confederate-general

2

In 2017, Arkansas decides to no longer honor Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert E. Lee on the same day

  • Arkansas Gov. Asa Hutchinson signed legislation Tuesday ending the state’s controversial practice of celebrating Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Gen. Robert E. Lee on the same day.
  • The bill marks the end of a decades-long tradition, wherein Arkansans commemorated King — one of the most influential black civil rights leaders in United States history — on the same day as Lee, a white Confederate general who quite literally fought a war to make sure black people remained enslaved.
  • Both men were born in January — King on Jan. 15, 1929, and Lee on Jan. 19, 1807. The bill will keep King’s holiday as is, but create a memorial day to commemorate Lee on the second Saturday in October, according to the Associated Press. Read more (3/22/17 11 AM)

follow @the-movemnt

anonymous asked:

You said the Republican party fought against slavery.. That is true, but the Republican party around that time period have more modern Democrat beliefs. They were northerners who believed in equal rights. And the Democratic party in the 1800s had view more similar to modern Republican beliefs. The party's beliefs flip flopped around late 1800s-early 1900s.. The conservative states were always advocating for slavery and oppression. They were also the last states to give women the right to vote.

Originally posted by onemorechapter11

Let’s discuss some history then.

1791 - The Democratic-Republican Party is formed by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist Party. The Democratic-Republicans strongly opposed government overreach and expansion, the creation of a national bank, and corruption.

1804 - Andrew Jackson purchases the plantation that will become his primary source of wealth.

1824 - The Democratic-Republican Party split. The new Democrats were supported by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, and the National Republicans were supported by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.

1828 - Andrew Jackson is elected President of the United States.

1830 - Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, whereby the Cherokee and other native tribes were to be forcibly removed from their lands.

1831 - Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, whereby the Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee Nation was sovereign and the U.S. had no jurisdiction over Cherokee lands. Andrew Jackson had already started to enforce the removal of the Choctaw.

1832-33 - The Whig Party is formed in opposition to Jackson’s government expansion and overreach in the Nullification Crisis and the establishment of a Second National Bank. The Whig Party successfully absorbs the National Republican Party.

1838 -  Many Indian tribes had been forcibly removed. Under Jackson, General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers forced the Cherokee from their land at bayonet point while their homes were pillaged. They marched the Cherokee more than 1,200 miles to the allocated Indian territory. About 5,000 Cherokee died on the journey due to starvation and disease.

1854 - The Whig Party dissolves over the question of the expansion of slavery. Anti-slavery Whigs and anti-slavery democrats form the Republican Party with their sole goal being to end slavery.

1861 -The election of President Lincoln spurs the beginning of the Civil War.

1862 - Lincoln writes a letter where he declares he wishes to preserve the union regardless of the morals on slavery. He issues the Emancipation Proclamation, whereby all slaves in Union territories had to be freed. As states came under Union control, those slaves too had to be freed.

1863 - Frederick Douglass, former slave and famous Republican abolitionist, meets with Lincoln on the suffrage of emancipated slaves.

1864 - Lincoln revised his position on slavery in a letter to Albert G. Hodges stating “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong.”

1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders at the Appomattox Courthouse to Union victory. After Lincoln’s Assassination, Democrat President Johnson issues amnesty to rebels and pardons the slave owners of their crimes.

1865 - The 13th Amendment which ended slavery passed with 100% Republican support and 63% Democrat support in congress.

1866 - The Klu Klux Klan is formed by Confederate veterans to intimidate black and Republicans through violence, lynching, and public floggings. They gave open support to the Democrat Party.

1866 - The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is vetoed by Democratic President Andrew Johnson. Every single Republican voted and overturned the veto.

1868 - The 14th Amendment which gave citizenship to freed slaves passed with 94% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress. The first grand wizard of the KKK, Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest is honored at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

1868 - Representative James Hinds who taught newly freedmen of their rights is murdered by the KKK.

1870 - The 15th Amendment which gave freed slaves the right to vote passed with 100% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress.

1871 - The violence of the KKK grew so savage that congress passed the Enforcement Acts to repress their influence.

1875 - Democrat Senator William Saulsbury speaks out against the Civil RIghts Act of 1875, claiming it will allow “colored men shall sit at the same table beside the white guest; that he shall enter the same parlor and take his seat beside the wife and daughter of the white man, whether the white man is willing or not, because you prohibit discrimination against him.“

1884 - A train conductor orders Ida B. Wells, a black Republican woman, to give up her seat and move to the smoking car. Wells was an investigative journalist who worked for a Republican journal to expose the horror of lynching. She advocated for the 2nd amendment rights for blacks so that they could protect themselves, and she denounced the Democratic Party for treating blacks as property unequal to whites.

1892 - Democrat Benjamin Tillman is re-elected to the Senate. He was a white supremacist who boasted his participation in lynchings. He is quoted saying that “as long as the Negroes continue to ravish white women we will continue to lynch them.”

1915 - Democrat President Woodrow Wilson screens KKK promotion film Birth of a Nation. The film pictured blacks as ignorant and violent savages, and the Klu Klux Klan as rescuers and protectors of the civilized world. The popularity of the movie revived the Klu Klux Klan which had previously gone extinct. Reportedly Wilson said about the film that “[it] is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.”

