control genes

Molecule of the Day: Folic acid

Folic acid (C19H19N7O6), also known as Vitamin B9, is a yellow powder that is insoluble in water under standard conditions. It is essential to metabolism and cell division, and is found in many fruits and vegetables.

Folic acid (in the form of tetrahydrofolate [THF], a metabolite) plays an integral role in methylation and other metabolic reactions by carrying one-carbon groups that react with other substrates. Additionally, it also is a key intermediate in the synthesis of purines and hence DNA via N10-formyl-THF (see diagram below).

It is also essential in the process of cell division, since the methylation and demethylation of DNA, which controls gene expression, and the synthesis of nitrogenous bases, which is required for DNA replication, are absolutely key to this process. 

Folic acid is commonly found as a food additive, as it lowers the probability of neural tube defects occurring in pregnant women. These are characterised by openings in the spinal cord or brain which fail to close during pregnancy, and can result in the death of the foetus. Hence, the fortification of cereal grains and other foods with folic acid is mandated by many governments.

The inhibition of dihydropteroate synthase, an enzyme that synthesises tetrahydrofolate, is one of the key mechanisms that antibacterial agents can target. Sulfonamides, which are similar in structure to 4-aminobenzoic acid, the natural substrate, are reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. As a result, insufficient folic acid is produced in bacteria, and they either stop dividing or die. 

This makes sulfonamides seem dangerous - wouldn’t this affect human cells as well? However, bacterial cells produce their own folic acid, whereas human cells do not; instead, we absorb it from our diet, while bacterial cells lack the ability to do so. As a result, sulfonamides selectively kill bacterial cells, leaving our cells intact and healthy.

Another of the thingies I was drawing for Halloween, equally quick.

LaraIzumi as Ladybug and Cat Noir because IC, and for my shippy feels needs♥

NSFW Headcanon Game

OBITO UCHIHA

A/N: Honestly sex with Obito can probably be summarized by IDFC by Blackbear. I’m also gonna level with you: I’ve written “mmmmmmm” in response to gifs, but I legitimately just did it out loud when I saw this gif. Forgive me Father, but I’m Bout To Sin™.

Favorite Position

Well, it all depends on the persona that he’s putting out. Who exactly does his lover know him as? If they’ve only ever been allowed to know Tobi, then the mask stays on. In that case, he’ll give all of himself to you once he’s inside you- and trust me, he’ll now what positions will do it for you. Imagine the shoulder holder, the hot spot, or the pole position. He will increase your stimulation, and often in this persona he will find it in himself to relinquish control (despite his Uchiha genes rearing their ugly head and itching to dominate).

If his S/O is special enough to know about his true personality, or was smart enough to figure it out on their own, then the mask is definitely not a necessity in the bedroom. In the case where a lover knows and he can have his face and mouth free, and he doesn’t have to control his voice, it’s like sleeping with an entirely different person. He loves to move you and change positions, but he will always favor having you faced towards him, where he can kiss you and look into your eyes. When you first start sleeping together he is bound to hide his face against you neck, or lower himself to give your chest some attention. This is because he has a fear that you’ll be repulsed by the scarring on his face, or that his eyes will scare you. He’ll probably put you in a dominant position to begin with, in case you decide that you don’t want what he’s offering you, but if you’re persistent than he tends to end up turning the table before the end. A few examples of what he’d favor include the cat, the cowgirl, and the face off positions.

Intimacy

Most would be surprised to know that he is the most intimate of all of the Uchihas. Especially after the events of his past, he actually is pretty good at disconnecting his emotions from the sex for fear of getting too attached, but the physical sensations and closeness still spur the parts of him that he tries to keep hidden away. His true intimacy lies in his kiss. No matter how he is taking you, even if it’s hard and rough, he will almost always be ready to kiss you, and you can read it all over his face. And when he kisses you, it’s an entire experience all on its own. You can hardly remember how it begins before you are clinging to him and fighting to follow his lead, because he kisses with such a mindless, natural passion. He’ll always leave you breathless, but you’ll have the same effect on him.

