s in their genes. You were sick of it, so you spent months scraping by, you moved into a apartment with the cheapest rent you could find and couponed the shit out of grocery’s. Finally you had enough to get the doors opened and food in the ovens, it took 3 rough months before you became a safe and popular spot that everyone just knew. Due to this you gathered a lot of intel daily on people and one day you over heard a certain billionaire and blonde super soldier arguing because of bad intel on someone they were looking for. You recognized their name right away and shyly tapped the tall super soldiers shoulder. He blinked in surprise when he looked down at you, you didn’t even bat an eye at his shocked expression, you were quite used to it by now, it’s not everyday you see a girl with cat ears and a tail. You had shyly told him that his intel he got was the decoy intel that is placed out there and told him true intel before continuing your way to the bakery. You jumped in surprise when a new voice asked you how you knew this intel, you quickly turned around and noticed there was a third gentleman hidden in the shadows next to the blonde super soldier. You shyly shrugged “With these sensitive ears you tend to hear things” you say gently flicking you right cat ear before turning and unlocking the bakery door.

You smiled remembering the first time you met Steve, Tony, and Bucky. Tony had come around your apartment that night offering you a intel job. It took months before they convinced you, you could choose what intel you shared and they respected your bakery and what it stood for. You also remember Tony forcing you to move into the Tower with the rest of the team because he refused to have a Avenger living in a dump like that. Although you knew tony was secretly worried about your wellbeing even if he refused to show it.
Yawning you quickly shook off memory’s of the past as you continued walking. It took you til you entered the training room to realize your on the wrong floor. “Really Y/N” you grumble to yourself, before stopping when your sensitive ears picked up on someone calling your name. You look around before seeing the light in the locker room on. Going over to the slightly ajar door you walk in and notice clothes on a bench and the sound of water. As your about to leave who ever’s showering to their showering you stopped dead in your tracks. “Y/N..Fuck” you heard Bucky moan in the shower. You stare wide eyed at the wall in shock. You would of never thought Bucky felt anything towards you, especially since it took 6 months for him not to tense up when ever you touched him. Bucky was always nice and sweet to you but very quiet and slightly withdrawn like he was with others but he never denied you cuddles. Yes it took him 6 months to finally get used to your affectionate personality but you were always patient and understanding with him. Sometimes when you were excited you’d forget to make sure it was okie before you hugged him or gave him a kiss on the forehead but you’d always apologize and he’d say it was fine. Surprisingly no one disliked your affection so you always got to cuddle, hug, and give kisses to the others, depending on the person would determine what affectionate kiss you could give, wether it be cheek, forehead, nose, chin, or mouth. With Bucky you always gave him forehead kisses to show him you care for him and you respect him boundaries. But as the last 6 months went on you could see Bucky getting more comfortable and involved with the team. He also became more playful and flirty like, as Steve would put it, the old Bucky. Your taken out of your thoughts of your friendship with Bucky when you hear him again. “Fuck Doll, such a good kitten for me” he moaned. Your knees almost gave out hearing him say that. You swallowed hard feeling your feline side try to come out. You decided to do something besides stand here like a creep and listen to your friend..no, CRUSH, pleasure himself. But you don’t have the confidence or balls to strip and join him. For all you know he could have a cat ear kink and thinking of you while getting off is better than some chick wearing cheap plastic ears, you can’t risk taking this the wrong way. So what do you do? The one thing you know how to do. You walk over to the wall next to his shower stall and lean against it just outside the curtain. “Y/N” Bucky moans. “You rang?” You casually sing out as a surprised super soldier jumps in shock and terror at your voice.

Scientists Discover Clues to Altered Brain Wiring in Autism

Autism is an agonizing puzzle, a complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors. One piece of this puzzle that has emerged in recent years is a biochemical cascade called the mTOR pathway that regulates growth in the developing brain. A mutation in one of the genes that controls this pathway, PTEN (also known as phosphatase and tensin homolog), can cause a particular form of autism called macrocephaly/autism syndrome.

Using an animal model of this syndrome, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered that mutations in PTEN affect the assembly of connections between two brain areas important for the processing of social cues: the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with complex cognitive processes such as moderating social behavior, and the amygdala, which plays a role in emotional processing.

“When PTEN is mutated, we find that neurons that project from the prefrontal cortex to the amygdala are overgrown and make more synapses,” said TSRI Associate Professor Damon Page. “In this case, more synapses are not necessary a good thing because this contributes to abnormal activity in the amygdala and deficits in social behavior.”

The study was published on November 15 by the journal Nature Communications. The study also showed that targeting the activity of the mTOR pathway shortly after birth, a time when neurons are forming connections between these brain areas, can block the emergence of abnormal amygdala activity and social behavioral deficits. Likewise, reducing activity neurons that project between these areas in adulthood can also reverse these symptoms.

“Given that the functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala is largely conserved between mice and humans,” said TSRI Graduate Student Wen-Chin Huang, the first author of the study, “we anticipate the therapeutic strategies suggested here may be relevant for individuals on the autism spectrum.”

Although caution is warranted in extrapolating findings from animal models to humans, these findings have implications for individualized approaches to treating autism. “Even within individuals exposed to the same risk factor, different strategies may be appropriate to treat the symptoms of autism in early development versus maturity,” said Page.

2

Cruel fusion: What a young man’s death means for childhood cancer

As in most cases of Ewing’s sarcoma, Max Ritvo’s tumour cells contained two genes that had accidentally joined together into one. The fusion protein it produces, called EWS–FLI1, is a chimaera run amok, altering the expression of thousands of genes.

Fusion proteins are a common theme in childhood cancers, from brain tumours to leukaemias. And Max’s struggle with this one highlights the difficulty of tackling them in young patients. The diseases they cause tend to be aggressive, and the intensive chemotherapy treatments used to fight them can be brutal. It is hard to study paediatric cancers in general, both because they are uncommon and because of the ethical concerns involved in experimenting on children. But perhaps most maddeningly, the fusion proteins themselves, the most obvious point of attack for new therapies, have proved to be slippery targets. “There aren’t too many cancers that just say, ‘Here is my Achilles heel,’” says Damon Reed, a paediatric oncologist at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. “These are doing that.”

Scientists are hopeful, however. In recent years, they have revealed that many fusion proteins, such as EWS–FLI1, interact with some of the cellular machinery that controls gene expression. These epigenetic controls have become a bustling area of research in adult cancers. Therapies that target them are already in clinical trials in adults. And bolstered by advances, a new initiative aims to fund a systematic study of fusion proteins in paediatric cancers.

Max Ritvo, pictured in 2014. Ashley Woo

NSFW Headcanon Game

OBITO UCHIHA

A/N: Honestly sex with Obito can probably be summarized by IDFC by Blackbear. I’m also gonna level with you: I’ve written “mmmmmmm” in response to gifs, but I legitimately just did it out loud when I saw this gif. Forgive me Father, but I’m Bout To Sin™.

Favorite Position

Well, it all depends on the persona that he’s putting out. Who exactly does his lover know him as? If they’ve only ever been allowed to know Tobi, then the mask stays on. In that case, he’ll give all of himself to you once he’s inside you- and trust me, he’ll now what positions will do it for you. Imagine the shoulder holder, the hot spot, or the pole position. He will increase your stimulation, and often in this persona he will find it in himself to relinquish control (despite his Uchiha genes rearing their ugly head and itching to dominate).

If his S/O is special enough to know about his true personality, or was smart enough to figure it out on their own, then the mask is definitely not a necessity in the bedroom. In the case where a lover knows and he can have his face and mouth free, and he doesn’t have to control his voice, it’s like sleeping with an entirely different person. He loves to move you and change positions, but he will always favor having you faced towards him, where he can kiss you and look into your eyes. When you first start sleeping together he is bound to hide his face against you neck, or lower himself to give your chest some attention. This is because he has a fear that you’ll be repulsed by the scarring on his face, or that his eyes will scare you. He’ll probably put you in a dominant position to begin with, in case you decide that you don’t want what he’s offering you, but if you’re persistent than he tends to end up turning the table before the end. A few examples of what he’d favor include the cat, the cowgirl, and the face off positions.

Intimacy

Most would be surprised to know that he is the most intimate of all of the Uchihas. Especially after the events of his past, he actually is pretty good at disconnecting his emotions from the sex for fear of getting too attached, but the physical sensations and closeness still spur the parts of him that he tries to keep hidden away. His true intimacy lies in his kiss. No matter how he is taking you, even if it’s hard and rough, he will almost always be ready to kiss you, and you can read it all over his face. And when he kisses you, it’s an entire experience all on its own. You can hardly remember how it begins before you are clinging to him and fighting to follow his lead, because he kisses with such a mindless, natural passion. He’ll always leave you breathless, but you’ll have the same effect on him.

Kink

Marking, necking, restraint, offering. Another reason he’s the most intimate of the Uchihas is because his sexual appetite doesn’t include any dominating kinks, or many kinks in general. He’ll love a partner for their attitude, outlook, and overall soul moreso than anything they could offer him, so there isn’t much that turns him on outside of wanting to be close and physical with someone that he cares for.   On the other hand, he will happily explore any kinks that you reveal a desire for. He just doesn’t have many of his own.

