comparative medicine

anonymous asked:

I recently learned that gastric volvulus can occur in humans and that threw my mind upside down. Since that's possible, can can cats get it? How common is it in cats? I'm not asking as a diagnosis, I'm just really curious because I never thought about it as anything but a dog problem.

I did not know gastric volvulus was a significant thing in humans, though the process seems quite different in humans than it does with dogs, with no distinct dilation and around a third of cases being associated with congenital abnormalities. Wiki has a nice article with no pictures.

While gastric dilatation volvulus is well known in dogs, only a handful of cases have been reported in cats (10 as of a decade ago), so it’s super rare and a third of those cases also had diaphragmatic hernias. Compare this to dogs with deep chests that can apparently twist their stomachs spontaneously.

I suppose everything with a stomach could potentially twist it, cattle displace their abomasum which is the equivalent condition in a ruminant.


Want to improve your memory? The “loci” really works, according to science.

  • So how can you improve memory? It has long been believed to depend on genetics, and research has focused on links between recall and intelligence.
  • But a new Stanford University School of Medicine study comparing fMRI brain scans of so-called “memory athletes” with normal folks suggests that great recall doesn’t need to be inherited: It can actually be learned.
  • The loci method, sometimes described as the “memory palace” method, was coined by Greek and Roman orators who had to memorize long speeches without the help of text.
  • The idea  is pretty simple. Humans are better at processing visual information than textual information, so if you want to remember a ton of words at once, pair each one with an image. Read more (3/8/17 12:12 PM).

follow @the-future-now


I can’t put into words how MAD this video makes me. It’s absolutely infuriating.

It’s a portrayal of the “heartless money-hungry veterinarian” that so many people believe is the truth. I’m sure there are a few greedy vets out there - but that is a very small minority. Most vets are overworked and underpaid, paying off hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of 8+ years of schooling and college loans.

People entering this field realize that they will have to work nights, weekends, holidays away from their families and friends. They realize they will be in a huge amount of debt and not making a huge amount of money to pay it off. They realize they will have to deal with sad cases, and emotional (angry or sad) owners. People who chose this career do so because they care about the wellbeing of the animals.

If a medication or a prescription food is being advised, don’t be afraid to ask your vet why. I’m sure they have a good reason for prescribing it and explain whether it’s an option or a necessity.

Most of the time, veterinary staff will TELL you that you can get the medication/food cheaper by taking our paper prescription and going to petsmart, Walmart, Chewy, Amazon, etc. We offer being able to pick it up at our office since it may be more convenient.

Most vets genuinely care about the well-being of your animal (even if they are frustrated with the attitude of the owner). People don’t realize how much medical care costs, since most human medical costs are covered by insurance (and yes, there is pet insurance, and yes, it does help a lot).

The fact that monetary constraints play such a HUGE part in veterinary medicine (compared to human medicine) means that beautiful, ideal treatment plans created by the doctor often can’t be put into use. This is something most human medical doctors will never have to deal with.

Treatments can’t be done for free, because if they were, the hospital would go out of business. There would be no way to pay staff so that they can pay their own rent, and there would be no way to pay the hospital’s bills or for supplies. Without the hospital, no pets would be able to be treated.

Sometimes diagnostics are necessary. If YOU go to the doctor or the hospital, would you be surprised if they want to run bloodwork or take x-rays? They’re not magicians who will immediately know what’s wrong with you from symptoms that could be caused by hundreds of different conditions. And guess what - our patients can’t talk and tell us if they’re nauseous, or that the pain is coming from their back, or their upper abdomen.

Being pushed to run extra tests so that the vet can get extra income is ridiculous. If anything, the owners will be the ones to ask about running “extra” diagnostic tests for peace of mind, and the veterinarian will explain to them that the tests are expensive and won’t give us any more information, but can be run at the owner’s request.

Absolutely no one is pushed to keep their animal alive when they want to euthanize for “extra money”. Veterinary staff often express their recommendation for humane euthanasia in clearly suffering pets.

“Cat MRI’s” and “cat root canals” are not just some scam as portrayed in the video. Animals do get neurological conditions and painful tooth rotting that need to be addressed. I don’t understand how this part even makes sense.

You would never be threatened with “if you don’t do this, your pet is going to die” for money. You would only be told something that serious unless that’s completely true.

I can’t.

anonymous asked:

Medicine creates a false sense of recovery which is only secured by a literal chemical dependency which overtime erodes your neurotransmitters and leaves you in a stage of pretty much permanent anhedonia. These people comparing medicine to oxygen and food are idiots. The fact that so many socialists support this unethical murdering system (they pretend they don't support the corporations involved even though they're advocating for their products) is mind boggling.

