compound a compound

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Please oh please, everyone…watch this…

I can’t breathe, I’m crying. I’ve seen this upwards of 20 times and its still fucking funny

かっこいい/かわいい熟語のリスト
A list of cool/cute Japanese compound words

  • 別腹(べつばら)→ (n.) having room for dessert even if one is full (lit. extra stomach)
  • 口寂しい(くちさびしい)→ (n.) the feeling of wanting to put something in one’s mouth (lit. mouth + lonely)
  • 食い違い(くいちがい)→ (n.) diverging or conflicting opinions (lit. eating + different)
  • 食い倒れ(くいだおれ)→ (n.) getting into debt by extravagance in food (lit. eating + bad debt/collapse)
  • 寝酒(ねさけ)→ (n.) night cap ⭐︎☽ (lit. sleep + alcohol)
  • 昼寝(ひるね)→ (n.) siesta, nap (lit. daytime + sleep)
  • 寝坊(ねぼう)→ (n.) late riser, sleepyhead (lit. sleep + someone who~)
  • 朝寝(あさね)→ (n./–suru v.) sleeping late in the morning (lit. morning + sleep)
  • 早起き(はやおき)→ (n.) early riser (lit. early + wake up)
  • 歩き回る(あるきまわる)→ (v.) walking about (lit. walk + turn)
  • 水遊び(みずあそび)→ (n.) splashing about (lit. water + play)
  • 長話(ながはなし)→ (n.) a long talk (lit. talk + long)
  • 話々(はなしばなし)→ (n.) small talk (lit. talk + talk)
  • 昔話(むかしばなし)→ (n.) legends, old tales, reminiscence (lit. olden days + talk)
  • 心強い(こころずよい)→ (–i adj.) reassuring, heartening (lit. heart + strong)
  • 猫好き(ねこずき)→ (n.) cat lover (lit. cat + like)
  • 猫舌(ねこじた)→ (n.) dislike of hot drinks or food (lit. cat + tongue)
  • 積ん読(つんどく)→ (n./–suru v.) buying books and not reading them (lit. pile up/stack + read)
  • 忘れ物(わすれもの)→ (n.) something you left behind, forgot (lit. forgot + thing)
  • 蛇足(だそく)→ (n.) useless addition, redundancy (lit. snake + legs) 
    ˉ̶̡̭̭ ( ´͈ ᗨ `͈ ) ˉ̶̡̭̭
Spring Outlook
  • Person: Awww! Look at the green baby leaves!
  • Me: C55H72O5N4Mg
  • Person: Wow! Look at the way the sun hits those trees!
  • Me: 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Person: Mmmm... it smells like freshly fallen rain!
  • Me: C12H22O
  • Person: Could you maybe just-
  • Me: *whispered* I've tried... It can't be stopped!!!
Nightmare: Loki

pairing: Loki x reader

summary: you have a nightmare, and when you go to make yourself a cup of tea Loki surprises you in the kitchen. he offers some help

warnings: none

Sweat beads dripped down your face and your neck as you shot your head up and let out a strained scream. Your latest nightmare was more vivid than the regular ones you were used to. With your breath coming out in short pants, you attempted to calm yourself down before you woke anyone up. Laying down was not going to help ease your mind into the state of calmness it once was resting at, so you quietly got out of bed to make a cup of tea. It seemed like a routine at this point; waking up at 2 in the morning, and having to calm yourself down into a false sense of security.

You didn’t even notice Loki, the God of Mischief, quietly reading a book on the couch under lamplight as you shuffled through the main room and into the kitchen. With your hands still shaking from panic, you opened the cabinet and grabbed the familiar pink mug. After setting it onto the marble counter, you began the works for the cup of tea. Putting a pot of water on the stovetop to boil, you leaned on the counter, and continued to take in short, choppy breaths.

“Are you alright, Lady Y/n?” A silky voice quietly asked, startling you. You turned to see Loki grinning at you over the pages of his book, and you smiled at his civilian appearance. He had a cat sweater on that Thor must’ve given him, and sweatpants.

“Mhm, just couldn’t sleep.” You shrugged your shoulders, technically it wasn’t a lie. No one needed to know about the demons that plagued your sleep. You also wouldn’t be able to get more than four words out with his intense gaze locked on you. Something about Loki caught your eye in a special way, but you weren’t quite sure what.

Loki squinted, “Why are you lying to me about your well-being?” he pressed.

You snapped back, “I am not.” The water was boiling on the stove, so you took it as the perfect moment to break eye contact and get your tea together, and maybe even head back to your room. You poured the boiling water into the mug and hurried off past Loki and back down the hall. Before you were even in your room, he teleported in front of you and blocked the path to your room. Loki insisted once more that you were lying.