X-Ray

He sits directly at average at six inches when erect. He has an average girth as well. He’s circumcised, as most ninja are. He has dark hair down there which he keeps immaculate, along with a perfectly trimmed treasure trail. He doesn’t have any overly prominent veins. He has a very slight curve to the left, but not many people really notice- that’s just a fact that Obito figured out for himself when he was younger out of curiosity. As far as genitals go, Obito’s are oddly nice looking, and a few lover’s have mentioned this in his past.

Don’t play with me angst!!

I’m starting to really worry for Mika you know… Like honestly, so far we never saw Mika’s seraph gene from activating, and I have a theory (I hope I’m wrong) that when Guren’s plan does succeeds in reviving everyone etc, which Yuu is with him…You see how happy he is…. when that time comes… something will happen, and I keep thinking Mika’s Seraph Gene will activate if they succeed… urgh…. :(

Like, this foreshadow you know… To teach Yuu a lesson…

And you know the angst… Yuu gets to revive everyone but he loses Mika … GOD, I HOPE I’M WRONG!!!!

Not like Mika want to leave Yuu, but you’re not yourself when your seraph gene takes control T.T (My heart for Mika if this plays true…)

Another of the thingies I was drawing for Halloween, equally quick.

LaraIzumi as Ladybug and Cat Noir because IC, and for my shippy feels needs♥

2

I had this idea for the longest time and finally got around to do it yay~

Some random info about this au:

Keith:

- Bandit cause he may be fast but he ain’t about that stealth life
- Galra Demons are a subspecies here okay?
- Keef takes a potion (provided by Pidge) to keep his demon genes under control
- A knife enthusiast

Lance:

- The only reason I can give for him being an elf is I really love elves, and I really love Lance.. so you can figure out the rest
- There are several types of elven communities; Lance comes from a small village hidden in mountains and the sea
- He and Keith have a diamond transmitter so they can talk whenever they want
- His mom knit his whole outfit

Shiro:

- Allura’s personal guard
- He’s so very tired
- Hunk made his crossbow arm (it also includes a snack compartment)
- Can’t wait for the day he can finally retire

Hunk:

- He isn’t so much about fighting, but he’ll be damned if he won’t make it easier for the others to be reckless fucks
- Runs a bakery in his spare time
- He actually knows how to fight pretty damn well and won’t hesitate to whoop asses if provoked
- Keeps Lance from getting arrested and Pidge from blowing up the palace

Pidge:

- Two words: “Book Goblin”
- Met Rover by accident trying to decipher an elder glyph (it’s also a coincidence that Rover is an owl? I drew this before finding out about her favorite animal and I’m still laughing)
- Rover is blind, but can help Pidge with reading ancient texts, breaking magical barriers and is an excellent guinea pig for potions
- Glasses are all for the aesthetic 

I am skinny
I am thin
It actually funny
Because I’m not scared to dig in


I am slim
I have no curve
according to him
I have nothing to serve


I am lean
I am scrawny
I can’t control what’s in my gene 
I’m not known for being brawny


I am slender
I am narrow
They say “she’s a pretender”
but my bones just have less marrow


I am feeble
I am weak
I could take advice from bigger people
and use plastic to “fix” my physique


I am skinny
I am thin
I have no curve
I am slim
I am real
and completely human.

—  girl2 original quote

anonymous asked:

hey I heard that you were recently talking about the 'dark DNA' ? can you briefly discuss it please?

Sure!

Basically, the so-called “dark DNA” is like dark matter: something that we know must be there, but we can’t see it or measure it directly.

There are a couple of genes that are essential for animals to be able to survive, such as those that regulate primary bodily functions. And yet, even though we know that certain animals must have certain genes - and even though we can see the results of those genes being present, like the chemical substances that they would control and produce - sometimes these genes appear to be missing from the animal’s genome.

That happened for example when a group of scientists analyzed the genome of the sand rat, a kind of desert gerbil. They saw that a group of more than 80 genes was missing, including a pivotal gene that controls the production of insulin in vertebrates. But the insulin was still being produced, meaning that those genes must be there. They are just undetectable.

Scientists found that these groups of genes actually had accumulated several mutations, so many in fact that they became hard for our current measurement techniques to detect. They called those genes “hotspots”.

The discovery of hotspots means that within an organism’s genome, some genes are much more susceptible to mutations that the ones surrounding them. The speed of those mutations compared to the usual speed in which genes change and its relation to natural selection means that hotspots of dark DNA may be an important and unappreciated driving force behind evolution.

(Source)

dransnake  asked:

I always assumed that Oreo was a sort of long-haired tuxedo cat.

Yes! Definitely! We do consider Oreo to be a Tuxedo cat. Tuxedo, however, is not a breed of cat. It just refers to the black and white coloring being in the form of a type of suit. Solid color bicolor cats occur because there is a white spotting gene along with a recessive allele (mutation) of the agouti gene (gene that controls the distribution of pigment). This can occur in various breeds as well as non-breeds.