confederate-states

White Southerners certainly weren’t states’ rights doctrinaires. They were perfectly fine with an aggressive federal government if it worked to preserve slavery. They had no objection when Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring free states to aid in the return of runaway slaves — overriding many of those states’ own laws. When South Carolina issued its secession ordinance in 1860, it even complained that Northern states had passed laws nullifying the Fugitive Slave Act; complained, in other words, that Northern states were refusing to obey the federal government! It was only when the federal government threatened the institution of slavery that the Southern elite invoked states’ rights.
—  William Black, in this article
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Crowd cheers as New Orleans removes third Confederate monument

  • Early Wednesday, a crowd of onlookers cheered as New Orleans removed a monument to General Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard, a military hero of the slave-owning Confederate States of America.
  • The monument is the third of four monuments to the Confederacy scheduled to be removed from the city.
  • “Today we take another step in defining our city not by our past but by our bright future,“ Mitch Landrieu, mayor of New Orleans, said in a press release, "While we must honor our history, we will not allow the Confederacy to be put on a pedestal in the heart of New Orleans.” Read more (5/17/17)

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Mississippi lawmaker Karl Oliver wants to lynch people who take down Confederate monuments

  • Mississippi state Rep. Karl Oliver learned of New Orleans’ successful effort to remove Confederate monuments from public spaces, and he wanted to do one thing to the people responsible: lynch them.
  • “The destruction of these monuments, erected in the loving memory of our family and fellow southern Americans, is both heinous and horrific,” the GOP politician wrote Saturday on his Facebook page.  
  • According to the Jackson Free Press, Oliver’s message was “liked” by state Republican representatives John Read and Doug McLeod.
  • The Facebook post also drew at least one Twitter rebuke from a Democratic member of the state’s House of Representatives. Read more (5/22/17)

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St. Louis wants to take down a Confederate statue. But residents will have to pay extra.

  • Elected leaders in St. Louis say they want to move a 103-year-old Confederate monument that sits in one of the city’s public parks.
  • The catch? The city won’t use taxpayers’ dollars to do it.
  • If residents want to rid Forest Park of the symbol of racism and white supremacy, they can donate to a GoFundMe campaign started by St. Louis Treasurer Tishaura Jones.
  •  Over the last few years, two sitting mayors claimed the city simply can’t afford to move the 32-foot-tall granite and bronze statue depicting Missourian families who sent their young men to fight for pro-slavery Confederate states during the Civil War. Read more. (5/27/17, 11:25 AM)
On The Civil War: It Was About Slavery

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery but over…..” Whenever someone rolls out this argument, especially in reference to racism in America, they are either intentionally trying to whitewash history or are completely ignorant of it. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. Here is what they wrote in their articles of secession:

“We assert that fourteen of the States have deliberately refused, for years past, to fulfill their constitutional obligations, and we refer to their own Statutes for the proof.

The Constitution of the United States, in its fourth Article, provides as follows:

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

This stipulation was so material to the compact, that without it that compact would not have been made. The greater number of the contracting parties held slaves, and they had previously evinced their estimate of the value of such a stipulation by making it a condition in the Ordinance for the government of the territory ceded by Virginia, which now composes the States north of the Ohio River.

The same article of the Constitution stipulates also for rendition by the several States of fugitives from justice from the other States. The General Government, as the common agent, passed laws to carry into effect these stipulations of the States. For many years these laws were executed. But an increasing hostility on the part of the non-slaveholding States to the institution of slavery, has led to a disregard of their obligations…

The ends for which the Constitution was framed are declared by itself to be “to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.”

These ends it endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had separate control over its own institutions. The right of property in slaves was recognized by giving to free persons distinct political rights, by giving them the right to represent, and burthening them with direct taxes for three-fifths of their slaves; by authorizing the importation of slaves for twenty years; and by stipulating for the rendition of fugitives from labor.

We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States. Those States have assume the right of deciding upon the propriety of our domestic institutions; and have denied the rights of property established in fifteen of the States and recognized by the Constitution; they have denounced as sinful the institution of slavery; they have permitted open establishment among them of societies, whose avowed object is to disturb the peace and to eloign the property of the citizens of other States. They have encouraged and assisted thousands of our slaves to leave their homes; and those who remain, have been incited by emissaries, books and pictures to servile insurrection.”

South Carolina certainly believed defending the institution of slavery was important enough they made it the central point in their argument for seceding.

The next state to secede was Mississippi:

“Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery - the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.

It refuses the admission of new slave States into the Union, and seeks to extinguish it by confining it within its present limits, denying the power of expansion.

It tramples the original equality of the South under foot.

It has nullified the Fugitive Slave Law in almost every free State in the Union, and has utterly broken the compact, which our fathers pledged their faith to maintain.

It advocates negro equality, socially and politically, and promotes insurrection and incendiarism in our midst.”

Mississippi certainly believed slavery was the main reason they were willing to leave the Union and was pissed the North was advocating for black equality.

How did Georgia feel about slavery and secession?:

“The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation. For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slaveholding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. They have endeavored to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property…

By anti-slavery it is made a power in the state. The question of slavery was the great difficulty in the way of the formation of the Constitution. While the subordination and the political and social inequality of the African race was fully conceded by all, it was plainly apparent that slavery would soon disappear from what are now the non-slave-holding States of the original thirteen. The opposition to slavery was then, as now, general in those States and the Constitution was made with direct reference to that fact. But a distinct abolition party was not formed in the United States for more than half a century after the Government went into operation. The main reason was that the North, even if united, could not control both branches of the Legislature during any portion of that time.

The North demanded the application of the principle of prohibition of slavery to all of the territory acquired from Mexico and all other parts of the public domain then and in all future time. It was the announcement of her purpose to appropriate to herself all the public domain then owned and thereafter to be acquired by the United States. The claim itself was less arrogant and insulting than the reason with which she supported it. That reason was her fixed purpose to limit, restrain, and finally abolish slavery in the States where it exists. The South with great unanimity declared her purpose to resist the principle of prohibition to the last extremity. This particular question, in connection with a series of questions affecting the same subject, was finally disposed of by the defeat of prohibitory legislation.”

Georgia believed slavery was the central reason for secession, not just slavery in the slave-holding states but expanding the practice to the Western Territories.

What say you Texas?:

“Texas abandoned her separate national existence and consented to become one of the Confederated Union to promote her welfare, insure domestic tranquility and secure more substantially the blessings of peace and liberty to her people. She was received into the confederacy with her own constitution, under the guarantee of the federal constitution and the compact of annexation, that she should enjoy these blessings. She was received as a commonwealth holding, maintaining and protecting the institution known as negro slavery - the servitude of the African to the white race within her limits - a relation that had existed from the first settlement of her wilderness by the white race, and which her people intended should exist in all future time. Her institutions and geographical position established the strongest ties between her and other slaveholding States of the confederacy. Those ties have been strengthened by association. But what has been the course of the government of the United States, and of the people and authorities of the non-slave-holding States, since our connection with them?

We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, and of the confederacy itself, were established exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity; that the African race had no agency in their establishment; that they were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and in that condition only could their existence in this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable.

That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.”

Texas not only argued they were leaving the Union because of slavery but made a special point of claiming slaves were inferior and have no agency.

The articles of secession from the rest of the Confederacy states are short, pro-forma statements claiming their right to secede. These four states felt the need to go into detail as to why they believed it necessary to fracture the Union. When they did make economic arguments it was always in reference to slavery-either the impact ending slavery would have or the “unfairness” of being treated differently with regard to treaties for being pro-slavery. At the heart of every argument for seceding was their belief that they were entitled to own other people. Period. Full stop.

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery” claim is a lie, an intentional lie to make those who supported the Confederacy then and now feel better about themselves. After the South lost the War and anti-slavery sentiment increased, it became harder to argue that slavery was a legal, moral institution. Those who seceded from the Union, took up arms against their fellow Americans and almost ended the United States as it was known needed to feel good about themselves. They needed a way to claim the damage they caused and the decisions they made to secede were “noble.” Even though slavery was the original reason they gave, they knew they couldn’t use it any longer, especially if the goal was to claim you acted “nobly.” They needed to come up with other, after-the-fact reasons. The most prevalent of these hindsight reasons was/is “states’ rights.” States’ rights makes it sound like they were defending the rights of the people in their state against the big, bad, evil federal government. It made their acts sound “noble.” It was and is complete bullshit. The States’ Rights argument for the Civil War is nothing more than an attempt to whitewash history and vacuum the collective conscious of the South for going to war over their perceived right to own other people as property. Don’t take it from me, take it from the white, Southern politicians who wrote the passages above as to why they felt they needed to secede from the Union.  

anonymous asked:

Re: guardians of the galaxy/dnd parallels: Even the sci-fi setting? I'm only marginally familiar with dnd and as far as I know it's all high fantasy stuff?

(With reference to this post here.)

It’s a common misconception that “Dungeons & Dragons” refers to a particular fictional setting. This isn’t actually the case; Dungeons & Dragons is a set of tabletop roleplaying rules for a particular style of play, which can be employed in a variety of settings, both officially published and fan-made.

With respect to the former, officially published D&D settings include:

  • A post-apocalyptic wasteland drained of life by vile sorcerer-kings, variously inhabited by tribes of cannibal hobbits, claustrophobic parrot-men, and giant psychic praying mantises, all of which are playable races (even the last one!)
  • A spacefaring setting in which enchanted galleons sail the luminferous aether protected by magical force fields; though most crews are human, one might also expect to encounter gunslinging hippopotami, brain-sucking tentacle monsters, or gadgeteering gnomes whose vessels are powered by giant hamsters running on wheels (yes, really)
  • An industrialised quasi-Victorian city constructed around the inner side of a giant ring hovering at the top of an infinitely tall spire at the centre of the universe, the streets of which are ruled by factions of bickering philosophers who can literally think you to death (and also everyone inexplicably speaks Cockney)
  • A dystopian confederation of Gothic city-states ruled by expies of baddies from classic horror films, including Dracula, the Wolfman, the Mummy, Victor Frankenstein, Dr. Moreau, plus an evil version of Pinocchio, because why the hell not?

I could keep going, but I suspect you get the picture!

The Historical Legacy of Juneteenth

Photo:  Juneteenth day celebration in Texas. 1900. 

Juneteenth is one of the most important events in our nation’s history. On “Freedom’s Eve” or the eve of January 1, 1863 the first Watch Night services took place. On that night, enslaved and free African Americans gathered in churches and private homes all across the country awaiting news that the Emancipation Proclamation had taken effect.

At the stroke of midnight, prayers were answered as all enslaved people in the Confederate States were declared legally free. Union soldiers, many of whom were black, marched onto plantations and across cities in the south reading small copies of the Emancipation Proclamation spreading the news of freedom.

But not everyone in Confederate territory would immediately be free. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation was made effective in 1863, it could not be implemented in places still under Confederate control. This meant that in the westernmost Confederate state of Texas, enslaved people would not be free until much later. On June 19, 1865 that changed, when enslaved African Americans in Galveston Bay, TX were notified by the arrival of some 2,000 Union troops that they, along with the more than 250,000 other enslaved black people in the state, were free by executive decree.

Photo:  Publishers throughout the North responded to a demand for copies of Lincoln’s proclamation and produced numerous decorative versions including this engraving by R. A. Dimmick in 1864. National Museum of American History, gift of Ralph E. Becker. 

The post-emancipation period known as Reconstruction (1865-1877) marked an era of great hope, uncertainty, and struggle for the nation as a whole. Formerly enslaved people immediately sought to reunify families, establish schools, run for political office, push radical legislation and even sue slaveholders for compensation. This was nothing short of amazing! Not even a generation out of enslavement, African Americans were inspired and empowered to completely transform their lives and their country.

In my opinion, Juneteenth (as that day was called by the freed enslaved people in Texas) marks our country’s second independence day. Though it has long been celebrated among the African American community it is a history that has been marginalized and still remains largely unknown to the wider public.

The historical legacy of Juneteenth shows the value of deep hope and urgent organizing in uncertain times. The National Museum of African American History and Culture is a community space where that spirit can continue to live on – where histories like this one can surface, and new stories with equal urgency can be told.


Tsione Wolde-Michael is the Writer/Editor for the Office of Curatorial Affairs, Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. She is also a Doctoral Candidate in History at Harvard University.

St. Louis workers remove portion of 103-year-old Confederate statue

  • Workers removed a portion of a 38-foot-tall granite monument honoring Confederate soldiers and sailors in St. Louis’ Forest Park on Thursday, according to the Associated Press, but it may take weeks for the rest of the statue to come down.
  • Koran Addo, a spokesman for Mayor Lyda Krewson, told the AP that while work crews had hauled away the tip of the monument, it was unclear when the rest would be removed.
  • The 103-year-old monument shows a Confederate soldier leaving his family to go fight in the Civil War, flanked by an angel. 
  • An inscription in the stone reads, “in memory of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States By the United Daughters of the Confederacy of Saint Louis.” Read more (6/9/17)

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LIT AF history notes

ITS FINALS WEEK!!!!

sorry i didnt mean to scare you like that, but anyway…

i was looking through my history notes for our final exam tomorrow and i came across these notes my friend and I took in like january or something.  we must have been in a weird mood that day because some of these dont make any fucking sense.  

so these were my friends history lecture notes and they are pretty funny once I was looking through them.  they still make sense and you can still learn shit from them.  

  • Southerners were T R I G G E R E D by lincoln
  • Women only wanted to marry soldiers lol u better go die for ur gurl cuz they think it’s hot 110% worth it
  • Lotta death lol
  • GLORY
  • There were struggles at home for women as well #DontGoBackToTheKitchen
  • The south picked up native americans to join them lol savages
  • 600 thousand died during the civil war poor things
  • The south is at a disadvantage due to their lack of food, grow cotton (ha losers) 
  • England gave up cuz they sick of war (they salty cuz they want their tea back <3)
  • England abandoned the south after they found out they were supporting pro slaves lol they savages
  • The south calls it the “war between the states” this T R I G G E R E D many because it make us a bunch of states and not the LIT AF country we are
  • Some soldiers were as young as 14 yr olds lol who thought that was a good idea
  • everyone’s T R I G G E R E D
  • people are buying their way out of the draft haha rich savages
  • everybody’s dying lol
  • the draft isn’t fair lol
  • many northerners disliked the emancipation proclamation and some believed the south had the right to secede-those savages were called copperheads
  • deserting= bad (different than dessert, dessert is delicious)
  • wealthy people thot they were too good for war and just didnt
  • at least 400 female savages pretended to be men so they could fight in the war
  • nursing was not a respectable job for southern women, but those savages did it anyway
  • SHERMAN WAS A TOTAL WAR SAVAGE
  • Confederate friends were bound to fail

then theres my lecture notes which make no fucking sense (which was why I borrowed my friend’s in the first place our final is tomorrow)

  • Go to war to get the chicx
  • Confederate friends were bound to fail
  • South half and most slaves
  • George b mcgloin??
  • Oh, freedom
  • Z ”white-man’s”war
  • Blacks cheering lincoln
  • First regiment was black soldiers
  • Prices so high
  • Ppl not eat=starve
  • JJ davies came to save the girls
  • not males took over the roles of the males on the farms and plantations
  • Some served as soldiers and spies
  • 400 did same and pulled an eponine
  • Robelle in pennsylvania
  • Gettysburg to steal shoes from confederates
  • bad elvesUlysses Grant as union controlled half a million soldiers
  • Confederate retreated, WHO HAD WON?!?
  • Gettysburg address- few minutes, but remembered FOR forever
  • Ulysses Grant as union controlled half a million soldiers
  • Wilderness campaign
  • Goes with lee anywhere
  • <3
  • Let the south know that they will move anywhere, and WILL DESTROY YOU
  • Lincoln was SHOT by john walks in the booth
  • Didja do it johnny didja do it
  • total war 
  • Sherman also
  • Bring everyone right to the bottom
  • END SLAVERY!!

important people we needed to know

  • henry clay- architect of the missouri compromise, compromise of 1850, aka the great compromiser/thelegend27
  • harriet beecher stowe- wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, “fite me with a pen” is her most famous quote; thelegend27 2.0, very famous, even in europe
  • john brown- religious man and strong abolitionIst, believes it is his responsibility to end slavery cuz he’s a friggin legend; will get his point across no matter what you say will kill with his gun; failed and was killed, died a legend’s death (hanged), aka enjolras <3
  • stephen douglas- come from illinois, both come from senate, enemy of lincoln. both date the same women whom lincoln later marries, both run for president and lincoln wins, architect of kansas-nebraska act; aka grantaire <3
  • abraham lincoln- you already know who this is 
  • robert e lee- colonel in confederate army; very OP southerner
  • dred scott- black slave who filed an illegal court case and lost

other vocab and events:

  • Compromise of 1850- Mexican Cession, gave the US California (free state), won the Mexican American War, the south was triggered af; North also want to ban slavery in D.C. (slave trade in D.C. banned), the south got the fugitive slave law in return
  • Kansas-nebraska act - people should decide whether is free or slavery.
  • Alien-outsider, someone from another country (or universe/planet)
  • California/fugitive slave act/no slave trade washington dc un compromise of 1850, and Election of 1860 (lincoln carried no southern states)- that’s basically it
  • uncle tom’s cabin impact-very impact  

great notes right?

please use these notes if and when you do american civil war history because they are actually pretty accurate!!  wish me luck in the class! ;)

good luck with your classes this year and next!!