Let’s Meet At Lukes Part 2

Part 1

               The next morning you woke up to a raspy cry on the baby monitor and immediately went into Matthew’s room. His cheeks were rosy as was the tip of his nose. You picked him up letting him cling to your chest, whining as you felt his head. He was warm; you sighed changing him and dressing him in warm clothing.

           You fixed him a bottle of warm milk and laid him down in the play pin in your room with a warm blanket. As you got ready for the day, you made your way back into Matthew’s room to pack up his diaper bag. You moved around, grabbing diapers, change of clothing, spare socks, wipes, lotion, and rash cream. As you moved over to his crib to grab his favorite blanket and stuffed animal, you felt a cold draft coming from the window. You sighed closing your eyes, how could you have missed that? You grabbed the rest of the items you needed and went back to your room to get Matthew.

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Eric’s Website, 1998

The Harris Home, 1998

           It was almost eight o’clock at night & Eric was doing the dishes, when the phone rang.

“I got it!” His mother called & Eric turned his attention back to his chore, but eavesdropped as nonchalantly as best he could manage. He could hear his mothers voice clearly, but the voice on the end of the phone was almost non-existent

“Oh Hello Judy! Oh, I’m good. Yes. Yes. Oh, yes I knew but…it did? Are you sure? His address too? Hmm. Did he ever say that they weren’t friends anymore? Eric saw Brooks over the weekend. When was it posted? That was three months ago, I’m sure if nothing’s happened by now he should be fine…are you sure that’s necessary? I don’t know Judy, it sounds like they were just joking around to me. Alright…alright. Yes. Thank you for informing me…yes, I’ll have a talk with him. Of course, I understand.”

           Eric knew what they were discussing & chose to dry the last plate over and over and over in vain to evade questioning.

“Eric?” His mother called.

Eric hung his head low and said, “Yeah?”

His mother walked into the kitchen & spoke, “I just got off the phone with Brooks’ mother. She said you posted things on your website about wanting to kill Brooks and included his home address in it. Were you serious?”

Eric stifled a laugh and said, “No, mom. Brooks and I had a bet forever ago and he lost so I got to post his address on my website. It was supposed to be like a cheesy dating advertisement, but Nate gave me the idea to make it a hit list. 

Eric’s mother glared at his father who was in hearing range as he laughed loudly, obviously having heard every word.

His mother tiredly rubbed her forehead and sighed, “Eric you need be careful about what you post on the Internet, especially if it’s about someone. “

“Mom, it isn’t a big deal. We were joking around. Didn’t Brooks tell her that?”

“She says he did. …” His mother nodded, as she spoke.

Eric waved his arms in the air exasperatedly, “Then what the Hell is the problem?”

“Eric, there’s a possibility you could go to jail.”

            Eric’s heart stopped as a million questions raced through his mind. Jail? For how long? Would I get to see Dylan? Would he even visit me? 

Soon he felt a strong hand patting his shoulder, and his father spoke, “All I can say for sure about this whole thing is that if Eric goes to jail, then Dylan will get put in jail too.”

Eric and his mother turned to look at him quizzically. He chuckled before continuing, “Because he’s going to kill Brooks.”

Eric laughed loudly, while his mother unsuccessfully tried not to laugh.

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Stringhalt and Shivers Explained - MyHorseUniversity

Hind limb gait abnormalities in horses such as stringhalt and shivers can be very frustrating and impact the horse’s performance and the ability of farriers to trim hind feet. The two conditions are often confused and until recently there has been very little information available to horse owners about stringhalt and shivers. This seminar, rich with videos, will describe the symptoms of stringhalt, shivers and some other gait abnormalities, review the latest research into the cause of these diseases and outline what owners can do to help maintain horses with these conditions.

Shivers research was funded by the US Equestrian Foundation, The University of Minnesota Comparative Medicine Grant and the Mary Anne McPhail Equine Performance Center.

I don’t even know what I’m doing I got bored and wanted to draw a new otp. Got inspired after watching both @sessomesmaru and @sogekihei-sama stream.

Now that I’ve finished this im noticing so many things i messed up on but I’m too lazy to fix it and if I don’t post it i’ll just end up deleting it. So yeah.

Now to try and draw a better one.

Okay but why didn’t they just use a paternity test? To see that Jace and Clary aren’t siblings? Modern medicine? Around the 1960s? Hello? Clary you are from the mundane world? Simon, you are too? Why?? Because Shadowhunters, despite being Angelic Warriors are fucking useless compared to modern medicine and common sense. I love you guys but *sigh*

Are you really pro-choice?

