concepts of sociology

anonymous asked:

What do you think are the most important women architect in the history of architecture, and your fav?

OK, here is MY list. Everyone is free to agree or disagree or to comment on who was left out but I limited the list to 10 spots and focused on the last century.

You are invited to post about any of those that were not included and tag me, if I agree with your suggestion I will add a list of runner ups and link it to your post.

Lina Bo Bardi

Lina Bo Bardi, was an Italian-born Brazilian modernist architect. A prolific architect and designer, Lina Bo Bardi devoted her working life, most of it spent in Brazil, to promoting the social and cultural potential of architecture and design. Source Image

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xpmods  asked:

One of our players wants resources on writing a hivemind (specifically the Stepford Cuckoos/Five-In-One). Do you have anything on that? (Awesome blog btw - so helpful!)

Thank you so much @xpmods:)

Okay, so I had to look up the Stepford Cuckoos/Five-In-One (because I’m a loser and I’m not into superheroes), and I apologize if anything I say contradicts the Stepford Cuckoos’ abilities/powers. I’m not sure how to write for them specifically, but I do have some tips on writing a hive mind in general.

TIPS ON HOW TO WRITE A HIVE MIND

1. UNDERSTAND THE DEFINITION OF A HIVE MIND

Also know that there are different kinds of hive minds (Examples taken from Wikipedia)

1. Collective consciousness or collective intelligence, concepts in sociology and philosophy

2.Groupthink, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome

3. The apparent consciousness of colonies of social insects such as ants, bees, and termites

4.Swarm intelligence, the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial

5.Universal mind, a type of universal higher consciousness or source of being in some esoteric beliefs

6. Group mind (science fiction), a type of collective consciousness

7. Egregore, a phenomenon in occultism which has been described as group mind

The kind we think about most is probably collective consciousness and the hive mind that is associated with insects.

So basically it means that everybody is connected to everybody. There are no secrets. There is no individuality. Just one huge ball of shared information that is constantly being added to the more the individuals included within the hive mind experience different situations.

In the writing world, however, there are no set parameters. You can take this information and go wherever you want with it. You’re a writer, after all, and that’s what you do! You aren’t obligated to follow the exact definition.

4. STUDY ANIMALS THAT FUNCTION USING A HIVE MIND

You don’t actually have to go outside and study them; I mean research their behaviors as well as drawbacks that they sometimes experience.

For example, ants are followers. They leave scent trails so that other ants know where they have been, and many ants follow the ones in front of them without any way to control themselves; they simply can’t help but follow the ants in front of them. (This explains why you always see groups of ants moving in single file lines)

“Most ants navigate by using eyesight, but some army ants are completely blind – and it’s possible for them to become disorientated and march in circles until they die of exhaustion.

It’s known as an ‘ant mill’ and is one of the strangest sights in nature.

Army ants navigate by following pheromone trails left behind by others. However, should enough of them lose the scent they begin to follow the ant immediately in front and a huge ant spiral forms.” Source [x]

Basically, the ant in the front of the line turns, and sometimes the line is so long that the ant in the front collides with other ants in the line. Naturally, the ant begins to follow. The ants are now caught in a vicious circle where everyone is following the person in front of them. And, as the article states, they eventually die of exhaustion.

This is only one of the drawbacks, and this only pertains to ants.

This whole section basically is saying DO YOUR RESEARCH!!

3. KNOW THE COMMON TROPES ASSOCIATED WITH HIVE MINDS AND DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT YOU WANT TO AVOID THEM

Common tropes associated with a hive mind/creatures who are a part of a hive mind:

- Individuals are never found alone, always in groups

- Individuals talk at the same time, in the same monotone voice

- Individuals walk in time with each other

-The hive mind is always controlled by a single ruler, usually a Queen

- Individuals work together incredibly well and are nearly unstoppable

These tropes aren’t at all overused or stupid; there are simply too little well-known stories containing hive minds for it to become too cliche.

My advice is to use these tropes however you’d like, but still add your own little twist on it.

After all, the twists are what make your story unique!


Hope this helped!

Ladrien June Day 5 - Random Wikipedia Article

Adrien sighed and minimized the document. This assignment was really boring. He briefly looked over the Wikipedia article he had opened before hitting the ‘random article” button. It took him to a page about the an extinct kind of fish. Vaguely interesting.

