constitutionals

2

Please leave your disgusting shit away from the Eliza Taylor and Clexa tag.

Eliza deserves better than you useless scum. You can hate her all you want. Just don’t tag her on Twitter. Don’t use her tag on Tumblr to spew out hate.

Go hate Eliza Taylor. Go unstan her. Go unfollow her in all social media.

But please, do not make random shit about Eliza having a mental illness. You don’t know her. You’ve never met her. If you have, meeting her for 2 minutes at a M&G or on the street does not constitute enough information for you to make a professional medical diagnosis.

You can be a medical professional and still require months, maybe even years to properly diagnose someone.

Do not equate having a mental illness as someone not wanting to talk about your ship. Do not equate having a mental illness as someone being tired of being asked the same shit over and over again. Do not equate having a mental illness as you not being satisfied and fed with a silver spoon by an actor.

Your heteronormative privelege is showing, kids. Eliza never pandered to Bellarke after Clexa had been introduced. YOU created all these expectations from Eliza. YOU expected her to start catering to YOUR WANTS. You think she OWES you but she doesn’t. You think you DESERVE to be pandered to because it’s what you’re used to.

The minute people stop catering to your wants, yout automatically cry “victim” and “bullying”.

No, child.
You are not the victim.
You are not being bullied.
For once, you are simply not the center of attention.

Unstan Eliza Taylor, I beg of you.

For once, go through with your empty words of unstanning Eliza and blocking her in all social media.

She doesn’t need disgusting people like you in her life or her career.

Let’s set aside the debate over canonicity for now, because 1) what constitutes as “canon” or not in Tales has always been loose for people, 2) others have done it already (this one is pretty good), and 3) I’m just not here for that, plain and simple.

I just want to talk about Sorey and Mikleo’s bond in the text.

Keep reading

I remembered labor history, too, because the first effective strikes by American working people for better pay, and more respect, and safer working conditions, were called against the railroads. And then against owners of coal mines and steel mills and textile mills, and on and on. Much blood was shed in what appeared to most members of my generation of American writers to be battles as worth fighting as any against a foreign enemy.

The optimism that infused so much of our writing was based on the belief that after the Magna Carta, and then the Declaration of Independence, and then the Bill of Rights, and then the Emancipation Proclamation, and then Article XIX of the Constitution, which in 1920 entitled women to vote, some scheme for economic justice could also be devised. That was the logical next step.

And even in 1996, I in speeches propose the following amendments to the Constitution:

Article XXVIII: Every newborn shall be sincerely welcomed and cared for until maturity.

Article XXIX: Every adult who needs it shall be given meaningful work to do, at a living wage.

What we have created instead, as customers and employees and investors, is mountains of paper wealth so enormous that a handful of people in charge of them can take millions and billions for themselves without hurting anyone. Apparently.

—  Kurt Vonnegut, Timequake (1997)
DORNIER DO-17

Do 17

The Do 17 was dubbed “flying pencil” because of its shape. Designed in 1934, it was a postal service aircraft for Lufthansa, even though tests were secretly being made to use it as a bomber aircraft (remember after the First World War, Germany was not allowed to constitute an air force, so all airplanes had to be used as if they were only for civil purposes).

Delivered to the Luftwaffe, the Do 17 was engaged in combat during the Civil War in Spain (1936-1937). Later, during the Blitzkrieg at the beginning of World War 2, the aircraft was used in masse – in particular against Poland and France. But during the Battle of Britain, it became clear that it could not be a match for the Allied fighter aircrafts. In 1943, the German took this medium bomber off the front lines and used it for secondary tasks, mainly as a transport airplane.

Specifications

Type:

   Medium Bomber    

Crew:

   4 to 5    

Powerplant:

   Two 1,000 hp (746 kW) BMW Bramo 323P Fafnir 9-cylinder single row radial engines    

Max speed:

   255 mph (410 km/h)    

Ceiling:

   26,905 ft (8200 m)    

Range:

   721 miles (1160 km) with full bombload    

Weight (empty):

   11,464 lbs (5200 kg)    

Weight (loaded):

   15,520 lbs (7040 kg)    

Wingspan:

   59 ft ½ in (18.00 m)    

Length:

   51 ft 10 in (15.80 m)    

Height:

   14 ft 11 in (4.55 m)    

Armament:

   Up to seven 7.92 mm (0.31 in) Rheinmetall MG 15 trainable machine guns in the windscreen, nose, dorsal and ventral postions plus an internal bombload of 2,205 lbs (1000 kg)  

I’m seeing a lot of arguing over Ezria - over what is the age of consent, what constitutes statutory rape, whether or not Aria was manipulated by Ezra or really loves him, etc. Here are the facts:

In the state of Pennsylvania (where the show takes place) “People aged 16 and older can legally consent to sexual activity with anyone they choose, as long as the other person does not have authority over them as defined in Pennsylvania’s institutional sexual assault statute.” This is taken directly from the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape website. Please note the caveat “as long as the other person does not have authority over them,” because Ezra clearly has authority over Aria as her teacher. So legally, Aria cannot consent to a relationship with Ezra as his 16-year-old student.

So not only is this relationship illegal, but morally reprehensible as well. Ezra stalked Aria. The show has never argued otherwise. He sought out a 16 year old girl and her friends and intentionally put himself in a position of power over them for the purpose of writing a book. He paid people to follow her and take pictures of her. He knew her secrets and manipulated and lied to her throughout their relationship for his own selfish gain. He knew she was going through hell and he had information that could potentially help her, and he did not. The show tried to make all of this right by having him take a bullet for her.

Fast forward five years later and Liam actually BRINGS UP THE FACT that Aria was seduced by her teacher, which is wrong, and she defends it. The show MAKES NO EFFORT to hide the fact that everything about Ezra and Aria’s relationship is wrong, but that somehow their love can overcome pesky corruption of minor laws and stalking underage girls.

I say all of these things not to hate on your ship, because I really don’t hate Ezria. I think Ian and Lucy, as adults, have incredible chemistry. BUT I would hate to think that any young girls look at this relationship and think it’s in any way okay. If Aria were my real life friend I would fight to get her as far away from Ezra as possible.

washingtonpost.com
WaPo editorial: Donald Trump is a unique threat to American democracy
He is unfit for the presidency and cannot be endorsed.
By https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpostopinions

DONALD J. TRUMP, until now a Republican problem, this week became a challenge the nation must confront and overcome. The real estate tycoon is uniquely unqualified to serve as president, in experience and temperament. He is mounting a campaign of snarl and sneer, not substance. To the extent he has views, they are wrong in their diagnosis of America’s problems and dangerous in their proposed solutions. Mr. Trump’s politics of denigration and division could strain the bonds that have held a diverse nation together. His contempt for constitutional norms might reveal the nation’s two-century-old experiment in checks and balances to be more fragile than we knew.

Any one of these characteristics would be disqualifying; together, they make Mr. Trump a peril. We recognize that this is not the usual moment to make such a statement. In an ordinary election year, we would acknowledge the Republican nominee, move on to the Democratic convention and spend the following months, like other voters, evaluating the candidates’ performance in debates, on the stump and in position papers. This year we will follow the campaign as always, offering honest views on all the candidates. But we cannot salute the Republican nominee or pretend that we might endorse him this fall. A Trump presidency would be dangerous for the nation and the world.

Why are we so sure? Start with experience. It has been 64 years since a major party nominated anyone for president who did not have electoral experience. That experiment turned out pretty well — but Mr. Trump, to put it mildly, is no Dwight David Eisenhower. Leading the Allied campaign to liberate Europe from the Nazis required strategic and political skills of the first order, and Eisenhower — though he liked to emphasize his common touch as he faced the intellectual Democrat Adlai Stevenson — was shrewd, diligent, humble and thoughtful.

[Read the transcript of Donald Trump’s interview with The Washington Post editorial board]

In contrast, there is nothing on Mr. Trump’s résumé to suggest he could function successfully in Washington. He was staked in the family business by a well-to-do father and has pursued a career marked by some real estate successes, some failures and repeated episodes of saving his own hide while harming people who trusted him. Given his continuing refusal to release his tax returns, breaking with a long bipartisan tradition, it is only reasonable to assume there are aspects of his record even more discreditable than what we know.

