confederate-states

White Southerners certainly weren’t states’ rights doctrinaires. They were perfectly fine with an aggressive federal government if it worked to preserve slavery. They had no objection when Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring free states to aid in the return of runaway slaves — overriding many of those states’ own laws. When South Carolina issued its secession ordinance in 1860, it even complained that Northern states had passed laws nullifying the Fugitive Slave Act; complained, in other words, that Northern states were refusing to obey the federal government! It was only when the federal government threatened the institution of slavery that the Southern elite invoked states’ rights.
—  William Black, in this article

anonymous asked:

Could you elaborate on those D&D settings? Maybe two or three sentences describing each? I always thought D&D was just set in Generic Fantasy Land #357

(With reference to this post here.)

Yeah, a lot of people have the wrong idea about that. Dungeons & Dragons is a set of rules for running a particular kind of game, with a number of published settings associated with it, few of which resemble the generic Tolkien pastiche most folks picture when they see that it’s got elves and hobbits in it.

In the same order as the previous post:

Planescape is set in an industrialised quasi-Victorian city constructed around the inner rim of a giant ring hovering atop an infinitely tall spire at the centre of the universe. The streets are ruled by warring gangs of philosophers who can literally argue you to death. Playable races include anarchist goat-centaurs and sapient geometric shapes.

Dragonlance is basically medieval fantasy meets World War II, wracked by constant open war between the forces of Light and Darkness. Knights ride dragons into battle while sinister dragon-men prowl the countryside (there are a lot of different kinds of dragons). Playable races include steampunk gnomes and musical minotaurs.

(If that last bit sounds familiar, it’s because most of what World of Warcraft didn’t borrow from Warhammer, it lifted from Dragonlance).

Ravenloft is pretty much as described in the previous post: it’s a prison dimension for the multiverse’s worst baddies, which has evolved into a confederation of dystopian city-states ruled by thinly disguised expies of various Hammer horror villains, like Dracula and the Wolfman. And also an evil version of Pinocchio, because why the hell not?

Spelljammer is D&D in space, where enchanted galleons sail the luminiferous aether in search of fortune and adventure. If you’ve seen Treasure Planet, you’ve got the right basic idea, though Spelljammer predates Treasure Planet by some decades. Standout features include mercenary hippo-men and gnomes whose ships are powered by giant hamsters running on wheels.

The Forgotten Realms is probably the closest to what folks are picturing when they think of “generic fantasy land”, though they’re a couple of decades off with respect to its inspirations - it’s much more 1980s romantic fantasy than 1960s epic fantasy. Talking housecats, cosmopolitan cities with suspiciously modern amenities, enlightened matriarchies ruled by beautiful sorcerer-queens - you know the drill if you’ve read your Lackey.

Dark Sun is a post-apocalyptic milieu set in the wake of a global environmental collapse brought about by irresponsible use of magic. “Mad Max with wizards” would be a glib but not-wholly-inaccurate description. Playable races include savage cannibal hobbits and giant psychic praying mantises.

Birthright assumes that the player characters are members of ancient ruling houses empowered by the blood of slain gods. Beyond that, it’s almost entirely generic - its whole shtick is that you get to rule a domain right from first level, rather than having to work your way up to it.

Red Steel is an Age of Sail swashbuckling game set on the Savage Coast, a region tainted by magical fallout that grants wondrous powers, but also induces progressively more hideous mutations. The economy is based on the eponymous red steel, a rare metal that grants resistance to the mutations without suppressing the accompanying powers. I wasn’t kidding when I said The Three Musketeers meets the X-Men.

Eberron is a “magipunk” setting that envisions a high fantasy world in the process of undergoing an industrial revolution. Trains powered by bound lightning elementals crisscross the land, and one of the major tensions involves the integration into society of a race of mechanical soldiers constructed from enchanted wood to fight in a recently ended war.

Greyhawk is tough to pin down, as it’s basically the collected campaign notes of one of the game’s original designers. It covers a lot of ground, but the focal point, the eponymous city of Greyhawk, is a straight up sword-and-sorcery pastiche. In terms of inspirations, think Robert Howard, Fritz Leiber and Michael Moorcock. Sinister cults, baroque cities ruled by degenerate nobles, and player characters who are as likely to be planning urban heists as delving dungeons.