He clicked it again. It took him to the page of a Japanese football player. Another click took him to a page about a short lived British comedy program. Then a neighborhood in Nairobi, then a technical article about some computer thing, then some sociological concept, then some small time Canadian politician. That one had a section marked ‘scandal’, which he read of course, so now he knew that some local representative in Saskatchewan bribed people to cover up the fact he was cheating on his wife. That information was in his brain now.

He leaned back in his chair and sighed. He really needed to finish that assignment. Maybe just one more article.

When the page loaded he blinked in surprise. Seriously? What are the chances?

It was Ladybug’s wikipedia page.

There was a picture of her from a press conference, smiling widely and waving to the crowd. It was a long page, and if he had to guess he would say it was mostly written by Alya. How had he never realized they had wikipedia pages?

“Ladybug (real name unknown) is a ladybug themed superhero who protects the city of Paris, France from regular attacks by the villain Hawkmoth. She works alongside Chat Noir … .”

He opened his own page in another tab to look at later and read through the page. After an introduction of her debut, it described the battles they had fought and different techniques she used. There was a section about her interaction with the press and charities she endorsed, as well as a section detailing everything the public knew about her

Adrien couldn’t help but smile. Seeing all of his Lady’s accomplishments on one page made his heart swell with pride. She was so magnificent.

It also made him happy because, while he didn’t know her true identity, he knew so much more details about her than the general public. The facts that she had shared with him, that she liked video games and that she didn’t like coffee but she still drank it when she needed to wake up quickly and she was terrible at remembering dates in history class, were all precious even if he didn’t know her name.

As he said after they defeated that first akuma, no matter who is under that mask, he was in love with that girl. It was one of many details that the page left out.

anonymous asked:

"tumblrs not a source", they say. so you cite the very very few actual studies that have been done to them, and... "omg, dont you know that (a bunch of things that are literally standard practice for doing studies) being in this study mean that this is completely worthless? weve debunked this SO many times"... like no shit a near invisible identity thats only getting any attention very recently doesnt have a lot of scientific and academic literature on it!? shocker!

its weird that people demand scientific sources for something thats not a scientific concept. Same with when terfs and truscum are like “learn basic biology” in regards to gender like hi im a bio major and im here to tell you that gender is  a sociological concept, not a biological one, and any attempt to prove or disprove the existence of trans people with science is just bad science. 

anonymous asked:

Your reverse racism response doesn't make much sense to me. First off the definition if reverse racism I have found tracking other sources, includes acts of prejudice as reverse racism. After all, if I'm black and I murder someone for being white, you wouldn't say that's not racist. Second, the idea and scale of an institution is vague in your post. A group of friends? 10 kids? A 100 man gang? Thirdly your logic assumes that an institution comprised of white people cannot oppress o (continued)

Cannot oppress other white people. My question is, why call it reverse racism to begin with? Why isn’t there just ‘racism.’ I think all that’s been mentioned and discussed is racist, it just varies on scale. Individual, group, institutions.

Okay so this is going to be my Big Long Sociology Student Post, and that will be the end of it on this blog. Any responses can be directed as asks at my personal; replies or reblogs to this post will be ignored.

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anonymous asked:

There are parts of me that don't even want to believe any of my assaults happened. Most of me doesn't want to tell anyone or make it that real. What do I do? how do I heal when I'm so afraid to talk about it? when my friends of years and family friends are always the culprits, why can't I fight back? I'm trying to be ok but sometimes all I can do is lay in bed and cry and ache over whats happened to me. I don't know how to be ok. I don't know how to fight back. I'm so happy I found this blog

#LAVENDER sisterhood answer:

“How do I heal when I’m so afraid to talk about it?”

this is at the heart of what is keeping you locked in this dysfunctional cycle.  

“when my friends of years and family friends are always the culprits, why can’t I fight back?”

you have the added problem (& more common problem) that you sexual abuser are in your family and there is huge consequences on numerous levels that a person who has no experience can understand.  

You have to avoid a lot of people’s advice because their advice only endorses unhealthy and dangerous dynamics surround the sanctity of a man’s family. 