Kink

Marking, necking, restraint, offering. Another reason he’s the most intimate of the Uchihas is because his sexual appetite doesn’t include any dominating kinks, or many kinks in general. He’ll love a partner for their attitude, outlook, and overall soul moreso than anything they could offer him, so there isn’t much that turns him on outside of wanting to be close and physical with someone that he cares for.   On the other hand, he will happily explore any kinks that you reveal a desire for. He just doesn’t have many of his own.

X-Ray

He sits directly at average at six inches when erect. He has an average girth as well. He’s circumcised, as most ninja are. He has dark hair down there which he keeps immaculate, along with a perfectly trimmed treasure trail. He doesn’t have any overly prominent veins. He has a very slight curve to the left, but not many people really notice- that’s just a fact that Obito figured out for himself when he was younger out of curiosity. As far as genitals go, Obito’s are oddly nice looking, and a few lover’s have mentioned this in his past.

   every now and then, despite repulsion and attempts to repress growing impulses from true nature, there were be times when willpower won’t be enough and hiro will end up succumbing to primitive siren needs. with deadly yet beautiful oceans to seduce and drag victim ( in momentary replace of lacking divine chords ) and sharp denture wanting to ravish fresh human flesh. 

ellipticalgalaxy1: The namekian bewborn being very tiny sounds better cause it would be cute seeing the terrafied nervous look on Piccolo’s face holding something soo small compared to Pan when she was born, BUT as you said King Piccolo’s kids are mutants,even junior is included by his huge size when he hatched & how fast he and his brothers grew, so even if Piccolo has some control of the genes passing to his baby, there’s no guarantee his baby will be 100% normal like other namekians.

conceptcat: Well, I made Flute an average sized baby, Eli is smaller, Bass average, but chubby. Tempo is tiny, and the twins are Tempo’s size, but together in an average sized egg. Cello is huge…

As you may probably know, they’re all sexually produced. But, I think they’re all still doable/layable if I had them produced asexually. I’d imagine in either case, Cello would be hard to lay…but still manageable.

Despite their diversity in shapes and forms, the majority of Pokemon species seem to have seperate sexes, and reproduce via sexual reproduction. 

Despite having a very expansive genome and such radically different morphologies between eachother, Pokemon as a whole only have the amount of genetic diversity between eachother as just a single genus of animals. The genome of an Onyx compared to a Weepinbell is as different as that between a  husky and a coyote. A “species” of Pokemon is not determined by its nuclear DNA, but rather by specialized organelles outside the nucleus. These organelles seem to heavily regulate transcription of genetic information, and turn “off” large sections of the genome  and control which genes are expressed. 

Like how Mew contains “the genetic code of all pokemon”, so do all regular Pokemon too. The difference between a Pikachu and a Meowth isn’t nessesarily the differences between their genomes, but rather which parts of their genome do they express.

The organelles responsible for these differences in gene expression are also strictly inherited from the mother, in her egg cells (much like how we inherited mitochondria from our mother). This means while a Pokemon who’s mother is a Meowth and father is a Pikachu does have half the genes of both it’s parents, it will only inherit the organelles from it’s mother. Hence it’s “species” will be that of it’s mother, and will hatch as a Meowth regardless of it’s father.

So yes, using artificial insemination you can breed a Skitty and a Wailord together, but the babies will always come out as the mother’s species as opposed to some sort of hybrid that would kill a female skitty to produce.

anonymous asked:

As a man with a daughter, why are dad's so angrily protective of their daughters? (Which we often don't see with their sons)

There are two main reasons. The first is evolution. In our distant past males kept harems. That is, like many apes, they controlled their gene pool with violence. The second is cultural. Again this is an ancient behavior. Women have always been property. A marriageable daughter represented a kind of wealth and fathers jealously guarded them lest they be stolen by roguish, handsome young men with one thing on their minds. Young women being who they are fathers discovered that their efforts were often in vain but at least it made a good storyline for poems, books, and songs.