1919 - The 19th Amendment which officially gave women the right to vote passed with 82% Republican support and 54% Democrat support in congress.

1924 - Thousands of Klansmen attend the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

1933 -  The chief Nazi newspaper, Volkischer Beobachter, praised “Roosevelt’s adoption of National Socialist strains of thought in his economic and social policies” and “the development toward an authoritarian state.”

1933 - Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act with the well-meaning goal to help farmers and sharecroppers. Instead, though it aided white farmers, it resulted in increased unemployment and displacement of black farmers.

1933 -  FDR established the National Recovery Administration to stimulate business recovery by forcing employers to pay higher wages for less work. This relief program was enforced on a local level and allowed Jim Crow racism to flourish, resulting in many blacks being fired to be replaced by whites. 

1934 -  The Federal Housing Administration is introduced under FDR. The FHA made homeownership accessible for whites, but explicitly refused to back loans to black people or even other people who lived near black people.

1936 - The Roosevelt Administration finally begins vying for the black vote. Though the relief programs neglected blacks, their communities were bombarded with advertisements. FDR began to garner black support though the vast majority remained economically unchanged and locked into poverty.

1942 - FDR orders American citizens of Japanese ancestry from their homes into interment camps without due process after the bombings at Pearl Harbor.

1953 - Senator Robert Byrd is elected into congress and remains a staunch Democrat until his death in 2010. He was a prominent member in the KKK and praised by Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, and Hillary Clinton.

1955 - Democrat Richard Daley is elected mayor of Chicago. He resisted residential desegregation, defended public school segregation, and used urban renewal funds to build massive public housing projects that kept blacks within existing ghettos.

1957 - The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is passes with 93% Republican support and 59% Democrat support.

1963 - After the assassination of JFK, Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn into office. LBJ was a Democrat remembered by a famous quote: “I’ll have them niggers voting Democrat for the next 200 years.”

1965 - The Voting Rights Act of 1965 passes with 94% Republican support and 73% Democrat support.

1968 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated. MLK voted Republican.

1960-70s - A total of 24 Democratic members of congress switched to become Republican over a 20 year period. The majority of democrats in that time period remained democrats.

1995 - Dreams from My Father by Barack Obama is published. Obama discusses how the urban cities would become the new plantation for blacks under Democrat political bosses: “The plantation, the blacks have the worst jobs, the worst housing, police brutality rampant; but when the so-called black committee man come around election time, we’d all line up and vote the straight Democratic ticket. Sell our souls for a Christmas turkey. White folks spit in our faces, and we reward them with the vote.“

2009 - Hillary Clinton lauds Margaret Sanger, KKK advocate, white supremacist, and eugenicist at the 2009 Planned Parenthood Honors Gala: “I admire Margaret Sanger enormously, her courage, her tenacity, her vision. I am really in awe of her, there are a lot of lessons we can learn from her life.”

Me: 1
History revisionism: 0

Originally posted by whiteangelxoxo

Mary Ijams holding a mounted passenger pigeon, Tennessee, 1928. The bird was collected by Confederate General Benjamin Cheatham about 1856 near Nashville.

8

Hate groups in America, updated. Each state is shaded according to the number of hate groups of the highlighted variety active within the state’s borders. Where applicable, Washington, D.C. is shown as a circle. Click on the images to see which hate group is highlighted by which map. Alternatively, for those on mobile, the maps highlight, in order:

- Anti-LGBT
- Islamophobic/Anti-Muslim
- Anti-Latinx/Anti-Immigrant
- Ku Klux Klan
- Neo-Nazi (Including Fascist Skinhead)
- Neo-Confederate
- White Nationalist
- Misc./General Hate

The History of Wonder Woman

Hey kid, wanna know the history of Wonder Woman? The whole messy lot of it, not just the very start?

Wanna know HOW her books ended up the biggest mess in the entire comics industry? Big clues as to why her movie took so long to make?

It has feminism, racism, sexism, blasphemy, infanticide, and bees…

Wonder Woman was created by Dr. William Moulton Marston, noted psychologist, inventor of the lie detector, writer, and feminist.  He secretly lived in a polyamorous relationship with two women who helped him come up with Wonder Woman: his wife, Elizabeth Marston, and Olive Byrne, daughter of the major women’s rights crusader Ethel Byrne (known for helping her sister, Margaret Sanger, to create Planned Parenthood). He was heavily influenced by early-twentieth-century suffragists,  birth-control advocates, and feminists.

Even putting aside how jaw-droppingly progressive his woman superhero was, the comics still stand out for how whimsical they were.  Wonder Woman/Diana had an invisible plane and a telepathic radio. She jousted on a giant battle-kangaroo, and, like all Amazons, enjoyed deflecting bullets with her bracelets.  She fought Nazis, mad scientists, valkyries, mole-men, tiger-ape hybrids, flying mer-sharks, a subatomic army, and her arch-enemy: Mars, the god of war. She regularly battled aliens well before it became common for her peers (including Superman, who in those days was usually taking on gangsters and corrupt politicians). When not kicking back with her mother and sister Amazons she hung out with a short and stout firecracker of a girl called Etta Candy, a slew of college girls, and an Air Force pilot named Steve Trevor that was as disaster-prone as Lois Lane. And while later writers said that gods gave her superpowers  under Marston everything she could do was just from training real hard.