You should only seek advice from a trained incest sexual assault counselor & #LAVENDER sisters who you can tell are not just stranger rapes, but experienced in their families too. 

You have everything, every symptoms from insecure attachment to unhealthy boundaries and that is what is keeping you from seeking help & recovery. 

You start by actually doing the things I advice like:

  1. Practice and make a relax ritual, daily.
  2. Make a lavender blog where only lavender sisters talk with you, build a support network of like sisters 
  3. write in that lavender blog 100% truth, 100% anon, start expressing yourself
  4. save posts that interest you so that you can find them when needed
  5. start incorporating the raw psy & sociology concepts into what they mean to your life, re-interpret your past through knowledge
  6. Find a creative outlet to express your pain
  7. Stay away from all drugs, except THC.  Your probability of developing a drug addiction is very very likely.  Stay on something you can control.
  8. Try not to seek male approval to get you through your emotional challenges, harder said than done.  

like the two definitions aces have put forth are “’allosexual’ describes people who experience sexual attraction” and “’allosexual’ describes people who don’t identify as asexual” and like… the former would include a lot of demisexuals and gray-ace people and the latter would describe a lot of full-on ace people who either don’t have or don’t like ace terminology.

so if aces are trying to redefine “allosexual” as “someone who doesn’t identify as asexual” instead of “someone who feels sexual attraction” then like… aren’t they essentially admitting that the word is meaningless? like if the only thing you have to do to access “allosexual privilege” is not identify as ace, then it doesn’t sound like “allosexual” has a cohesive structure to it & is based entirely on a personal labeling choice, as opposed to more meaningful sociological concepts like being straight, abled, neurotypical, etc.

So the masses have now caught on to Cultural Appropriation (is a sociological concept which views the adoption or use of elements of one culture by members of a different culture as a largely negative phenomenon), and most of the time, those not of color are pointed out for it...which is fine...BUT let’s not forget...

Some of y’all might get mad at this but…

Because y’all worship her

So quick to call it out, but I never see this on my dash tho, usually just Kylie Jenner and Katy Perry…

I personally could care less but since y’all been so hot about it, I thought I’d put into perspective…

And as a Moroccan, Henna is not just some cool, cute idea for arts and crafts and tattoo ideas, it’s cultural and sacred. Though it finds its way into more than one culture, it is a practice in Indian and Arabic culture…But it’s Rihanna right? So who caresss…yea. I really could care less about this cultural appropriation fight, and could care less about what she does, and this isn’t an attack towards Rihanna by any means, but let’s not be one sided. I just like to start real conversations and put things into perspective. Oh but it’s cultural appreciation not appropriation. I appreciate Chinese culture, I may even study it, but I am not Chinese, and I will not wear the garments that so honorably identify you, etc. Here comes the attacks and justifications from Rihanna fans………..unless y’all understand. :) #Noshade

Cultural Appropriation/Jackson/ Sociological Concepts n' Shit

Whenever I see people argue about “cultural appropriation" I never see people have a mutual agreement on what the definition of the concept is. The situation usually goes “this offended me, and it is also tied to my culture( probably), so it’s cultural appropriation and by virtue of the definition I applied to the term, it is a mortal sin and the offender MUST repent or out themselves as a RACIST because I was offended.“

It is actually difficult to find a impartial explanation and definition of cultural appropriation that isn’t affected by ideological beliefs, but rather observations of actual cultural phenomenons and the analysis of it’s causes and affects. All I see are arguments driven by emotion on the matter, which I am guilty of because I get angry at those who believe they are some sort of ambassador of a group and that any type of disagreement is not only invalid, but also indicative of your own identity. That is why whenever I see people use the term genuinely to condemn something I roll my eyes because more often than not what they are condemning is A. Not exclusive to their culture, B. Not driven by cultural influences C. Not taking anything from a culture​ and erasing the influences or D. Done by someone of that culture, but not of the race people want (because people conflate race and culture all too often.)

Of course, all of this is heavily American centric and may seem confusing or even downright dumb to people of other cultures, and I think the American lense of the whole situation is what makes the matter confusing because race and culture are often conflated in the U.S despite numerous overlaps and countless exchanges over generations.