Instead of arguing with him any further, you tried to duck underneath his arm. He caught you, however, before you could even attempt and quickly swept one arm under your knees and the other cradling your back and picked you up. You couldn’t protest without waking up the rest of the Avengers, considering the two of you were smack dab in the middle of the hallway. It was a miracle you didn’t spill your cup of tea everywhere as he carefully held you against his chest and carried you to your room.

“Nightmares, I presume?” He whispered as he gently set you down back in your bed, took the cup of tea out of your hand and placed it on the bedside table. All you could do at the moment was nod tiredly and wonder in the back of your mind how he knew about your nightmares.

Loki, instead of returning to his book in the main room, moved to the other side of your bed and crawled in next to you, draping his arm around your waist. You were blushing like mad and tensed up a bit. He must have noticed, because he tightened his grip on you and buried his face in your hair. Loki snaked his other arm underneath of you, fully pulling you into a warm cuddle. You didn’t expect this type of treatment from someone as cynical as Loki, but fully welcomed it. His embrace finally started to sooth the fear from your nightmare. You felt safe wrapped up in his arms.

Molecule of the Day: Diazepam/Valium

Diazepam (C16H13ClN2O), also known as Valium, is a white solid that is of significant pharmaceutical importance. It is a member of the benzodiazepine family, which shares the similar bicyclic system comprising of a conjoined benzene and diazepine ring.

Diazepam is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders, and this is achieved by its binding to GABA receptors on neurons. This causes the active site of the receptors to become a better fit for GABA molecules, resulting in a higher binding of GABA to it. This triggers a greater influx of chloride ions into the neuron. 

Since the intracellular portion of the neuron is more negative than normal, the membrane is hyperpolarised to a greater extent. Consequently, a stronger stimulus is needed to trigger an action potential, which is created when a stimulus causes the membrane to reach the threshold potential.

Since the resting potential is now more negative, the action potential and thus firing of the neuron is less likely. This then produces the anxiolytic, sedative, amnesia-inducing, and anticonvulsant effects of diazepam. 

Diazepam can be produced by various synthetic pathways; one such route is shown below.

Requested by anonymous

Molecule of the Day: Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (C10H15N), also known as meth or crystal meth, is a colourless liquid at room temperature. It is more commonly encountered as the hydrochloride salt (C10H15N.HCl), which is a white solid under standard conditions. It is a central nervous system stimulant, and is used as a recreational drug.

Methamphetamine acts as an agonist at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), resulting in the release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This causes dopamine and noradrenaline transporters to reverse the movement of dopamine and noradrenaline through them; instead of taking them up from the synapse, it releases them from the cell. Furthermore, it inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO), which normally breaks down dopamine and noradrenaline.

The resultant increase in dopamine and noradrenaline in the synapse causes the corresponding receptors on the postsynaptic membrane to be stimulated to a greater extent, resulting in feelings of euphoria, increased alertness, and a raised heart rate.

Methamphetamine, however, has a high risk of addiction. The high levels of dopamine and noradrenaline can result in tolerance by the body as the postsynaptic neuron reduces the number of receptors to modulate the stimulus. A protein called ΔFosB is also produced in the neurons, resulting in the increased transcription of certain genes, producing addictive behaviour.

As ΔFosB is degraded much more slowly than related proteins, it accumulates upon regular consumption of methamphetamine, resulting in increasing levels of addiction.

Methamphetamine also produces a range of side effects such as loss of appetite, dry skin, acne, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, psychosis, scratching of the skin, as well as loss of teeth. An overdose can also result in tremors, hyperthermia, cerebral haemorrhaging, kidney failure, circulatory collapse, coma, and death. (Below: before/after methamphetamine consumption)

It has been used as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity, albeit rarely due to its significant drawbacks compared to other existing treatments for these conditions. One of its isomers, levomethamphetamine (below left), is also used in nasal decongestant sprays as it results in vasoconstriction. Unlike its optical isomer, dextromethamphetamine (below right), it does not result in addiction and dependence.

Methamphetamine can be easily synthesised from the condensation of phenylacetone with methylamine, followed by reductive amination:

Note: This post is intended to examine the compound from a chemical/medical point of view for educational purposes, and does not endorse drug abuse in any way.

2 Day Full Body Strength and Mass Workout

If your having a hectic week and finding it hard to get down the gym but still want to pack on some muscle then this is for you!

Try this two day a week full body workout to pack on some serious size and strength gains 💪

Day One

Squat – 5 x 5
Stiff Legged Deadlift – 4 x 12
Bench Press – 5 x 5
Pullups or Chin - 4 x Failure
Calf Raises – 3 x 20
Crunches – 2 x Failure

Day Two

Deadlift – 5 x 5
Military Press – 5 x 5
Dips – 4 x Failure
Barbell Curl – 4 x 12
Wrist Curls – 3 x 20
Crunches – 2 x Failure

Give it a try and let me know what you think in the comments 💬

If you enjoy this workout a ♥ or a 🔄 would be greatly appreciated 😄

Thanks for following The Fitness Vault ✌

4

Funny and bizarre German animal names

The German language is famous for some really long nouns (Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän comes to mind). This is because German nouns, verbs, prepositions and adjectives are like lego bricks; you can stick them together in almost any way to create new words that encapsulate new concepts. This gives the language a special ability to name just about anything. You could call it the German language’s lego brick-like quality, or Legosteineigenschaft (see what I just did there?).