My favorite thing about Robert E Lee is that he hated the Confederacy and thought that secession was stupid and traitorous, and even Lincoln himself offered him the position to lead the Union troops against the Confederacy, and Lee basically said “Nah dude I’m done with fighting and shit, I hate war. The only reason I’ll draw my sword again is if anyone attacks Virginia.” And obviously someone did so he trudged out of his house like “dammit fuckers leave my home alone.”

Like the guy literally only gave a shit about defending his specific home state and couldn’t care less about the country as a whole

Even after the war ended he was like “K bye I’d like to go sit on a farm now because I hate all this war and politics and crap and everything associated with it, call me if Virginia is in trouble again” but he was so popular that he couldn’t have a quiet life, so instead he accepted an offer to be president of Washington College (Later named Washington&Lee University). He made it a point to recruit students from the entire Union both north and south, and regularly expelled white students for getting violent against local black folks and he successfully promoted state-funding for education for black people.

When he died he was not buried in his military uniform, nor did any former Confederate soldiers at his funeral wear theirs either, because they respected that Lee considered it traitorous and didn’t want to be remembered as a traitor. Heck, he’s been quoted as suggesting that the nation “follow the example of those nations who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil strife” referring specifically to war monuments, and he despised the Confederate flag and wished it to never be flown again. Which basically means that if he were alive today, he would be upset that there are statues glorifying his Confederate days, and disturbed that there are folks using him as an idol to further an agenda that he would not have supported.

So basically; by all means, remove Confederate statues to settle discomforts, or choose to keep them for historical purposes. But it’d help everyone involved to make some more descriptive plaques that educate people on real history, and not the stereotypes and assumptions. And if we’re talking about “respect” to those individuals, it’s actually more disrespectful to keep statues of Lee, considering his beliefs.

confessionsofasongbird  asked:

so i've heard a very compelling (and for me view changing) theory- the civil war was based entirely on economics and was only declared a war on slavery as a means to prevent other countries who had recently declared slavery illegal from aiding the south- however whenever i bring this up people state that slavery was the one reason but let's be honest people where super into being racist assholes...

YEAH THIS THEORY IS ONE THING AND ONE THING EXACTLY:

BUNK.

FIRST OF ALL, THE UNION’S MOTIVES FOR WAGING “A WAR ON SLAVERY” ARE IRRELEVANT BECAUSE THE UNION WAS NOT THE AGGRESSOR IN THE WAR. NO MATTER WHAT THE MOTIVE OF THE NORTH WAS, THE FACT IS THAT THE SOUTH WAS AIMING TO WAGE A WAR AGAINST ABOLITION. 

THAT WAS THE CONFEDERATE MOTIVE, AS DIRECTLY STATED BY THEIR OWN OFFICIALS. THE SECESSION OF THE SOUTHERN STATES CAME FROM A REACTIONARY PANIC IN THE SOUTH ABOUT THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN (WHO BY TODAY’S STANDARDS IS WISHY-WASHY ON SLAVERY BUT AT THE TIME HE WOULD’VE BEEN CONSIDERED SOMETHING OF A RADICAL BY THE PRO-SLAVERY CAMP) AND THE BELIEF THAT THE NEW ADMINISTRATION WOULD BE MAKING ACTIVE MOVES TO ABOLISH THE INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY, OR EVEN JUST FAIL TO GUARANTEE ITS EXPANSION, GROWTH, AND SURVIVAL. 

“IT WAS ABOUT ECONOMICS” IS A MORE MODERN SMOKESCREEN USED TO WHITEWASH THE MOTIVES OF THE CONFEDERACY (YOU KNOW, THE RIGHT-WING EXTREMIST TRAITORS WHO STARTED THE WAR) SO THAT PEOPLE WOULDN’T CONDEMN THE ENTIRE CONFEDERACY AS PRO-SLAVERY.

IT WAS TECHNICALLY ABOUT ECONOMICS, BECAUSE THE ENTIRE SOUTHERN ECONOMY WAS BUILT ON SLAVERY. THE TRUTH BEHIND “THE CIVIL WAR WAS ABOUT ECONOMICS” IS THAT THE TRAITOR STATES’ VIEW OF ABOLITION WAS “IT’S GOING TO COST US MONEY IF WE CAN’T USE SLAVES!!”

BASICALLY THE RULE OF THUMB IS THAT ANYTIME YOU HEAR SOMEONE SAY “THE CIVIL WAR WAS ACTUALLY ABOUT–” YOU JUST GO AHEAD AND ASSUME THAT PERSON IS TRYING TO VEIL THE CONFEDERACY’S REAL, DOCUMENTED, STATED MOTIVE OF “PRESERVING THE INSTITUTION OF AFRICAN SLAVERY.”

“IT WAS ABOUT ECONOMICS!” TECHNICALLY YES, BECAUSE THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY WAS ENTIRELY RELIANT ON SLAVERY

“IT WAS ABOUT STATES’ RIGHTS!” TECHNICALLY YES, THE CONFEDERACY WAS ARGUING THAT STATES HAD THE RIGHT TO KEEP SLAVERY LEGAL IF THEY WANTED

“IT WAS ABOUT FEDERAL OVERREACH!” TECHNICALLY YES, THE CONFEDERACY WAS WORRIED ABOUT “FEDERAL OVERREACH,” SPECIFICALLY, THEY WERE WORRIED THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WOULD ABOLISH SLAVERY, WHICH THEY VIEWED AS TYRANNY

ALL, AND I MEAN ONE-HUNDRED-PERCENT, OF THE REASONS FOR THE CIVIL WAR HAD ENTIRELY AND EXCLUSIVELY TO DO WITH SLAVERY AND ANYONE WHO TELLS YOU DIFFERENTLY IS EITHER WOEFULLY MISINFORMED OR OR ACTIVELY TRYING TO MAKE THE TREASON OF THE SOUTHERN STATES SEEM MORE NOBLE.

AS FOR WHY IT WAS “DECLARED A WAR ON SLAVERY” BY THE NORTH– LINCOLN DID THIS BY ISSUING THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION WHICH DECLARED ALL SLAVES IN THE REBEL STATES FREE. OF COURSE, THEY WERE REBEL STATES AND WOULD NOT OBEY AN ORDER FROM THEIR ENEMY, BUT THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION WAS NEVER MEANT TO ACTUALLY FREE ANYONE, IT WAS MEANT TO SEND THE MESSAGE THAT LINCOLN’S ATTITUDE HAD CHANGED FROM “I DON’T CARE IF SLAVERY IS ABOLISHED AS LONG AS THE WAR ENDS” TO “SINCE THE WAR HAS ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT SLAVERY AND NOTHING ELSE, WE HAVE TO ABOLISH SLAVERY TO END THE WAR, EITHER SLAVERY IS ABOLISHED OR THE WAR DOESN’T END.”

On The Civil War: It Was About Slavery

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery but over…..” Whenever someone rolls out this argument, especially in reference to racism in America, they are either intentionally trying to whitewash history or are completely ignorant of it. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. Here is what they wrote in their articles of secession:

“We assert that fourteen of the States have deliberately refused, for years past, to fulfill their constitutional obligations, and we refer to their own Statutes for the proof.

The Constitution of the United States, in its fourth Article, provides as follows:

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

This stipulation was so material to the compact, that without it that compact would not have been made. The greater number of the contracting parties held slaves, and they had previously evinced their estimate of the value of such a stipulation by making it a condition in the Ordinance for the government of the territory ceded by Virginia, which now composes the States north of the Ohio River.

The same article of the Constitution stipulates also for rendition by the several States of fugitives from justice from the other States. The General Government, as the common agent, passed laws to carry into effect these stipulations of the States. For many years these laws were executed. But an increasing hostility on the part of the non-slaveholding States to the institution of slavery, has led to a disregard of their obligations…

The ends for which the Constitution was framed are declared by itself to be “to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.”

These ends it endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had separate control over its own institutions. The right of property in slaves was recognized by giving to free persons distinct political rights, by giving them the right to represent, and burthening them with direct taxes for three-fifths of their slaves; by authorizing the importation of slaves for twenty years; and by stipulating for the rendition of fugitives from labor.

We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States. Those States have assume the right of deciding upon the propriety of our domestic institutions; and have denied the rights of property established in fifteen of the States and recognized by the Constitution; they have denounced as sinful the institution of slavery; they have permitted open establishment among them of societies, whose avowed object is to disturb the peace and to eloign the property of the citizens of other States. They have encouraged and assisted thousands of our slaves to leave their homes; and those who remain, have been incited by emissaries, books and pictures to servile insurrection.”

South Carolina certainly believed defending the institution of slavery was important enough they made it the central point in their argument for seceding.

The next state to secede was Mississippi:

“Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery - the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.

It refuses the admission of new slave States into the Union, and seeks to extinguish it by confining it within its present limits, denying the power of expansion.

It tramples the original equality of the South under foot.

It has nullified the Fugitive Slave Law in almost every free State in the Union, and has utterly broken the compact, which our fathers pledged their faith to maintain.

It advocates negro equality, socially and politically, and promotes insurrection and incendiarism in our midst.”

Mississippi certainly believed slavery was the main reason they were willing to leave the Union and was pissed the North was advocating for black equality.

How did Georgia feel about slavery and secession?:

“The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation. For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slaveholding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. They have endeavored to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property…

By anti-slavery it is made a power in the state. The question of slavery was the great difficulty in the way of the formation of the Constitution. While the subordination and the political and social inequality of the African race was fully conceded by all, it was plainly apparent that slavery would soon disappear from what are now the non-slave-holding States of the original thirteen. The opposition to slavery was then, as now, general in those States and the Constitution was made with direct reference to that fact. But a distinct abolition party was not formed in the United States for more than half a century after the Government went into operation. The main reason was that the North, even if united, could not control both branches of the Legislature during any portion of that time.

The North demanded the application of the principle of prohibition of slavery to all of the territory acquired from Mexico and all other parts of the public domain then and in all future time. It was the announcement of her purpose to appropriate to herself all the public domain then owned and thereafter to be acquired by the United States. The claim itself was less arrogant and insulting than the reason with which she supported it. That reason was her fixed purpose to limit, restrain, and finally abolish slavery in the States where it exists. The South with great unanimity declared her purpose to resist the principle of prohibition to the last extremity. This particular question, in connection with a series of questions affecting the same subject, was finally disposed of by the defeat of prohibitory legislation.”

Georgia believed slavery was the central reason for secession, not just slavery in the slave-holding states but expanding the practice to the Western Territories.

What say you Texas?:

“Texas abandoned her separate national existence and consented to become one of the Confederated Union to promote her welfare, insure domestic tranquility and secure more substantially the blessings of peace and liberty to her people. She was received into the confederacy with her own constitution, under the guarantee of the federal constitution and the compact of annexation, that she should enjoy these blessings. She was received as a commonwealth holding, maintaining and protecting the institution known as negro slavery - the servitude of the African to the white race within her limits - a relation that had existed from the first settlement of her wilderness by the white race, and which her people intended should exist in all future time. Her institutions and geographical position established the strongest ties between her and other slaveholding States of the confederacy. Those ties have been strengthened by association. But what has been the course of the government of the United States, and of the people and authorities of the non-slave-holding States, since our connection with them?

We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, and of the confederacy itself, were established exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity; that the African race had no agency in their establishment; that they were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and in that condition only could their existence in this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable.

That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.”

Texas not only argued they were leaving the Union because of slavery but made a special point of claiming slaves were inferior and have no agency.

The articles of secession from the rest of the Confederacy states are short, pro-forma statements claiming their right to secede. These four states felt the need to go into detail as to why they believed it necessary to fracture the Union. When they did make economic arguments it was always in reference to slavery-either the impact ending slavery would have or the “unfairness” of being treated differently with regard to treaties for being pro-slavery. At the heart of every argument for seceding was their belief that they were entitled to own other people. Period. Full stop.

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery” claim is a lie, an intentional lie to make those who supported the Confederacy then and now feel better about themselves. After the South lost the War and anti-slavery sentiment increased, it became harder to argue that slavery was a legal, moral institution. Those who seceded from the Union, took up arms against their fellow Americans and almost ended the United States as it was known needed to feel good about themselves. They needed a way to claim the damage they caused and the decisions they made to secede were “noble.” Even though slavery was the original reason they gave, they knew they couldn’t use it any longer, especially if the goal was to claim you acted “nobly.” They needed to come up with other, after-the-fact reasons. The most prevalent of these hindsight reasons was/is “states’ rights.” States’ rights makes it sound like they were defending the rights of the people in their state against the big, bad, evil federal government. It made their acts sound “noble.” It was and is complete bullshit. The States’ Rights argument for the Civil War is nothing more than an attempt to whitewash history and vacuum the collective conscious of the South for going to war over their perceived right to own other people as property. Don’t take it from me, take it from the white, Southern politicians who wrote the passages above as to why they felt they needed to secede from the Union.  

The Historical Legacy of Juneteenth

Photo:  Juneteenth day celebration in Texas. 1900. 

Juneteenth is one of the most important events in our nation’s history. On “Freedom’s Eve” or the eve of January 1, 1863 the first Watch Night services took place. On that night, enslaved and free African Americans gathered in churches and private homes all across the country awaiting news that the Emancipation Proclamation had taken effect.

At the stroke of midnight, prayers were answered as all enslaved people in the Confederate States were declared legally free. Union soldiers, many of whom were black, marched onto plantations and across cities in the south reading small copies of the Emancipation Proclamation spreading the news of freedom.

But not everyone in Confederate territory would immediately be free. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation was made effective in 1863, it could not be implemented in places still under Confederate control. This meant that in the westernmost Confederate state of Texas, enslaved people would not be free until much later. On June 19, 1865 that changed, when enslaved African Americans in Galveston Bay, TX were notified by the arrival of some 2,000 Union troops that they, along with the more than 250,000 other enslaved black people in the state, were free by executive decree.

Photo:  Publishers throughout the North responded to a demand for copies of Lincoln’s proclamation and produced numerous decorative versions including this engraving by R. A. Dimmick in 1864. National Museum of American History, gift of Ralph E. Becker. 

The post-emancipation period known as Reconstruction (1865-1877) marked an era of great hope, uncertainty, and struggle for the nation as a whole. Formerly enslaved people immediately sought to reunify families, establish schools, run for political office, push radical legislation and even sue slaveholders for compensation. This was nothing short of amazing! Not even a generation out of enslavement, African Americans were inspired and empowered to completely transform their lives and their country.

In my opinion, Juneteenth (as that day was called by the freed enslaved people in Texas) marks our country’s second independence day. Though it has long been celebrated among the African American community it is a history that has been marginalized and still remains largely unknown to the wider public.

The historical legacy of Juneteenth shows the value of deep hope and urgent organizing in uncertain times. The National Museum of African American History and Culture is a community space where that spirit can continue to live on – where histories like this one can surface, and new stories with equal urgency can be told.


Tsione Wolde-Michael is the Writer/Editor for the Office of Curatorial Affairs, Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. She is also a Doctoral Candidate in History at Harvard University.

Tucker and Sherrard Dragoon revolver

Manufactured in Texas for the Confederae state of Texas during the American Civil War c.1862, although never delivered - serial number 52.
.44 cap and ball six-shot cylinder, single action, creeping loading lever, squareback trigger guard. Noticeable differences compared to a Colt Dragoon include a shorter barrel, a lower hammer spur and a lack of a cutout in the frame through which to sit the bullet.

Alledgedly as good as a Colt, which is a bold claim coming from a Confederate revolver.

Sauce : James D Julia Auction House

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AMERICA’S (ANTI) BLACK CODES

In 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War, Southern states passed “Black Codes” which were laws to restrict the freedom of Black people in the region. In the North these codes were viewed as a way for the South to get around the 13th amendment and to allow slavery to exist under a different name. The defining feature of the post-Civil war Black Codes were vagrancy laws which allowed for the newly freed Black population to be arrested and sentenced to hard labor.

Examples of Black Codes included, but were not limited to: no Black person (“freedman”) could own property or guns, Black people were prohibited from marrying white people, Black people were restricted in where they could live or rent, Black people could not join the militia, Black people needed permission to do work other than agricultural labor, domestic (service) work, or manual labor, no voting rights for Black people, Black people were not allowed to change jobs, and if a Black person had no job they could be arrested and forced to work for no pay, Black people could not testify against white people in a court of law, Black people were not allowed to assemble together without the presence and approval of a white person, it was illegal to teach Black people to read or write, and all public facilities were racially segregated, including cemeteries and all forms of transportation. (These discriminatory racial codes served as the model for many of America’s current unwritten social norms - as well as some written government policies - that are still in effect today, and not only in the South).

In 1866 Congress reacted to the Black Codes by placing the Confederate States under the rule of the American Union Army and as part of Reconstruction, passed laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Amendment.

Unfortunately, due largely to The Compromise of 1877, Reconstruction would last in the “former” slave states of the South only until 1877, for eleven short years.

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Dance Dragoon cap and ball revolver

A Colt copy manufactured in Texas during the American Civil war by the Dance brothers - serial number 46.
.44 cap and ball six-round cylinder, single action, ‘creeping’ loading lever.

The star is unique to this gun and reaches new levels of Texasness.

Sauce : James D. Julia Inc.