I guess my main point in this post is to at least try to look at the concept as objectively as possible and look at ALL the factors in a situation or at least entertain the idea that other factors can be at play. Also, know exactly what the other person means by cultural appropriation, and challenge their definition by seeing if they will be consistent.

I think one of the most powerful lessons I learned in high school and college was that academics are biased. In the lower grades they teach you that your curriculum is truth and the teacher knows everything, that by the time you get older you don’t realize that everything has a bias. 

Like sure, we know that humanities classes have a bias. There’s no one way to interpret a book, or a period of history, or a sociological concept. But even the pool we choose from in academics is biased towards white male authors and academics and philosophers. The bias is also in what’s never been given a chance to be viewed. 

And math and science are the same way. That math textbook? Intentionally left out some concepts and theorems because it didn’t have time to give you the full picture. That science journal? Only a subset of scientists could even write for it, and each of them have personal biases that they carry with them into their work. People are constantly making assumptions and decisions about what’s important, and those are influenced by their backgrounds and societies. There is no universal truth, even in the STEM fields where people laud absolutism.

The point is: don’t just accept truth. Think and investigate. If you see yourself being fed a narrow perspective, look for sources in other places. Suddenly something that seems universally true might look very biased from a different angle. Then, when you determine your truth, it’ll have an even stronger footing.

What Sci-Fi/Fantasy/Speculative Fiction book should you read, based on your type?

Feel free to read all of these regardless of type.

ESTJ: The Kingkiller Chronicles - Rothfuss. I may be pushing my luck recommending an as-of-yet unfinished series to a Te-dom. However, too bad. Read the first two books in the unfinished trilogy; you may not like the side novella that came out and it’s not essential to the plot. Anyway, the story takes the form of a character retelling his adventures in a tavern during war time, and the total length of time that’s passed has been like 2 days, so dude is talking a hell of a lot. It’s a widely-spanning fantasy though, with a magical system that depends on knowing the true names of things and intricate world building.

ISTJ: American Gods - Gaiman. It’s going to be a TV series that frankly looks amazing, so read it beforehand. Also, it’s a great book about mythologies and what happens when people stop believing in them. It’s reference-heavy, highly detailed, includes one of my favorite monologues in literature, and draws on real places in the U.S. I also heavily associate Si with the midwestern states where much of the story takes place. Incidentally: I went to House on the Rock about a year ago because I’d lived not far from it and never gone, and was about to move. If you are ever in the vicinity of Spring Green, Wisconsin, check it out. It’s super weird.

INTJ: The Patternmaster Series - Butler. These books were actually written backwards, in that the latest in the series was the first published, and then Butler worked her way back and figured out how they got there. It’s a pretty grim series, but highly original and visionary. Doro strikes me as definitely an NTJ, in his brutal pragmatism mixed with a very strange, far-future reaching goal of a psychic network. I actually read Wild Seed years ago and only read the rest of the books later; I think Wild Seed is possibly the best written and can stand alone best, but the whole series isn’t long and it works best as a whole.

ENTJ: The Foundation trilogy (Foundation, Foundation and Empire, Second Foundation - ignore the later additions to the series) - Asimov. The whole concept of psychohistory (using sociology and psychology to predict political events) is very Ni; The Foundation, set up to control those events, is Te. Not going to lie, this is probably the series I least remember on this list as I haven’t read it in probably 10 years or so, but I remember at the time it being both familiar (I’d read a decent amount of Asimov at the time) and unfamiliar (I’d mostly read his short stories which were often more humorous).

ESFJ: A Song of Ice and Fire - Martin. Here’s the thing. I actually don’t watch Game of Thrones, and for a long time I was like “look, I’ve read the books, I don’t need to see that onscreen.” But now the show has gone beyond the books and I feel left out of the water cooler conversation. So, ESFJs, as people who rock the water cooler conversation, read the books and watch the show and now you can talk to anyone about that! Bonus: you can talk about it with nerds who say they hate small talk even though I would consider chatting about a hit TV show to be the height of small talk (as a sometimes awkward nerd myself). Plus this series follows a number of characters, is rich with detail and with the history of what’s happened in the past 30 or so years in Westeros, and features some top-notch insane manipulation that you can be horrified by and/or appreciate depending on your Fe usage. 