The lack of experience might be overcome if Mr. Trump saw it as a handicap worth overcoming. But he displays no curiosity, reads no books and appears to believe he needs no advice. In fact, what makes Mr. Trump so unusual is his combination of extreme neediness and unbridled arrogance. He is desperate for affirmation but contemptuous of other views. He also is contemptuous of fact. Throughout the campaign, he has unspooled one lie after another — that Muslims in New Jersey celebrated after 9/11, that his tax-cut plan would not worsen the deficit, that he opposed the Iraq War before it started — and when confronted with contrary evidence, he simply repeats the lie. It is impossible to know whether he convinces himself of his own untruths or knows that he is wrong and does not care. It is also difficult to know which trait would be more frightening in a commander in chief.

Given his ignorance, it is perhaps not surprising that Mr. Trump offers no coherence when it comes to policy. In years past, he supported immigration reform, gun control and legal abortion; as candidate, he became a hard-line opponent of all three. Even in the course of the campaign, he has flip-flopped on issues such as whether Muslims should be banned from entering the United States and whether women who have abortions should be punished . Worse than the flip-flops is the absence of any substance in his agenda. Existing trade deals are “stupid,” but Mr. Trump does not say how they could be improved. The Islamic State must be destroyed, but the candidate offers no strategy for doing so. Eleven million undocumented immigrants must be deported, but Mr. Trump does not tell us how he would accomplish this legally or practically.

What the candidate does offer is a series of prejudices and gut feelings, most of them erroneous. Allies are taking advantage of the United States. Immigrants are committing crimes and stealing jobs. Muslims hate America. In fact, Japan and South Korea are major contributors to an alliance that has preserved a peace of enormous benefit to Americans. Immigrants commit fewer crimes than native-born Americans and take jobs that no one else will. Muslims are the primary victims of Islamist terrorism, and Muslim Americans, including thousands who have served in the military, are as patriotic as anyone else.

[Fareed Zakaria: America would be Trump’s banana republic]

The Trump litany of victimization has resonated with many Americans whose economic prospects have stagnated. They deserve a serious champion, and the challenges of inequality and slow wage growth deserve a serious response. But Mr. Trump has nothing positive to offer, only scapegoats and dark conspiracy theories. He launched his campaign by accusing Mexico of sending rapists across the border, and similar hatefulness has surfaced numerous times in the year since.

In a dangerous world, Mr. Trump speaks blithely of abandoning NATO, encouraging more nations to obtain nuclear weapons and cozying up to dictators who in fact wish the United States nothing but harm. For eight years, Republicans have criticized President Obama for “apologizing” for America and for weakening alliances. Now they put forward a candidate who mimics the vilest propaganda of authoritarian adversaries about how terrible the United States is and how unfit it is to lecture others. He has made clear that he would drop allies without a second thought. The consequences to global security could be disastrous.

Most alarming is Mr. Trump’s contempt for the Constitution and the unwritten democratic norms upon which our system depends. He doesn’t know what is in the nation’s founding document. When asked by a member of Congress about Article I, which enumerates congressional powers, the candidate responded, “I am going to abide by the Constitution whether it’s number 1, number 2, number 12, number 9.” The charter has seven articles.

Worse, he doesn’t seem to care about its limitations on executive power. He has threatened that those who criticize him will suffer when he is president. He has vowed to torture suspected terrorists and bomb their innocent relatives, no matter the illegality of either act. He has vowed to constrict the independent press. He went after a judge whose rulings angered him, exacerbating his contempt for the independence of the judiciary by insisting that the judge should be disqualified because of his Mexican heritage. Mr. Trump has encouraged and celebrated violence at his rallies. The U.S. democratic system is strong and has proved resilient when it has been tested before. We have faith in it. But to elect Mr. Trump would be to knowingly subject it to threat.

Mr. Trump campaigns by insult and denigration, insinuation and wild accusation: Ted Cruz’s father was involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; Hillary Clinton may be guilty of murder; Mr. Obama is a traitor who wants Muslims to attack. The Republican Party has moved the lunatic fringe onto center stage, with discourse that renders impossible the kind of substantive debate upon which any civil democracy depends.

Most responsible Republican leaders know all this to be true; that is why Mr. Trump had to rely so heavily on testimonials by relatives and employees during this week’s Republican convention. With one exception (Bob Dole), the living Republican presidents and presidential nominees of the past three decades all stayed away. But most current officeholders, even those who declared Mr. Trump to be an unthinkable choice only months ago, have lost the courage to speak out.

The party’s failure of judgment leaves the nation’s future where it belongs, in the hands of voters. Many Americans do not like either candidate this year . We have criticized the presumptive Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the past and will do so again when warranted. But we do not believe that she (or the Libertarian and Green party candidates, for that matter) represents a threat to the Constitution. Mr. Trump is a unique and present danger.

The Washington Post Editorial Board is right to say that Donald Trump is an unique threat to American democracy. Hopefully he loses in November.

h/t: Washington Post Editorial Board

bipartisanreport.com
Washington Post Runs UNPRECEDENTED Full Page Editorial On The Dangers Of A Trump Presidency
The Washington Post ran a full-page editorial today extolling the dangers of a Donald Trump presidency. Call it liberal media, but it's dead-on.
By Bipartisan Report

The piece hit on many topics: Trump’s playing on the racist and xenophobic undercurrent in GOP voter stances, his debilitating lack of experience or willingness to listen and learn, his wildly dangerous and improbable solutions to all the wrong problems, and his complete ignorance about the constitution.

The article cannot be printed here in its entirety, but here are some of the highlights.

‘Donald J. Trump, until now a Republican problem, this week became a challenge the nation must confront and overcome. The real estate tycoon is uniquely unqualified to serve as president, in experience and temperament. He is mounting a campaign of snarl and sneer, not substance. To the extent he has views, they are wrong in their diagnosis of America’s problems and dangerous in their proposed solutions. Mr. Trump’s politics of denigration and division could strain the bonds that have held a diverse nation together. His contempt for constitutional norms might reveal the nation’s two-century-old experiment in checks and balances to be more fragile than we knew […]

‘There is nothing on Mr. Trump’s résumé to suggest he could function successfully in Washington. He was staked in the family business by a well-to-do father and has pursued a career marked by some real estate successes, some failures and Repeated episodes of saving his own hide while harming people who trusted him. Given his continuing refusal to release his tax returns, breaking with a long bipartisan tradition, it is only reasonable to assume there are aspects of his record even more discreditable than what we know.

‘Given his ignorance, it is perhaps not surprising that Mr. Trump offers no coherence when it comes to policy. In years past, he supported immigration reform, gun control and Legal abortion; as candidate, he became a hard-line opponent of all three. Even in the course of the campaign, he has flip-flopped on issues such as whether Muslims should be banned from entering the United States and whether women who have abortions should be punished. Worse than the flip-flops is the absence of any substance in his agenda. Existing Trade deals are “stupid,” but Mr. Trump does not say how they could be improved. The Islamic State must be destroyed, but the candidate offers no strategy for doing so. Eleven million undocumented immigrants must be deported, but Mr. Trump does not tell us how he would accomplish this legally or practically.

‘What the candidate does offer is a series of prejudices and gut feelings, most of them erroneous. Allies are taking advantage of the United States. Immigrants are committing crimes and stealing jobs. Muslims hate America. In fact, Japan and South Korea are major contributors to an alliance that has preserved a peace of enormous benefit to Americans. Immigrants commit fewer crimesthan native-born Americans and take jobs that no one else will. Muslims are the primary victims of Islamist terrorism, and Muslim Americans, including thousands who have served in the military, are as patriotic as anyone else […]

‘Mr. Trump campaigns by insult and denigration, insinuation and wild accusation: Ted Cruz’s father was involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; Hillary Clinton may be guilty of murder; Mr. Obama is a traitor who wants Muslims to attack. The Republican Party has moved the lunatic fringe onto center stage, with discourse that renders impossible the kind of substantive debate upon which any civil democracy depends […]

‘The party’s failure of judgment leaves the nation’s future where it belongs, in the hands of voters. Many Americans do not like either candidate this year . We have criticized the presumptive Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the past and will do so again when warranted. But we do not believe that she (or the Libertarian and Green party candidates, for that matter) represents a threat to the Constitution. Mr. Trump is a unique and present danger.’

OOC shenanigans as IC?

So, last night, I got into an argument with another SI:7 RPer about what constitutes IC evidence. This player in particular was taking the recent phenomenon of people killing their toons (OOCly) in order to get all the doomsayer pamphlets as an IC evidence of mass suicides caused by the Doomsayers. Of course, people can RP how they wish, I won’t stop them. But this was an odd occurrence, since it was an attempt to turn OOC silliness into IC content, and not necessarily IC content that people recognize. (I personally did not, and the other individuals I was involved with were hesitant to do so.)

Personally, I view it in the same light as the OOC weird cow worship that kept spreading across Stormwind. I viewed it as mostly OOC, and as such, was not gonna write about it in the Courier. But I have to wonder about whether that is smart….. So I am poking Tumblr’s collective consciousness; are any of you RPing events like that as IC things that affect your character? Or just tuning it out so you can focus on your stories?

this is a request based on honest curiosity.

ok so
karma and irelia start cracking down on the council from within dealing with the cabal that released Jhin

they realize Ionia is unable to be governed with such a weak political frame so they resolve to make a more authoritative constitution. doing this means not only conquering the other elders, but also dealing with Zed, who’s amassed a considerable following in the meantime

invariably the biggest variable in this struggle is Syndra. both sides want her to tip the scales. Irelia tries to convince her that she’s reforming Ionia and doing away with the system of elders that restrained her in the first place. Zed does the same, but promises her considerable more power and freedom.

At this time, Bard intercedes. He encases Syndra in stasis and takes her up to the celestial plane temporarily, where she has to watch the conflict. Eventually, he will allow her to make a choice - but she has to work at gaining information behind the motives of both sides. She’s sent back down to Runeterra from time to time as a watching spirit, unable to directly influence anything in her spectator form. (She can communicate with Zed and Irelia/Karma tho)

In return, Bard agrees to further cultivate her power in the celestial realm. When her time comes to affect Runeterra, she has to make her choice - order, or chaos? Light, or darkness? Irelia, or Zed?

This concludes my terrible written in the car ideas for Ionia

Edit: oh man I had ideas for Jhin and Shen to be in this conflict too but I can only write so much in the car

Edit 2: THERE IS NO PROPER SIDE Syndra’s supposed to destroy both of them for trying too hard to ‘win’

Because they are constituted by and through a culture that is itself fractured and contradictory, girls can also move about within that culture, they can contingently marshal one cultural strategy or practice against another. This means that girls do have the resources to think critically about mass culture. But those resources do not exist outside the already existing culture. They are themselves always already cultural.

This means that the political interventions we would design must address girls on their own ground. It simply will not do to lecture “just say no” when girls have already learned to inhabit a sexualized, tightly tank-topped body. Rather, we must engage girls in the conversations they have already started both within and among themselves. We must seek to understand what girls already know. And what they seem to know, better than the adults who would address them, is that change is constant, multiplicity can be generative, and contradiction, rather than a form of stasis to be feared, is something more like a matrix that is endlessly generative.

—  Janice Radway, “Girls, Zines, and the Miscellaneous Production of Subjectivity in an Age of Unceasing Circulation” (x)

anonymous asked:

See, people in the ace community seem to understand that straightness is a position of power, but many misunderstand what exactly constitutes straight privilege. Hence why there are baffling statements like "straight people are cisgender heteromantic heterosexuals". I'm not sure where people got the idea that you have to be cis to be straight, but I'm guessing it came from the notion that no straight person could ever experience transphobia, because straight = immune to discrimination, right?

I’ve said this before but like “a is for ace” ppl seem to have learned everything about privilege, gender, sexuality, and oppression from a game of sleep deprived telephone.

I don’t understand anything anymore.

anonymous asked:

Hello! I'd like to know if using Palo Santo is cultural appropriation, I recently bought some and I dont know if it has a significance in a culture that is closed to others.

Hi, Anon

Palo Santo (x) is a group of different species of wood that are used in numerous indigenous rituals in many south American countries (this is possibly less true of the lignum vitae species).

While I have not seen something written by an indigenous person using Palo Santo regarding this issue, probably because it’s not widespread yet, I found this reaction (x). It is likely that the cultural significance of the tree itself (its name literally means “sacred wood”) constitutes cultural appropriation for non-indigenous people.

Moreover, some species of Palo Santo are endangered.(x) (x) (x)

~~Mod Allie

thinkprogress.org
Virginia Governor Bypasses Court Ruling To Help 200,000 Ex-Felons Vote
He's signing clemency grants for the state's ex-offenders one by one.

In a 4 to 3 decision late Friday, the Supreme Court of Virginia stripped away the voting rights from 200,000 ex-offenders who had recently regained full civil rights through one of McAuliffe’s executive orders, effectively disenfranchising one in five of the state’s African American voters.

The court said the governor lacks the authority under the state constitution to issue a blanket rights restoration to everyone in the state with a felony record who has already served their full sentence. A study earlier this year found that the vast majority of those impacted — 80 percent — committed non-violent crimes. Most have been out of prison for more than a decade, and African Americans are disproportionately represented. Forty-six percent of the ex-offenders are black, though blacks make up less than 20 percent of the state’s population.

The non-partisan group that has for months been leading the charge on registering ex-offenders to vote, New Virginia Majority, released a statement saying the ruling “reaffirms the Commonwealth’s Jim Crow legacy,” noting that the vast majority of states restore voting rights upon release from prison.

“Excluding Virginians from the ballot, even after they’ve paid their debts to society, is a cruel, inhumane reminder of past mistakes,” said Tram Nguyen, the group’s executive director. “Importantly, today’s ruling validates entrenched interests in the Virginia General Assembly bent on silencing a large swath of Black Virginians in order to maximize their political power.”

But just hours after the decision, McAuliffe vowed to push back by signing clemency grants for the state’s ex-offenders one by one.

The only other states with similar lifetime bans on voting are Florida, where 1 in 4 African Americans can’t vote, and Kentucky where 1 in 20 people statewide can’t vote, or roughly 1 in 6 African Americans can’t.

So You’re Going To Arendelle!

Part One

[I wanted to write down some of the background/headcanons for the Her Heart universe. So here they are, in a convenient travel guide.]

Congratulations! You have been selected to be part of a diplomatic mission to Arendelle. Here are some things to know, to make your mission more effective and more pleasant.

Customs And Culture:
Arendelle is notoriously egalitarian. The royalty and nobles are known to mingle with the common citizens without ceremony, shopping and dining in cafes, visiting public parks, and so on. On one occasion, in a spontaneous display of solidarity, Oueen Elsa and Princess Anna themselves installed a water pump in a public square in the capital. The castle, (never “palace”), while a beautiful example of Arendellan architechture, is not nearly so grand as one would expect in someplace like the Southern Isles.

Although the sovereign is required by the constitution to be a member of the Lutheran Church Of Arendelle, religious freedom is both legal and accepted.

Many of the unique customs of the Arendellans (never “Arendellians” or “Arendellers”) stem from the reforms of King Astrid of the late 17th Century. Princess Astrid was the only heir to the throne at a time when only a king could be declared ruler. Rather than having a regent, or marrying a noble, she chose to take the title of King Astrid the First. She decreed that both kings and queens would be equally eligible to rule, and that primogeniture would be strictly followed without regards to gender. (Nonetheless she chose to remain King Astrid, even after marrying.) Uniquely among European kingdoms, she decreed that the family name “of Arendelle” would be adopted by anyone marrying into the royal family, male or female. Thus, when she finally married her husband, Prince Arne Saxe-Coburg, he became Prince Arne of Arendelle. Informally adopted, but continuing to this day, in Arendelle the word “ma'am” is used as a term of respect to any female, married or unmarried. Use it whenever “sir” would be used for a male. Thus, after having been introduced to the queen or her sister, one would address either of them as “ma'am”. Likewise, your servants would address any woman they serve, or any higher-ranking female servant, as “ma’am.”

Food And Drink:
Lutefisk is a food of the Skadinavian countries in general, not just Arendelle, but its consumption is a point of pride there. It consists of whitefish preserved in lye, then rinsed to near-edibility. If you can politely do so, decline. If it is inevitable, it may be possible to prepare oneself by adding small amounts of soap to one’s food, gradually increasing as one’s tolerance builds up.

At the other end of the scale, the recent introduction of solid chocolate has taken the castle and the capital by storm. When Arendellans refer to “chocolate” they mean the candy, not the beverage as one would expect. If you want chocolate, ask for “hot chocolate” or “cocoa”. If you can, try the chocolate-covered marzipan. Unless Princess Anna is present, in which case it would be wise to offer her yours.

Queen Elsa has been engaged in encouraging local production (more about this later), including preserved and processed foods. Their pickled fish and smoked eel are both excellent, as well as their lingonberry preserves. To win favour, do not pass up an opportunity to praise either. Fortunately you will not have to exaggerate.

In addition to a selection of good wines and excellent beers, a common drink in Arendelle (and other Skadinavian countries) is akvavit. It is an extremely potent distilled grain alcohol, typically flavoured with caraway or dill and other herbs. It is served ice cold, in shot glasses, and is deceptively strong. Use caution, especially in diplomatic contexts. A tiny glass of akvavit is equivalent to a full glass of wine or a mug of beer.

It is considered bad form to choke or gasp after drinking akvavit, or to follow it too quickly with a drink of beer or water. Brace yourself.

« La traite des Noirs remonte à des temps immémoriaux. Plusieurs siècles durant, elle a alimenté en esclaves l'Afrique du Nord et le Proche-Orient, à l'instigation et au profit des pays musulmans. « C'est au VIIe siècle de notre ère, souligne Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, avec la conquête arabe, que la traite des Noirs a véritablement été inventée. La constitution d'une vaste entité territoriale musulmane a conduit à l'augmentation de la demande en main-d'oeuvre servile et, parmi les tributs imposés aux populations soumises, certains commencèrent à être acquittés en captifs noirs. »1 Une autre historienne, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, dresse le même constat : « La traite vers l'océan Indien ou la Méditerranée est bien antérieure à l'irruption des Européens sur le continent. »2

En dix siècles, les Arabes auront ainsi déporté 12 millions de Noirs. Capturés au cours de raids effectués à l'intérieur du continent, les prisonniers étaient regroupés en caravanes, où le taux de mortalité était effroyable, et dirigés vers la mer pour être vendus. En Afrique du Centre-Est, la route des esclaves franchissait d'immenses étendues désertiques, puis débouchait à Khartoum, au Soudan, pour remonter le Nil. Sur la côte orientale, c'est le port de Zanzibar (dans l'actuelle Tanzanie) qui servait de marché aux esclaves à destination de la péninsule Arabique, de la Perse et de l'Inde. Du Mozambique à la Somalie, cette côte était colonisée par le sultanat d'Oman. En 1840, cette principauté musulmane fera de Zanzibar sa capitale, tant la traite des esclaves formera la base de sa puissance.

En Méditerranée, les pirates turcs d'Alger – les barbaresques – réduisaient en esclavage les chrétiens qu'ils capturaient, tout en s'efforçant de les revendre aux ordres religieux spécialisés dans ce rachat. On comptera en permanence de 25 000 à 30 000 prisonniers chrétiens au sud de la Méditerranée.

Au XIXe siècle, les États européens abolissent un à un la traite et l'esclavage. Les pays musulmans, eux, n'abandonnent nullement ce commerce. D'autant moins que, au sein de l'Afrique, l'époque précoloniale est marquée par de grands bouleversements. Au sud, vers 1810-1820, l'Empire zoulou se constitue au prix d'immenses massacres. À l'ouest, l'expansion des peuples noirs islamisés ravage un territoire compris entre le lac Tchad et l'océan Atlantique. À chaque fois, des tribus entières sont réduites à l'état servile, et vendues. Au nord, les esclavagistes de Libye, traversant le Sahara, effectuant des razzias en direction du sud, dépeuplant l'actuelle République centrafricaine. Dans l'Est africain, vers 1810-1815, les musulmans pénètrent à l'intérieur du continent à partir de Zanzibar, créant des centres esclavagistes qui s'étendent jusqu'au fleuve Congo. C'est là, en 1866, que Tippo-Tip, un potentat arabe, se taille un royaume fondé sur la chasse aux esclaves, écumant les actuels États de Somalie, Ethiopie, Kenya, Ouganda, Tanzanie, Burundi, République démocratique du Congo, Malawi et Mozambique. »

Jean Sévillia, Historiquement Correct

1. Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, L’Histoire, novembre 1997

2. « Le temps des colonies », Les Collections de l’Histoire, avril 2001

CSONTVÁRY KOSZTKA, Tivadar

Hungarian painter (b. 1853, Kisszeben, d. 1919, Budapest)

Trees in Electric Light at Jajce

1903

Oil on canvas, 92 x 88 cm

Magyar Nemzeti Galéria, Budapest

By 1902-03 the years of preparation were over and Csontváry started to paint his series of major works. In his landscapes and city-scapes he struggled with the representation of the complex problem of lighting and colors at dawn. The dramatic contrast between natural and artificial lights, between light and shade in Nature appeared in his compositions as a demonic battle. This painting is also a peculiar mixture of dream and reality. The figures, houses, lights and shades do not belong to the sphere of reality, they constitute a part of Csonváry’s personal world.