N6-methyladenine: A Newly Discovered Epigenetic Modification 

The majority of cellular functions are carried out by proteins encoded by specific genes present in cellular DNA. Genes are first transcribed to RNA which is then translated to proteins. The regulation of this process is important for maintaining correct cellular function. One of the ways that cells regulate gene expression is by epigenetic modifications to chromatin. The term “epigenetics” refers to reversible chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins (DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is wrapped around histones) that affect the transcriptional status of genes. A number of histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation of lysine residues have already been discovered and characterized. Until recently; however, methylation of the 5 position of cytosine was the only known epigenetic DNA modification (A). Methylation of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases is associated with transcriptional silencing, while the removal of these methyl groups by TET enzymes is associated with transcriptional re-activation (B and C). In addition to controlling gene silencing, cytosine methylation also silences retrotransposons, a class of mobile genetic elements. If left unregulated, transposons can insert themselves into important regions of the genome and lead to mutagenesis.

Recently, N6-methyladenine, a new epigenetic modification, was discovered in mammalian cells. N6-mA had previously been discovered in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes and was shown to function as a transcriptional activator. By contrast, a recent report published in Nature, has shown that N6-mA functions as a transcriptional silencer in mammalian cells, specifically in mouse embryonic stem cells. N6-mA primarily acts to silence the LINE-1 family of retrotransposons during early embryogenesis, which prevents genomic instability. The authors identified N6-mA by using a modified single molecule DNA sequencing technique. DNA bound to a specific modified histone protein was immunoprecipitated using an antibody against a specific histone modification (H2A.X), sequenced, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (D). This identified and determined the position of N6-mA. The authors then generated knockouts of the enzyme Alkbh1, which they believed may function as a demethylase for N6-mA. When Alkbh1 was absent from cells, they found an increase in the levels of N6-mA, showing that Alkbh1 functions as an N6-mA demethylase in vivo. This is important because epigenetic modifications are reversible. Genes can be turned off by methylation and then turned back on by removing the methyl group, so determining the enzyme responsible for the removal of N6-mA supports its role as an epigenetic modification.

For more information see:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature17640.html

As always, I’m happy to answer any questions or go into more detail.

2

How did we tame the Easter bunny?

Wild rabbits usually bolt when you go in for cuddles. Scientists have now discovered how they were transformed into the perfect pet.  

Wild rabbits have very strong reactions as they’re hunted by other animals and have to stay alert to survive in the wild.

“The difference between a wild and tame rabbit is not the genes they carry, but how the genes are controlled – when and how much of each gene is used in different cells. Gene developments, in particular those controlling the improvement of the brain and nervous system were key in transforming rabbits into the domestic kind found today.” Professor Federica Di Palma, The Genome Analysis Centre

The good news is that if your bunny goes walkabouts, tame rabbits can adapt rather quickly genetically, helping them to survive fearsome predators.

The domestication of plants and animals revolutionised agricultural development, and is one of the most important technological revolutions in mankind’s history. 

Read more

Image credit: Julochka (top), Max Elman (bottom)

In my opinion this looks like a time skip. Take a closer look.

 Yuu’s shirt is a little bit too small, and I think he looks older now.

 Mika looks happy. He’s smiling at Yuu, of course, but it looks different than just a plain smile. He looks thankful and a little protective. Not like he’s now; “mUST PROTECT PURE, WEAK YUU FROM FILTHY HUMANS!!1!”. He’s just smiling like “My little Yuu..” 

 And the wings. Oh my god. The wings. First, Mika’s got one. And they look like they’re in control, you know. Not like that horrible black thingy when Yuu went berserk. They just are there, chilling. (I’m kinda afraid tho: one wing is darker…)

 Maybe I’m overthinking, but what if Mika takes Yuu away with him? And they spend the time skip together, trying to learn how to control the Seraph gene.

 Because I believe that only thing that could make our Mika smile like that is Yuu. Well, spend a year with him? Surely it’ll make him smile. This is just a crazy idea, don’t mind me.

Study links epigenetic processes to the development of the cerebellar circuitry

From before birth through childhood, connections form between neurons in the brain, ultimately making us who we are. So far, scientists have gained a relatively good understanding of how neural circuits become established, but they know less about the genetic control at play during this crucial developmental process.

(Image caption: Crucial for connections: When the researchers reduced the activity of TET enzymes in developing granule cells, it impaired the cells’ ability to form connections. The granule cells (green) remained immature, with branches extending in only two directions)

Now, a team led by researchers at The Rockefeller University has described for the first time the so-called epigenetic mechanisms underlying the development of the cerebellum, the portion of the brain that allows us to learn and execute complex movements. The term epigenetics refers to changes to DNA that influence how and when genes are expressed.

“Until now, nobody knew what genes control the steps needed to make the circuitry that in turn controls the behavior the cerebellum is famous for,” says Mary E. Hatten, Frederick P. Rose Professor and head of the Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology. “Our study shows that pivotal changes in the levels of all epigenetic pathway genes are needed to form the circuits.”

These epigenetic pathway genes modify chromatin, which is DNA packaged with protein. Alterations to chromatin are an important type of epigenetic change because they affect which genes are available for translation into proteins.

Further investigation revealed that one of these epigenetic regulators was specifically responsible for processes crucial to forming connections between these neurons and other parts of the brain and for the expression of ion channels that transmit signals across synapses, which are gaps between neurons.

Simple structure, complex functions

The cerebellum is a relatively simple brain structure, yet its function is anything but simple. This part of the brain controls our ability to move; learn new motor skills, such as those required to play an instrument; and perceive the body’s position, motion, and equilibrium.

Hatten’s research on the development of the mammalian brain, including the cerebellum, has focused on two crucial stages: the birth of neurons and the migration of immature neurons to form the layers that are a basic structural element of this part of the brain. After the young neurons are in place, they send out branches, called dendrites, to connect to fibers from other parts of the brain, and establish ion channels, which make it possible for them to become electrically active.

Until now, no one knew how the genes that control these two processes were activated.

New ways to study gene activation

Two developments in technology made the current study possible. The first, TRAP, was developed at Rockefeller. It enables researchers to map gene expression in specific types of neurons. Hatten’s team applied this method to identify the genes expressed in granule cells, one of the two cell types that make up the cerebellum, in the mouse brain from birth through adulthood. They focused on changes in gene expression 12 to 21 days after birth, since this is the main period during which the circuitry of the cerebellum is formed.

The second key method used in the study is metagene analysis, a mathematical model developed at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard that allows researchers to study large sets of genes and see changes in patterns that would be too difficult to interpret by looking at individual genes. Three investigators from Broad collaborated on the current study. “Using this analytical tool, we showed that during this crucial period of time in development, all the pathways that control the remodeling of chromatin changed,” Hatten says.

A link to experience

The investigators continued by looking at the actions of one such epigenetic pathway, involving TET enzymes, which are known to make specific changes to chromatin that can switch on gene expression.

By activating these enzymes in embryonic stem cells that had differentiated into immature granule cells, the researchers could increase the expression of axon guidance and ion channel genes, “just as happens during normal development,” Hatten says. These two types of genes are critical for generating synaptic connections.

The opposite occurred when the genes for the TET enzymes were shut down. “The cells went through early development, but they didn’t extend the dendrites needed to make the connections that they should have made,” she says.

“We have long known that—through epigenetic changes—early occurrences in childhood, including events that result in stress or pain, can have a crucial effect on the brain later in life,” Hatten says. “These findings can help us begin to understand how those experiences can influence the connections and circuitry in the cerebellum.”

Tough and Competent

In remembrance of the Apollo 1 crew that was lost on the day, January 27, 1967, I will be adding a few photos. A quote,

’ From this day forward, Flight Control will be known by two words: Tough and Competent. Tough means we are forever accountable for what we do or what we fail to do. We will never again compromise our responsibilities… Competent means we will never take anything for granted… Mission Control will be perfect. When you leave this meeting today you will go to your office and the first thing you will do there is to write Tough and Competent on your blackboards. It will never be erased. Each day when you enter the room, these words will remind you of the price paid by Grissom, White, and Chaffee. These words are the price of admission to the ranks of Mission Control.’

Gene Kranz, speech given to Mission Control after the accident