ISFJ: The Mists of Avalon - Bradley. I personally associate Si-Ne with an obsession with the details and stories of mythology (rather than the abstract archetypes), so this retelling of the Arthurian legends from the point of view of the women makes me think of ISFJs. I remember reading this as a teenager and liking it somewhat more than I do now but I still enjoy it; by having much of the novel from the point of view of Morgan Le Fay we get to see multiple sides of the story and how all the characters truly interact.

INFJ: Cloud Atlas - Mitchell. I find Mitchell’s dystopian views of the future (here and in the Bone Clocks) super depressing; I find the fact that all his novels are interconnected impressive. Cloud Atlas (I haven’t seen the movie) is 6 stories nested within each other, sharing some key details and hinting that the characters are connected spiritually or even as incarnations of each other or characters in each others fictions while also directly contradicting that by having some of the characters meet each other. The abstract and puzzle-like nature should appeal to INFJs, as will the strongly-drawn characters.

ENFJ: The City and The City - Mieville. I loved this after several failed attempts to get into Mieville; I think the fact that I read it on a trip (in Edinburgh) helped because it is a very European novel in a lot of ways. Anyway, this novel is dark and twisty in a highly Ni-type of way, but also very much about the agreed-upon social codes that countries or cultures share. It’s hard to describe - I’ve never read a book quite like it - but it’s a pretty quick read.

ESTP: The Martian - Weir. I know the character of Watney is generally considered to be an ENTP but I think the book has a particular appeal to ESTPs. It’s about survival, about breaking the rules because they don’t make sense or benefit someone, about the weird balance of self-reliance and teamwork, and it’s also really funny. Plus, while I am definitely on team “sensors actually fucking love science fiction”, it is my experience that this particular type of hard sci fi appeals to STPs in particular. Also: there’s a movie! It’s pretty good!

ISTP: Guards! Guards! - Terry Pratchett. I haven’t read much of Discworld actually which is why I’m not recommending the whole intertwined series, but once I have more time I intend to dig in. I have read this and the second Night’s Watch books, and ISTP sister loves Discworld and has read most of it so you have her word if not mine if you want to continue. It’s hilarious and full of action, and ranges from very dry to terrible puns. Plus ISTPs are as we know the Cool Nerds so this should help with that cred.

INTP: The Dirk Gently Series - Adams. You’ve almost certainly already read Hitchhiker’s Guide, so read Adams other series, about Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency. As with all of Adams’ works, it’s a strange mix of mundane, surreal, and alien; clearly not realistic but not really fitting into a single genre; very funny; and highly scattered yet possessing a certain logical consistency (I’m pretty sure Adams was an ENTP; he talked about being inspired by works of music a lot in a way that seems like Ne to me, plus his deadlines quote is pretty xNTP). Plus, the first book came to be from a failed Doctor Who script and INTPs are (almost) always massive Whovians.

ENTP: The Belgariad/Mallorean - Eddings. Because I’m feeling contrarian right now I gave the Ne-doms arguably the two longest series. IT’LL BE GOOD FOR YOU I SWEAR. Anyway, these two series by David Eddings are five books each but they go really quickly. I first read them all as a teenager and I go back every few years to reread them because they’re just a lot of fun. Eddings was an adventure writer who decided to write a trope-filled high fantasy series. As such, his story touches on a lot of major archetypes (the thief/knave/rogue, the innocent chosen one, the wise mysterious old man, the fiesty princess, etc) but does so with a great sense of humor. And the characters are constantly bickering/snarking, which should appeal to ENTPs. Plus I think the character introduced as Old Wolf is an ENTP, so now you have to read it and debate with me.

ESFP: The Dresden Files (I haven’t read all of this, so start with Storm Front and read until you’re bored) - Butcher. Another action-heavy, fast-paced series, and funnily enough like the previous series, written to some extent because the author wanted to be as cliche as possible (but whereas Eddings was like “hmm, I’ll do this because it seems interesting”, Butcher was encouraged to write urban fantasy by his teacher and he decided to make it as cliche as possible out of sheer stubbornness, which ESFPs have a lot of surprisingly enough). The books are funny, non-stop, and personally I find something very xSFP in urban fantasy that I can’t quite describe.