Analysis often puts attention on some elements that are – let’s not beat around the bush – kinky as hell (like the “bondage” aspect of Wonder Woman typing people up and getting tied up), but just focusing on that is a massive disservice to Marston.  Early Wonder Woman comics were far ahead of the curve in sheer quirkiness and how progressive they were in their depiction of women (even stating there would be a woman President one day).  It certainly helped that s Marston was often helped by his assistant, 19-year old Joye Hummel (I’ll come back to her in a moment), particularly when his health began deteriorating.

Keep reading

2

She Fought In The American Civil War- Fighting As A Man-Rebel: Loreta Velazquez Civil War Soldier and Spy

It is estimated that between 500 and 1,000 women went into military service during the American Civil War, yet their contributions to major events of that era are often overlooked, misunderstood, misrepresented, or undocumented. -PBS

In 1861, at the outbreak of the American Civil War, a teenager from New Orleans headed to the front lines. Under the alias Harry T. Buford, he fought at First Bull Run, was wounded at Shiloh, and served as a Confederate spy. But Buford harbored a secret–he was really Loreta Velazquez, a Cuban immigrant. 

Velázquez recorded her adventures in her 600-page book, The Woman in Battle: A Narrative of the Exploits, Adventures, and travels of Madame Loreta Janeta Velázquez, Otherwise Known as Lieutenant Harry T Buford, Confederate States Army. The Confederate general Jubal Early refused to accept her memoirs as fact, but recent scholars have verified her claims on the basis of secondary documents, including stories in contemporary newspapers.

At Shiloh, she found the battalion she had raised in Arkansas and fought in the battle. As she was burying the dead after a battle, a stray shell wounded her. When the army doctor who examined her discovered she was a woman, she again fled to New Orleans and saw Major General Benjamin F. Butler take command of the city.

María Aguí Carter directed Rebel, an investigative documentary, examining the story of Loreta Velázquez. The film is a detective story exploring Velázquez’s claims and the politics involved in erasing her from history. It was produced in 2013 and lasts for 73 minutes.

https://www.amazon.com/Rebel-Loreta-Velazquez-Soldier-American/dp/B00CP4Y5PU

“It’s in God’s Hands”

by Samsaran

A statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee came down in New Orleans last week. Lee who was a slave owner who had inherited his slaves from his wife freed them. Lee did not support seccession but he remained loyal to his native state of Virginia when they left the Union.

However, it is not his politics I am concerned with here. As the General in charge of the main force of the Confederacy, he was always outnumbered and outgunned. He was under tremendous stress nearly every moment of every day. He loved the young men he led and it tore him up to send them to their deaths. The way he dealt with it was to make his best plan and then once set in motion he would say “it’s in God’s hands”.

A religious man this was his way of accepting the outcome and minimizing his anxiety over the way events played out. In this way, he is a lesson to each of us. we may not believe in a God that interferes with the lives of men and women but we can learn to turn it over and accept.

We make our best plans and do everything we can do in our power to fix things the way we want them and then we disregard the things which are out of our control. Change what we can and accept what we cannot.

We don’t know how much you’ve been paying attention to the news about Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III (who is incidentally named after a Confederate general), but he’s a man with few prejudices, provided you aren’t a member of the black or LGBTQ community. But we’re sure that wanting to undermine the civil rights of just about everyone he hasn’t gone golfing with won’t have a negative impact on him being Attorney General, the position for which Trump has tapped him.

When he was a district attorney in Alabama in the 1980s, Sessions prosecuted three people for the crime of dropping the absentee ballots of elderly black voters off at the post office, charging them with mail fraud and conspiracy, for which they faced over 100 years in prison. Clearly, he was trying to send a message to someone, and we’re guessing that someone was “black people trying to vote in Alabama.” During a confirmation hearing for his appointment to a Reagan judgeship, several people testified that he had made racist comments in front of them, including calling a black man “boy,” declaring a white civil-rights lawyer a race traitor, and liberally using the n-word in private. The testimony ultimately kept him from a federal judgeship. That’s right: he was too racist for 1980s Congress, but not for the 2017 White House.

5 Huge (And Under-Reported) Problems With Trump’s Cabinet

Brigadier General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood and staff, C.S.A.

– Before his appointment to brigadier general, Wood had been a colonel of the 7th Alabama Infantry, C. S. A. Wood is seated on the right in the front row.

Commonly referred to as S.A.M. Wood, was an American lawyer and newspaper editor from Alabama. He served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War until 1863, and resumed practicing law, served as a state legislator, and later taught law.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._A._M._Wood Photo: Credit Alabama Pioneers

The Hateful 8 review that I promise was not intended to be some sort of history lesson

Quentin Tarantino’s script for The Hateful Eight notes an undetermined time period after the Civil War. 6 years, 8 years, or 12 years after the unconditional surrender of the Confederates to the Union Army. This is significant in the sense of America in this film is still being in the shadow of the civil war with Reconstruction, with Radical Republicans who wanted the South punished or versus those who wanted the South to get much more lenient treatment, as the Union was ultimately preserved, and a preserved Union needs some kind of ‘fairness’ for the defeated Southerners and Confederates. This was a clear tension in the country, as our characters in The Hateful Eight directly involved in the war have no feelings of togetherness or camaraderie, even if they were on the same side in the fight. But at the same time, this country that was quickly expanding out into territories that went far off the Mason-Dixon line, beyond the borders and alliances forged of North and South during this horrific war. Which brings us to Wyoming, the setting of this film. It didn’t become an official state in the United States until 1890, years after the Civil War and even years after the unclear time frame that Quentin Tarantino throws out there. It leaves the feeling of wide-openness and possibility in a place and space like that that seems so distant from that time and place in history. But there leaves a possibility for evil to creep in. The Hateful Eight is not just about the tensions of North and South but in the aftermath of that war, a war that involved so much bloodshed, sacrifice, alliances forged, grudges held, and certain degrees of betrayal, there may be something worse around the corner. After two consecutive films of alternative history used in the form of revenge by minority characters who were harmed and personally effected by the historical atrocities that Tarantino interrogates in both language and action, we get a film where it ends on one of the darkest notes in his whole filmography. The Hateful Eight is minor Tarantino for me, this is not to undersell its quality that is still quite good, but it seems reeled in, and in such a way that is purposeful. The flourishes in language and dialogue are mostly found in relation to the ruses and lies of these characters while the splattering gore in the violent acts committed in the film clearly take from horror, Italian horror and also the major horror touchstones in America with The Thing and The Exorcist, underlying the grotesquerie and the spectre of the evilness these certain characters confront if not embody themselves.

There are four characters in The Hateful Eight that directly share a history in the Civil War, a split of two on each side in the Union and Confederacy, North and South. For the North there is the lawman John Ruth, as played by Kurt Russell, who we can describe as both the stand-in for the trying to be upstanding white liberal who while trying to maintain the carry out of law and order in the still underdeveloped West is showing cracks. Russell’s performance plays on John Wayne, something he is certainly not unfamiliar with, but particularly in the manor of certain John Wayne performances fighting each other out (certain John Wayne performances that immediately sprung to mind was his roles in Fort Apache and She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, particularly when Russell puts on his glasses to get misty-eyed reading Major Warren’s Lincoln Letter). Tarantino is known John Ford skeptic if not critic (and how I hate when a director I admire hates…. another director I admire), and his shades to Ruth are on one hand a man who prefers the hard way, law and order as far as carrying out hangings rather than shooting a known criminal because that would be easier, and on another hand has such reactionary, physical cartoonish impulses that turn violent in attacking his current bounty, Daisy Domergue. Much can be made of the ways the assaults of Domergue play out. At first it is so shocking that you definitely cannot help but let out a laugh, and you may even still laugh when Major Warren himself gets involved, but then it becomes something that is wearing down. Daisy is not letting up despite this abuse (we soon know why and we’ll get to that later) and at some point, for me at least, the assaults turn directly on John Ruth. It begins to show his weakness. He, who interrogates every man he has ever come across in this film as to maintain a certain stability, shows incredible instability in these violent acts. There is something about Domergue that makes it seem he cannot keep his bearings despite being not just on the right side of the law but on the right side of history. So when in the first 10 or so minutes of this feature we have Kurt Russell’s Ruth striking Jennifer Jason Leigh’s Domergue, we are already seeing a decaying sense of law and order in a grotesque and cartoonish fashion.  Domergue becomes this rapidly mutating virus toward Ruth- and soon enough personifies that virus meets host.  

On John Ruth’s side of the Union is Major Marquis Warren, as played splendidly by Samuel L. Jackson. This is a man we can say has certain grudges and grievances about what happened during the war. He survived and escaped being a POW by burning the whole camp down to be free, and yet, it seems he does still have to be in the mindset of mentally disarming people, even those who shared his views, by associating with the late President Lincoln, the 16th American President continues his presence in American cinema as a God-like figure (we will get to that later). His forge of the Lincoln letter to impress the likes of John Ruth is meant to disarm, to suddenly be seen as a charming black folk who has the approval from Honest Abe to be considered all right to fraternize with other white folk. When Chris Mannix mentions he heard something from the Union side that they thought Warren was too dangerous and radical for the cause, you tend to believe it not because you think Warren went too far, but that you believe that there are more than likely white folks who are scared of Warren for exactly the reasons he laid out, that white people are only comfortable around him unarmed. But in the way Warren uses the Lincoln letter to disarm even the most sympathetic white folks, he raises his own spectre of the most grotesque things imaginable used to dehumanized black men like himself to pretty much rub it in the face of Bruce Dern’s Confederate General Sandy Smithers. There is a direct war connection between these two people in the Battle of Baton Rouge where Warren’s central grievances lie on the fact how the captured black soldiers by the Confederates were treated the equivalent of extra cargo and horses, and murdered. Smithers still defends this act, a man who will never learn or be rehabilitated in his ways. So, and this is my interpretation of the events that lead up to what closes out the chapter (and the first half of the 70mm roadshow), Warren tells Smithers a story of what became of Smithers’ lost son and that he stripped the son naked to only sexually assault him through oral sex in graphic detail. But let us note the detail belongs in words and that the cross-fade of the image of this son at the mercy of Warren is with an image of Smithers, as to point to this image being in Smithers’ head. ‘You seeing pictures now?’ We cannot be sure these events had happened, but we do know that Warren then kills Smithers and instead of Warren just killing Smithers right there at first sight, he instead gives him a parting shot of the worst possible thing Smithers could ever imagine having happened to his son due, in part, to what he had done during the war. I, again, do not actually think the events and actions took place, but that Warren is showing the split dualities of his place in the world, not unsimilar to Ruth, that have been essential to his survival. But that does not necessarily mean he has clear control of these dualities, much like Ruth seems to not have control.