But why does German rely on such an elaborate process to name things as simple as squirrels? When broken down into their separate components, the names of familiar animals mutate into bizarre new creatures.

The Uncanny X-Tiere

Comics are full of heroes with names like super, wonder, iron, ultra, bat or cat followed by -man, -woman, -girl or -boy. A lot of German animal names work the same way, where Tier – the word for animal – is preceded by a word describing that animal’s “super power”.

  • Stinktier – stink animal (skunk)

  • Faultier – lazy animal (sloth)

  • Gürteltier – belt animal (armadillo)

  • Murmeltier – mumbling animal (groundhog)

  • Schnabeltier – beak animal (platypus)

  • Maultier – mouth animal (mule)

  • Trampeltier – trampling animal (bactrian camel). The verb trampeln means to trample or tread upon, whereas the noun Trampel is a clumsy oaf.

Sometimes suffixes get more specific than -tier, but still tend to describe the wrong animal:

  • Schildkröte – shield toad (tortoise)

  • Waschbär – wash bear (raccoon)

  • Nacktschnecke – naked snail (slug)

  • Fledermaus – flutter mouse (bat)

  • Seehund – sea dog (seal)

  • Tintenfisch – ink fish (squid)

  • Truthahn – threatening chicken (turkey). Trut is onomatopoeic for the trut-trut-trut cluck of a turkey, but it’s also been hypothesized that the name comes from the Middle German droten which means “to threaten”.

No, I’m Pretty Sure That’s A Pig

Swine seem to be a popular yardstick in German animal taxonomy.

  • Schweinswal – pig whale (porpoise)

  • Seeschwein – sea pig (dugong). Not to be confused with the Seekuh, or sea cow, known in English as a manatee.

  • Stachelschwein – spike pig (porcupine). The English word is actually just as literal; porcupine sounds a lot like “pork spine”.

  • Wasserschwein – water pig (capybara)

  • Meerschweinchen – ocean piglet (guinea pig). The ending -chen denotes something small. Add it to the end of Schwein and you get a little pig, or piglet. Since the stems Meer and Wasser are often interchangeable, it’s most likely that Meerschweinchen actually means little capybara.

Just Plain Weird

I’d like to end this list by giving one animal a category all to itself: the humble squirrel.

Eichhörnchen:

  • little oak horn: Eiche (oak tree) + Horn (horn) + -chen (little)
  • oak croissant: Eiche (oak tree) + Hörnchen (croissant)

alternate names:

  • Eichkätzchen (regional name) and Eichkatzerl (Austria) – oak kitten

Calling a squirrel a “tree kitten” is reasonably literal, but where does “little oak horn” come from? It seems that the answer comes down to a misplaced h: Eichhörnchen comes from the Old and Middle German eichorn, which has nothing to do with oak trees or horns. In this case, the eich comes from the ancient Indo-Germanic word aig, which means agitated movement, combined with the now obsolete suffix -orn. Somewhere in history a superfluous h was added (along with the diminutive -chen ending) but the original meaning remained. Today, Hörnchen is a category of rodents that includes all squirrels, chipmunks, groundhogs, prairie dogs and flying squirrels.

Keep an eye on this spot for an upcoming post where we’ll delve deeper into the animal kingdom: branching out to birds, insects, reptiles, fishes and any other mammals we find crawling around.

Molecule of the Day - Adrenaline/Epinephrine

Adrenaline (C9H13NO3), also known as epinephrine, is a naturally-occurring hormone and neurotransmitter found in our body. Along with noradrenaline, it is produced by the adrenal medulla, which is situated above the kidneys.

As a hormone, adrenaline stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and is partly responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response.

It binds to adrenergic receptors, which are found in almost all tissues, inducing the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (see below), glycolysis, and also inhibits glycogen synthesis as well as insulin secretion. This results in a surge in glucose availability, providing a burst of energy needed to escape any danger. 

Adrenaline also promotes vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels, as well as an increase in heart rate to raise the amount of blood being pumped throughout the body. This causes more oxygenated blood to reach the body at a faster rate, enabling cells to carry out respiration to produce more energy as well.

An interesting study revealed that adrenaline is associated with fear. A 1999 study showed that subjects injected with adrenaline experienced greater feelings of fear upon watching horror films. They also expressed greater negative emotions than the control group.

In nature, adrenaline is biosynthesised from phenylalanine through multiple enzyme-catalysed reactions:

On the other hand, adrenaline can be synthesised from resorcinol and 2-chloroethanoyl chloride in the lab: