conquest of greece

Mare Nostrum (Latin for “Our Sea”) was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. In the years following the unification of Italy in 1861, the term was revived by Italian nationalists who believed that Italy was the successor state to the Roman Empire. The term originally was used by Romans to refer to the Tyrrhenian Sea, following their conquest of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica during the Punic Wars with Carthage. By 30 BC, Roman domination extended from the Iberian Peninsula to Egypt, and Mare Nostrum began to be used in the context of the whole Mediterranean Sea. The rise of Italian nationalism during the “Scramble for Africa” of the 1880s led to calls for the establishment of an Italian colonial empire. The phrase was revived by the Italian poet Gabriele d'Annunzio. 

The term was then again used by Benito Mussolini in fascist propaganda, in a similar manner to Adolf Hitler’s concept of “Lebensraum”. Mussolini wanted to re-establish the greatness of the Roman Empire and believed that Italy was the most powerful of the Mediterranean countries after WW1. He declared that “the twentieth century will be a century of Italian power” and created one of the most powerful navies of the world in order to control the Mediterranean Sea. When WW2 started Italy was already a major Mediterranean power that controlled the north and south shores of the central basin. After the fall of France removed the main threat from the west, the British Mediterranean Fleet, with bases in UK-controlled Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, Egypt, and Palestine remained the only threat to Italian naval power in the Mediterranean. The invasions of Albania, Greece, and Egypt, and the Siege of Malta sought to extend Axis control over the Sea. Mussolini dreamed of creating an Imperial Italy in his “Mare Nostrum” and promoted the fascist project - to be realized in a future peace conference after the anticipated Axis victory - of an enlarged Italian Empire, stretching from the Mediterranean shores of Egypt to the Indian Ocean shores of Somalia and eastern Kenya. He referred to making the Mediterranean Sea “an Italian lake”. This aim, however, was challenged throughout the campaign by the Allied navies at sea and the Allied armies and resistance movements on land. For example, Greece had easily been incorporated into the Roman Empire, but the new Greek state proved to be too powerful for Italian conquest, and Greece remained independent until German forces arrived to assist the Italian invasion. Despite periods of Axis ascendancy during the Battle of the Mediterranean it was never realized, and ended altogether with the final Italian defeat of September 1943. 

Following the 2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck, the Italian government, has decided to strengthen the national system for the patrolling of the Mediterranean Sea by authorizing “Operation Mare Nostrum”, a military and humanitarian operation in order to rescue the migrants and arrest the traffickers of immigrants.

heroineimages  asked:

Hi Jason! Hey, so I was looking back over your pirate list from the other day, and I was wondering, are you familiar with Queen Teuta of Illyria? She was a pirate queen during the Early Roman Republic who used her navy and privateers to harass Greek and Roman shipping on the Adriatic. Polybius's Histories contains the most extensive surviving account of her exploits, and Philip Matyszak discusses her in Roman Conquests: Macedonia and Greece. Thought you might find her interesting. Cheers!

Yes, Teuta is on the list! There were a bunch I left off, since I was trying to focus on WoC - Rusla and Stikla and many of the Viking sorts also didn’t make the list.

I just need to find a way to amplify my production schedule, too many people to cover and I’m too slow in making these things…!

The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae (“The Hot Gates”). The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. The Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, and simultaneously block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium.

A Greek force of approximately 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the middle of 480 BC. The Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered over one million, but today considered to have been much smaller, arrived at the pass in late August or early September. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days (including three of battle) before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history’s most famous last stands. During two full days of battle, the small force led by Leonidas blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day, a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing that a small path led behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans, and perhaps a few hundred others, most of whom were killed.

At Artemisium, the Greek navy, under the command of the Athenian politician Themistocles, received news of the defeat. Since the Greek strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, it was decided to withdraw to Salamis. The Persians overran Boeotia and then captured the evacuated Athens. The Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the Persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearful of being trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia (losing most to starvation and disease), leaving Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest of Greece. However, the following year saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion.

Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil. The performance of the defenders is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.

Source: Wikipedia

Art:  Leonidas at Thermopylae, (Jacques-Louis David, 1814, oil on canvas, 395 cm × 531 cm, Louvre)

anonymous asked:

Why, would you say, the battle of Salamis (480 BC) was significant?

Besides sounding like a delicious snack? It disheartened Xerxes enough to leave Greece and return to Persia, putting a less-competent general in charge of the conquest of Greece. He failed, Greece city-states remained independent and started fighting among themselves instead, and the western world as we know it today evolved from there.