ISFP: The Years of Rice and Salt - Robinson. This is actually only sci-fi in that a. it involves reincarnation, and b. it’s an alternate history. The premise is that the bubonic plague, instead of killing about a third of Europe, killed 99%. As a result, Christianity and European culture all but died out and the two dominant cultures in the ‘old world’ were those of Buddhism (East and South Asia) and Islam (Central Asia and Africa, eventually migrating north into southern Europe). It’s a long but fascinating novel, with excellent details and characters who constantly rebel against societies that in our world, don’t exist.

INFP: The Magicians - Grossman. It was called Harry Potter for adults, which is stupid because a. I’m an adult of the generation that grew up with Harry Potter and I’ve had long serious conversations with people my age about Hogwarts houses more times than I can count so Harry Potter is if not for adults, at least highly represented among adults and b. other than being set in a school for wizards it’s really not the same. The story is much broader and more expansive, but underneath it all there’s a very strong Fi feel, and a dissatisfaction in knowing one is special and yet not feeling as though that’s enough. I can’t give away any more but there’s also something that I found very Ne-Si in the story as well.

ENFP: The Vorkosigan Saga (or selections thereof) - Bujold. I whole-heartedly recommend the Vorkosigan saga to anyone, over and over, because it is amazing, but because Miles is an ENFP (I struggled over this typing), I recommend it to ENFPs in particular because he’s not flaky or Random!Lololol! like the ENFP stereotype and I think they’ll appreciate that. In fact his main characteristic is ‘terrifyingly driven’; a good deal of that comes from his whole quest to define and prove himself, and a lot comes from the realities of his environment (Te is very helpful when you’re fighting in outer space). The whole damn series is worth it, but if you are bad at sitting still and reading then I recommend the novella The Mountains of Mourning, which won a bunch of awards and gets an amazing callback in one of my favorite books in the series, Memory. Alternately, if you’re cool with spoilers for a lot of the books about Miles’s youth and/or want minimal sci-fi and maximal farce, A Civil Campaign is hilarious and you can pick up most of the previous references through inference/a wikipedia search.

If you didn’t like the recommendation for your type: I couldn’t decide where to put The Diamond Age, Cryptonomicon, or Snow Crash, all by Neal Stephenson, but they’re all good (Stephenson’s writing seems to lean NTP to me) ; writing about The Mists of Avalon reminded me of Gerald Morris’s YA The Squire’s Tale series which is a humorous retelling of the Arthurian legends (The Sword in the Stone is also a very different humorous retelling); Good Omens is funny and amazing and everyone should read it, and I just read the short story collection The Assimilated Cuban’s Guide to Quantum Santeria if you’re more a short story person. 

“Soul. Spirit. Free will. God. What do those deceitful, supporting concepts of morality mean, if not the physiological ruin of humanity? When you divert seriousness from the self-preservation of the body and construct an ideal of anemia out of contempt in its place, what is that if not a recipe for decadence?”

—F. Nietzsche, Ecce Homo, “Daybreak” §2 (edited excerpt).

Entry 238: Red Queen hypothesis

The Red Queen hypothesis is an evolutionary supposition that suggests different species are in a constant biological arms race. Leigh Van Valen coined this term by referencing a line from Through the Looking Glass:

“[I]t takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place.”

The Red Queen to Alice.

Originally posted by the-shattered-crystal-world

Simply put, this hypothesis asserts that (1) various species have antagonistic relationships (predator to prey; parasite to host); (2) this antagonism forces species to adapt (evolve) new advantages over their antagonists or die (extinction); (3) their antagonists must also gain advantages to be equally matched or they will die out as well; (4) this process is cyclical. 

Basically, all the species are constantly running (evolving) in order to stay in place (extant) while locked in their endless conflict. Each species can either keep up with other species or die out. This evolution occurs on the hereditary level, during meiosis and genetic recombination.

Originally posted by bpod-mrc

There are two components to this hypothesis that I find extremely valuable as “take away” messages:

1. Competition creates an environment that fosters more efficient innovations.

2. Recombination events increase the variety of these innovations.

The first is obvious to most people. In a competitive environment in which most parties are more or less equal, there is generally a selective pressure towards progress. This is seen on the evolutionary level as well as the sociological level. All forms of social interactions are in some ways related to competition. Even collaboration and cooperative efforts are a competitive response when the larger context of competitive environments is considered.