We then move to Chris Mannix (for what should be Walton Goggins’ breakout from television) who has declared he is the future Sheriff of Red Rock, but we cannot be certain for it to have been true. Mannix is from the South and part of a group of Southern bandits who tried to fight back for the Confederacy. He holds a grudge for Warren’s actions during the war and even seems to have these urges of contemplating the ways the South could have maintained their old order. But Mannix still feels out of depth against the likes of Warren and Ruth. Heck, Mannix seems to be more on equal footing with O.B., who drives the stagecoach. But we soon find that him and Warren, and to a certain degree Smithers, are all caught in the web of deceit at Minnie’s Haberdashery that didn’t even involve them. 

In a way the first and second halves of the film are about how the first half is about the North and South tensions while the second half reveals a third party, both figurative and literal, that reveals something more evil and worse. It makes sense why this specific story is in the West and a remote location of Wyoming. The American frontier opened up for possibilities of a new life and yet, these second lives of people from the war, that they are holding onto are confronted by something by people without borders, without a real past, not quite tangible. This first comes in the form of Daisy Domergue, who begins the film so feral and so not human-like. She can take these beatings, increasingly looking beyond recognition of a person, let alone a woman. But once you realize what plans were taken on her behalf at Minnie’s Haberdashery, you sense a jocularity to Jennifer Jason Leigh’s performance, such as the over the top hanging gesture, and that she continues to grin in her increasingly toothless (due to increased beatings from John Ruth) smile. The character Daisy Domergue grows in grotesquerie and monstrosity, on the receiving end of one last beating from a poisoned John Ruth, only to have him puke blood in her face that makes her look like the diabolic Carrie White (by the way, Kurt Russell is now in the second grossest Western of the year in addition to being in the first, Bone Tomahawk). She wears his blood almost in pride. We see that the setting of the Haberdashery had been in her favor. Everybody at Minnie’s Haberdashery are of the Domergue gang plus Dern’s Confederate General and have been waiting for Ruth to be there to kill him and take Daisy. They are without borders, without a real back story beyond killing, and can build ruses and charm folks but turn on a dime to kill if it means taking care of their own. The poisoning of John Ruth was a success for Daisy and the Domergue Gang but what was never taken into account was that Mannix and Warren would be involved due to pure happenstance. Daisy’s racist as all can be and would seem sympathetic to the South’s view of blacks, but she nor the Domergue gang take any real stance on the war. They seem to look at the past with a distance, like Oswaldo Mobray declaring the Haberdashery be divided by North and South for the characters involved in the war, something that does not appear to involve any of the Domergue gang. This could be just the case of geography, on the periphery of the war (such as that scene of Blondie and Tuco seeing the Civil War spillover into the New Mexico campaign in Sergio Leone’s The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly that feels so out of their world), but also in time.

Note how in the flashback to Minnie’s Haberdashery that Minnie herself describes Bruce Dern’s Confederate General as an old man in a 'foreign’ uniform. It is an interesting choice of words and given that this is a Tarantino film, it seems on purpose. Minnie, a black woman, seems young enough where she was at most a child during the War and it begs the question of whether or not she was born a free woman due to time or geography. So foreign uniform as the Confederate uniform could represent a type of country that ceased to exist but also just a ‘foreign’ concept to a woman from a different time and place. Again, it shows the possibilities of a growing country that is not specifically tied to a dark past. It is the idea that you can make the rest of America anything you want, and while Minnie’s Haberdashery shows the harmonious side to that oh so very American idea of a post-Civil War inter-racial harmony, Tarantino quickly destroys it by making the Domergue gang the embodiment of evil. The Domergue gang sacking this place by unmercilessly killing everybody in it but one that represent a certain odiousness where it ties back to John Ruth and Major Warren’s debate on frontier justice versus law and order. The Domergue gang know of Ruth’s reputation and prepare accordingly by killing him and any collateral that stands in their way of freeing Daisy. 

Over the course of this film is a slow decay of the idea of law and order in the face of frontier justice. For one thing, one of the upholders of the idea of law and order dies, while the others who respect him are splintered against a group of people who forged bonds to save their own fellow outlaw. This situation forces Mannix and Warren into a bind that ultimately does become a bond. Mannix and Warren are facing monsters and shape-shifters of what may or may not be surrounding them in snowy mountains of Wyoming. Mannix chooses Warren’s side when told by Daisy he can be considered 'an innocent’ as opposed to Warren, who shot her brother dead. When I think about why there is so little backstory on the Domergue gang in that we know equally little about their ruses as much as their real identities not to mention the most prominent ones in Jody and Daisy hardly have any calling card beyond their sadistic and masochistic streaks, I truly do think Tarantino has them standing in for spectres and monsters. They are the sickness, the source of rot and decay in America, an infection, a disease that hits whoever touches them. They are more the future of what evil is to hit the rest of the country as opposed to the already damned North and South from the past. So when Mannix and Warren agree to treat Daisy with some frontier justice, they kill what lied there in the Haberdashery, but who knows if those 15 or so gang members are not going to kill them once the credits roll. Or if those 15 or so members exist at all. Mannix and Warren are screwed anyway due to the amount of blood they lost. In this forged bond they take comfort into Warren’s major lie of the Lincoln letter that Warren reads aloud, as though Lincoln is the deity they must face together as much as Jesus Christ. Lincoln himself wanted reunification and the Union preserved in ways that were not appeasing to his Radical Republican counterparts. Ultimately, Mannix and Warren do achieve what Honest Abe wants before their possible last breaths, but North and South seem out of sorts if not prepared for this growing nation that as much as it is haunted by its past, it also has its other forms of evil hiding, shape-shifting, dropping in, or somewhere else in the distance, unclear. The film The Hateful Eight ends with Roy Orbison’s song 'There Won’t Be Many Coming Home’ that seems to invoke the war, after this scene of two characters achieving inter-racial harmony and North/South Harmony. The lyrics are notably anti-war in the sense of that the man you are killing might as well be your brother and a loss is a loss, equal is equal. These two have accepted their equality but right as they are facing their impending death. The sides they opposed each other on were so much cleaner and clearer for them than what they had just faced and could be facing again. American history is messy and I do think the purposeful lack of clarity in the shadow of the Civil War is the exact point of The Hateful Eight. Even if we did get out of the shadow of the Civil War as a country that expanded and grew, what we became as a growing country was a huge mess with its own darkness.

‘bizi, çocukların anababaları tarafından sömürülmesine son vermeyi istemekle mi suçluyorsunuz? bu suçu kabulleniyoruz.’

Karl Marx - Friedrich Engels -  Komünist Manifesto

Görsel :  A student sitting on the stairs at the entrance of the Sorbonne. A portrait of Karl Marx and a banner of the proletarian group against the General Confederation of Labour (CGT – Confédération générale du travail, the trade union collaborating with the communist party) are to be seen on the column behind her. Paris (France), May 30, 1968.

anonymous asked:

what was jefferson like as a grandfather

Very cool.

Thomas Jefferson had a total of twelve grandchildren to survive to adulthood. Eleven of the twelve were born to Jefferson’s eldest daughter, Martha, and Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. who served as Governor of Virginia. Martha’s younger sister, Maria, gave birth to her only surving child, Francis Eppes.

  1. Anne Cary Randolph (1791–1826) 
  2. Thomas Jefferson Randolph (1792–1875)
  3. Ellen Wayles Randolph (1796–1876) Named after her deceased older sister (born in 1794 and died 1795).
  4. Cornelia Jefferson Randolph (1799–1871)
  5. Virginia Jefferson Randolph (1801–1882)
  6. Francis Wayles Eppes VII (1801- 1881) The only surviving child of Jefferson’s youngest daughter.
  7. Mary Jefferson Randolph (1803–1876) 
  8. James Madison Randolph (1806–1834)
  9. Benjamin Franklin Randolph (1808–1871) 
  10. Meriwether Lewis Randolph (1810–1837) 
  11. Septimia Anne Randolph (1814–1887) 
  12. George Wythe Randolph (1818–1867) 

Thomas Jefferson enjoyed private time with his family. He never remarried after the death of his wife and their surviving family- daughters, Martha “Patsy” and Maria, and their twelve children- became his refuge and comfort. At the age of 73, he began bringing his grandchildren to Poplar Forest. Two of Martha Jefferson Randolph’s eleven children, Ellen, 19 years old, and Cornelia, 16, spent the most time at Poplar Forest and cherished the days with “Grandpapa.”

Grandfather Jefferson had an impact on every one of his grandchildren. Their pursuit of education, public service, farming, and family is evident in each or their lives:

  • Anne (January 23, 1791– February 11, 1826): Thomas Jefferson’s eldest grandchild and the daughter of Patsy Jefferson Randolph was born at Monticello. Ann died of complications following childbirth five months before her grandfather, on February 11, 1826,4 and was buried in the family graveyard at Monticello.
  • Thomas “Jeff” (1792—1875): born at Monticello, was the eldest son of Martha Jefferson Randolph and the eldest grandson of Thomas Jefferson. His education was supervised by his grandfather. Randolph soon took over the management of his grandfather’s affairs and displayed an aptitude for finance. Randolph became a member of the Board of Visitors at the University of Virginia, where he later served as Rector. Among other public offices, Randolph served six terms in the Virginia House of Delegates, where he supported the gradual emancipation and deportation of slaves. Too old to fight during the Civil War, Randolph nevertheless was given a colonel’s commission in the Confederate army, and in 1872 he served as chairman of the National Democratic Convention.Thomas Jefferson Randolph died at Edgehill following a carriage accident on October 7, 1875.
  • Ellen (Eleonora) (October 13, 1796-April 30, 1876): Was the fourth child born to Martha Jefferson Randolph. An accomplished scholar, particularly in languages. Ellen often accompanied Jefferson on trips to Poplar Forest. She was considered the belle of the family and traveled to Richmond, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia, where she was popular with her grandfather’s old friends, as well as young gentlemen. Married to Joseph Coolidge in the parlor at Monticello in 1825. Her husband’s business interests took him to China for long periods, leaving Ellen to single-handedly manage the family. It is unfair to say that Thomas Jefferson had a favorite granchild, it is possible that he enjoyed Ellen’s company the most; she was clearly his intellectual heir despite never attending college; for her part she called her grandfather her “earliest best friend”
  • Cornelia (1799-1871) : Born at Monticello and never married, Cornelia was an avid student of her grandfather’s, She learned mechanical drawing from Jefferson and practiced by creating renderings of architectural plans for the University of Virginia. excelling particularly in drawing; taught at a school teaching drawing, painting, and sculpture; tried to prevent the family’s financial situation; buried at the Monticello cemetery. 
  • Virginia (1801-1882): was born at Monticello. Virginia spent much of her childhood at Monticello and occasionally accompanied her grandfather on trips to Poplar Forest. Virginia shared an affinity for music with Jefferson, who bought her a pianoforte from Boston though he could barely afford it. After a youthful romance and long engagement with Nicholas Philip Trist the two were married at Monticello. Virginia and Nicholas’s sisters helped to run the school for young ladies. After her husband’s death in 1874, Virginia lived with one of her three children until her own death in April 1882.
  • Francis (September 20, 1801 - 1881): was the only surviving child of Jefferson’s daughter Maria Jefferson Eppes. In spite of the demands of the office, his grandfaterh took a keen interest in Francis, and the two of them became very devoted to each other. Jefferson became actively involved in Francis’ life. Eppes spent much of his time at Monticello, where Jefferson sought to inspire in him a love of learning. 1829, he became one of the founders of St. John’s Episcopal Church. He was a delegate to the convention when the Episcopal Diocese of Florida was founded in 1838 and served as the secretary of the Diocese for many years.In 1833, Governor William P. DuVal selected Francis as a justice of the peace. He served in the office for six years, striving to bring order to the wild frontier territory. Francis’ wife died in 1835 after the death of their sixth child. Nowhere is Jefferson’s influence on Francis more apparent than in his determination to found an institution of higher learning in Tallahassee. In April 1836 he and his father-in-law, Thomas Eston Randolph, were among a group of men who petitioned the Congress for the establishment of a seminary in the area. The petition failed but Francis was undaunted. Later he would appeal to the Florida Legislature. In 1851, the Legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of two institutions in the state, one east and one west of the Suwanee River.In 1854, a proposal to locate the western school in the City of Tallahassee was presented to the Legislature and failed to pass. This time the legislature passed the act for the western school to be in Tallahassee. Governor James Emilius Broome approved it on January 1, 1857. This marked the founding of the predecessor of the Florida State University.  Francis died on May 30, 1881, is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Orlando, Florida.
  • Mary (1803-1876): was born at Edgehill on November 2, 1803.1  She spent much of her time at Monticello and occasionally accompanied her grandfather Thomas Jefferson on trips to Poplar Forest. Never marrying, Mary lived at Edgehill, later the home of her older brother Thomas Jefferson Randolph, where she helped her sister-in-law Jane to supervise the household. Mary and her sister Cornelia also visited their other siblings, often serving as nurses during times of sickness. She remained there until her death on March 29, 1876.3
  • James (1806-1834): was the first to ever be born at the White House. Second son of Martha and Thomas Randolph; first child to be ever be born in the White House; graduated from the University Jefferson created; was considered quiet and gentle natured; lived alone and never married; died in his late 20s at his older brother Jeff’s estate.
  • Ben (1808-1871): A delicate child, Benjamin was educated by his mother and sisters and at Mr. Hatch’s school. He was a student at the University of Virginia but the family’s financial difficulties soon caused him to leave college. He soon was back at the University studying medicine. He had been elected three times as the University’s prize essay writer. The Jefferson Society also elected him as a member, and Dr. Dunglison considered him best in his class. Dr. Randolph was a strong supporter of secession and the Confederacy during the Civil War. Benjamin suffered a severe illness and he never fully recovered. Dr. Randolph died on February 18, 1871 and was buried in the graveyard of Christ Church, Glendower, near Keene in Albemarle County.
  • Meriwether (1810-1837): born at Monticello and named for his grandfather’s secretary, the explorer Meriwether Lewis. Randolph studied law and moral and natural philosophy at the University of Virginia but chose to pursue a career on the western frontier. He worked briefly as a clerk for the Department of State before being appointed Secretary of the Arkansas Territory by President Andrew Jackson 
  • Tim (Septimia): Was probably the most widely travelled of the grandchildren; moved with her mother to Boston after her grandfather died, and to Havanna, Cuba after her mother died where she married a Scottish doctor. After visiting Virginia, Washington, D.C. and Scotland, they settled in New York until her husband died. She retired near Edgehill, Virginia and later near Washington, D.C. where she stayed until her death.
  • Geordie (George) (1818-1867): Was born at Monticello and named for his grandfather’s law teacher. George served in the United States Navy and obtained his law degree from the University of Virginia.George eventually rose to the rank of Confederate Brigadier General and was nominated as the Confederate secretary of war but constant conflict with Jefferson Davis and Randolph’s own poor health led him to resign. Randolph died of tuberculosis at Edgehill on April 3, 1867, and was buried in the family cemetery at Monticello. 