The first question you need to ask yourself is, do you believe in human rights? As in, John Locke’s basic human rights: life, liberty, and property.

Thomas Jefferson regarded Locke as one of the most important thinkers on liberty, and French Philosopher Voltaire was quoted as saying, (concerning Locke) “[he is] the greatest man of wisdom.”

John Locke inspired the likes of Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Paine.

The reason why I list life, liberty and property, rather than the version with the pursuit of happiness is that property is much more concrete. I like concrete, I like order, because I hate rampant chaos. Organized chaos, maybe. Rampant chaos, no.

Chaos paves a way for tyrannical notions, as history dictates. If not for chaos and disorder, men like Hitler couldn’t have risen to power over a helpless and disorganized people.

Now, if you believe in the human rights, you have to believe in the fact that they are negative rights. No one is obligated to sustain your life, no one is obligated in your creative, social or economic endeavors, no one is obligated to give you property, etc. However, no one has the right to unjustly end your life, unjustly withhold your liberty from you, or unjustly seize your property, either.

Now that we are aware of the functions of these rights, as it is not reasonable or orderly to expect them to be positive rights requiring action: because we cannot sustain everyone’s life, liberty, and property all at once. Each individual is responsible for their own life, liberty, and property. This is the epitome of freedom of the individual at its core. You cannot be more free than to have complete right to your person.

However, these rights have reasonable limitations. Government’s function in society, per John Locke, is supposed to have the only true, pure purpose of protecting individual rights. The law is supposed to punish those who take someone’s rights away in one form or another, but each violation of rights is not punished equally. Why?

Because the three basic human rights are not equal. Property can be attained again once it is stolen, because one has their life and liberty. Which is why murder and enslavement are punished more harshly. Liberty can be attained again if it is taken, but removal of this right is also the removal of a second: for you can have no property if you are enslaved. This is why kidnapping and false imprisonment are punished more heavily than theft.

Life is a right that once taken can never be regained, and thus murder is the most heavily punished crime under our laws in the United States of America. There are certain degrees due to accidental death, or malicious intent: but this does not negate its very serious regard in our society.

I digress. We have limitations on our rights, in degrees, due to their importance, and to deter any overreach of rights from one individual that might take the rights of another.

Under your right to life, you have the right to keep your life, no matter what anyone else thinks of your life, or how they regard your life, and government powers cannot take your right to life away from you except in the case where you have committed a heinous crime: such as taking the life of another. You have no right, except in cases of self defense, to take the life of another person, as this is the ultimate theft: life can only be had once.

Under your right to liberty, you can go, do, and be whatever you want. Unless your liberty bears a will to do malicious intent, such as steal from, harm, or murder another person. You can drive your car only within legal limits, so you cannot take the right of another person due to irresponsible driving. You can own a gun, but only with a background check and clean record, to deter you from doing harm to another. Etc.

Under your right to property, you can buy whatever you want, but not against someone’s will: you cannot buy someone else’s property without their consent. You cannot use your property to damage someone else’s property. And the exchange has to be deemed beneficial, or equal, to both parties. You have a right to achieve property, but not the right to have it given to you.

Bodily autonomy = liberty. Your liberty does not give you the right to steal someone else’s life, only the right to protect your own life in equal measure. As this is a negative right, it does not obligate you to sustain someone, only to commit no action against their person.

In the case of pregnancy, which is not comparable to any modern, medicinal technique, one IS obligated to sustain such life only for a short period of time, unless that new life threatens that of the mother. As Liberty and Life are not equal rights. Just as you have limitations on your liberty in other events so your liberty may not overreach and violate someone else’s right to life, neither can your liberty overreach during pregnancy.

It is a violation of human rights, a movement towards disorder and the collapse of the values towards human rights, to support abortion.

In 99% of abortion cases, the sexual intercourse was consensual. Therefore, with a basic, high school knowledge equivalence, we understand the consequences of sex as being the possibility of pregnancy or a venereal disease.

Therefore, in agreement with the basic human rights, and the natural order of protecting equal human rights, as well as common sense, to agree that if one cannot afford the treatment of an STD, or the care of a child, one should be reasonable enough to use their brain rather than submit to hormonal instincts as a lesser animal with lesser intelligence would; and thus choose the better option for themselves, and/or their partner, as well as a potential child that could occur.

It is a mature, and responsible avenue to choose abstinence, or adoption, for a child that came without desire, albeit from a desired act whose only purposes are pleasure and reproduction.