The second component is less obvious. In biology, sexual reproduction outpaces asexual reproduction; aside from sexual selection, recombination events are important for generating novel elements to possibly endow biological fitness. This can be extrapolated to sociological concepts as well: it may be better to come up with one hundred different ideas at variable success than reproduce the same, exact idea.

Alone, these two components do not go very far, but taken together they create a powerful dynamic. In a competitive and rapidly-changing environment, the generation of a hundred ideas at variable success is superior to replicating the same idea. 

Originally posted by wardsnow

Businesses that do not germinate new and novel approaches die out to their competitors, just as asexual organisms die out to rapidly-evolving predators or parasites.

There’s more.

The antagonizing environment not only enforces more idea generation but also enhances it. Selective pressure is powerful. If someone else comes up with a better idea, they have the advantage, which is why we come up with an even better idea or modification that gives us a slighter advantage. They respond in turn by building an even better idea. Assuming both sides keep trying to diversify and generate ideas, they will be locked in a cycle of idea generation.

Originally posted by kitslam

Because humans are social creatures and our societies are based on competition with collaboration, we constantly push each other to develop better ideas.

There’s just a slight corollary.

Complacency. We get comfortable. “Someone else will think of that. I am incapable of this or not good at this therefore I should not pursue it. I want to be mediocre; I want to be average.” Or maybe: “I can definitely do it! …later.” 

Originally posted by aybusra

While this may work for some people, it cannot work for me. I am flawed. I am imperfect. I am limited. I know that perfection is an illusionary carrot on a stick. But I’ll be damned if I don’t pursue it. This whole Red Queen hypothesis has been something vaguely intuitive for me, but I don’t think I’ve ever come as close to describing it as I have now. I need to find new ways to recombine my ideas and new sources to derive inspiration and insight if I want to even keep “in place.” I need to be in constant search of insight and innovation even if it means just gaining the smallest advantage.

I want novelty and I want challenge so I can push myself beyond that novelty. I’m beginning to realize that in comfortable or stagnant environments, the “antagonism” has to be internal. I need to compete and be in an ever-eternal conflict with that “perfect” self. That’s the only way I can continue growing and adapting. And as I am doing this, I should be looking for environments that stimulate me the same way, so I can be in constant competition with others who will oppose and corner me — all so I am forced to grow and find my way out.

I’m proud and at the same time dismayed that it took me this long to come to such a lucid realization, but every step — every slight advantage, no matter how small — is progress.

This is my arms race.

What, then, is the State as a sociological concept? The State, completely in its genesis, essentially and almost completely during the first stages of its existence, is a social institution, forced by a victorious group of men on a defeated group, with the sole purpose of regulating the dominion of the victorious group over the vanquished, and securing itself against revolt from within and attacks from abroad. Teleologically, this dominion had no other purpose than the economic exploitation of the vanquished by the victors.

No primitive State known to history originated in any other manner.
— 

Franz Oppenheimer, The State, (1997) p.9

The most common argument I see against the word “privilege” is that it is “annoying.”

You are, of course, welcome to find anything annoying if you want. So here’s what I personally find annoying:

  • Seeing people with no background in the social sciences summarily dismiss a sociological concept backed by decades of theory and research because they don’t like the sound of it;
  • Having my own ideas and writing dismissed because they share a word in common with a bad Tumblr you read once;
  • Being asked to apologize for people I have never met or interacted with who were mean to you when you argued against the word “privilege”;
  • The implication that ideas have to make you feel good in order to be accurate and worth your consideration, and ideas that make you feel uncomfortable or bad can be safely dismissed.

“My task is to prepare for humanity’s moment of the highest self-examination. This follows necessarily from the insight that humanity has absolutely no divine governance and has not put itself on the correct path, but rather that the instinct of negation has been seductively at work under humanity’s holiest value concepts.”

—F. Nietzsche, Ecce Homo, “Daybreak” §2 (edited excerpt).

nobody can have ‘the male gaze’ because the male gaze refers to an abstract sociological concept of how women’s bodies are portrayed in media and not the literal gaze of a male