In a quote from his granddaughter Ellen Randolph, “We saw, too, more of our dear grandfather at those times than at any other… He interested himself in all we did, thought, or read. He would talk to us about his own youth and early friends, and tell us stories of former days. He seemed really to take as much pleasure in these conversations with us, as if we had been older and wiser people.” and later in her life said“After dinner he again retired for some hours, and later in the afternoon walked with us on the terrace, conversing in the same delightful manner, being sometimes animated, and sometimes earnest. We did not leave him again until bed-time, but gave him his tea, and brought out our books or work. He would take his book from which he would occasionally look up to make a remark, to question us about what we were reading, or perhaps to read aloud to us from his own book, some passage which had struck him, and of which he wished to give us the benefit. About ten o’clock he rose to go, when we kissed him with warm, loving, grateful hearts, and went to our rest blessing God for such a friend.”

When Jefferson’s younger daughter Maria died in 1804, her only son, Francis Eppes, was two years old. Jefferson committed himself to Francis, whom he called “the dearest of all pledges,” and took an avid interest in his education. As a teenager, Francis visited Poplar Forest during breaks from New London Academy, located just three miles away.

He used to also organize races on his grounds for all of his grandchildren. 

Richard Brautigan (1935-1984), the great American novelist, poet, and short story writer, lived much of his early life in Eugene, Oregon, and later was hospitalized at the Oregon State Hospital in Salem, Oregon, at age 20. But after moving to San Francisco, with stints in Tokyo and Montana, he wrote some of the most pivotal novels of the early hippie days, including In Watermelon Sugar, and A Confederate General from Big Sur. And he was a letter writer, albeit short letters like this one from our special collections…

3

October 16th 1859: John Brown’s raid

On this day in 1859, abolitionist John Brown launched a raid on the federal armory in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown and his gang intended to steal the weaponry and arm slaves in the South to begin a slave rebellion which would finally eradicate the institution of slavery from the United States. Brown was born in 1800 to an ardent anti-slavery family, and his mother believed her son to be a prophet, destined for greatness. Brown’s journey to fame began when, aged 37, he attended an abolition meeting in Cleveland. The experience radicalised Brown, and thenceforth he was devoted to organising an insurrection to rid the nation of the evil of slavery. After the passage of the controversial 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act caused a rush to claim the Kansas territory for slavery or free labour, Brown and five of his sons joined the fight against proslavery forces. As an act of revenge for the attack on the abolitionist stronghold of Lawrence, Brown and his sons kiled five proslavery settlers in the Pottawatomie massacre. This experience confirmed in Brown’s mind the need for violence to purge America of slavery, and he began to raise money to support his planned slave uprising. The ‘Secret Six’ group of prominent abolitionists - including Gerritt Smith, who went on to help post Confederate President Jefferson Davis’s bail - funded the effort to gather 21 black and white men for the assault on Harpers Ferry. In the evening of October 16th, 1859, Brown’s group successfully captured the arsenal and took several hostages. However, the next day a local militia and a group of marines under the leadership of future Confederate general Robert E. Lee arrived to drive Brown out of the armory, and two days later the injured John Brown was captured. He was promptly found guilty of treason and murder, and was executed on December 2nd, 1859. John Brown’s legacy remains a contentious one. While his actions did not begin a slave uprising, they did stoke sectional tensions, which just two years later would break out into a war which resulted in the abolition of slavery, Brown’s ultimate goal. During the Civil War, Brown was celebrated in the Union army marching song ‘John Brown’s Body’, the tune of which was later used for ‘The Battle Hymn of the Republic’. However, Brown’s violent methods of achieving his goal raise the immortal question of whether violence is ever justified in the pursuit of freedom.

“I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.”
- Brown’s prophetic written statement on the day of his execution

10

Arlington National Cemetery is established on June 15, 1864,  when 200 acres (0.81 km2) around Arlington Mansion (formerly owned by Confederate General Robert E. Lee) are officially set aside as a military cemetery by U.S. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.