If sexual intercourse were simply intended for mental health, physical health, or an exercise activity and not exactly destined for the chance of reproduction and furthering the human race I could understand the shock of a woman discovering she is pregnant from such an act.

But in the age of the internet, to see this as a surprise is plain and simple ignorance. To see one’s liberty as a greater right than another’s right to their life is not logical, or reasonable, and neither is the screeching of the feminist left that they have a right to sexual intercourse.

If you had a right to sexual intercourse, rape would be legal, whether a positive or negative right, as anyone saying no would be a violation of that right to sex.

Sex is a privilege. Life is a right.

Now ask yourself, are you really pro-choice? Or are you anti-human rights?

Bibliomancy is the use of books in divination, the method of employing sacred books (especially specific words and verses) for ‘magical medicine.’ Bibliomancy compares with rhapsodomancy (from rhapsode “poem, song, ode”) “divination by reading a random passage from a poem”. 

1. A book is picked that is believed to hold truth.
2. It is balanced on its spine and allowed to fall open.
3. A passage is picked, with the eyes closed.
Among Christians, the Bible is most commonly used (in the Sortes Sanctorum), and in Islamic cultures the Qur'an. In the Middle Ages the use of Virgil’s Aeneid was common in Europe and known as the sortes Virgilianae. In the classical world the sortes Virgilianae and sortes Homericae (using the Iliad and Odyssey) were used.”

fic: split the night wide open

pairing: liam/zayn
word count: ~10k
rating: T

“It isn’t that he starts avoiding Zayn on purpose.

It’s just that he’s confused, a little, or maybe a lot, and it’s easier when he doesn’t have to see Zayn every second of every day – they’re still the best of mates, of course, but until Liam can deal with the weirdness of whatever he’s experiencing, he thinks it’s better to give himself some space.

(He can’t stop thinking about Zayn’s mouth, his lips, the summer of his smile, and it’s driving him crazy.)

He just needs some space.”


Instead of working on my nanowrimo novel like a productive author, I decided to write this monster in 3 days. Many thanks to Bleona fckingallaghers for cheering me on, and to One Direction for releasing the song 18 at exactly the right time. I listened to it for pretty much the entire time I was writing. You can probably tell.

Anyway, I hope you enjoyed reading this because I had a fun time writing it. :)) Have a lovely day!

ao3 link

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I overuse flowery language sometimes, particularly in short fiction when I’m trying to mask the fact that I’m not saying very much. Because of this, I tend to pay attention to how other people use it. Here are two quick things I think writers ought to keep an eye on:

- Make sure your figurative language is doing something. In my last workshop review, I underlined a piece of personification and noted ‘this is nice, but it’s not really doing anything’. It didn’t tie into any themes, add to the mood, call back to earlier symbolism, etc. It was just there to sound good. We’ve all kept a line because of a clever turn of phrase or pretty assortment of sounds, but if it doesn’t make sense or do any heavy lifting, it probably shouldn’t be there.

- Make your figurative language unique to the point of view. In most stories, you’re viewing the world through the lens of one or more narrators. They interpret reality differently. For example, in one of my stories, the MC enjoys chemistry. When the rain around her starts letting up, she compares it to a reaction running out of steam. In another, the character was raised by a mother who distrusted modern medicine. She compares saying “I love you” when you don’t mean it to medicine, frequently prescribed but bitter and untrustworthy. Other people wouldn’t see those things in those ways. Considering figurative language through the perspective of your character can make your writing more unique and tie the phrases more tightly to the rest of your story. 

Leptin also influences brain cells that control appetite

Twenty years after the hormone leptin was found to regulate metabolism, appetite, and weight through brain cells called neurons, Yale School of Medicine researchers have found that the hormone also acts on other types of cells to control appetite.

Published in the June 1 issue of Nature Neuroscience, the findings could lead to development of treatments for metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes.

“Up until now, the scientific community thought that leptin acts exclusively in neurons to modulate behavior and body weight,” said senior author Tamas Horvath, the Jean and David W. Wallace Professor of Biomedical Research and chair of comparative medicine at Yale School of Medicine. “This work is now changing that paradigm.”

Leptin, a naturally occurring hormone, is known for its hunger-blocking effect on the hypothalamus, a region in the brain. Food intake is influenced by signals that travel from the body to the brain. Leptin is one of the molecules that signal the brain to modulate food intake. It is produced in fat cells and informs the brain of the metabolic state. If animals are missing leptin, or the leptin receptor, they eat too much and become severely obese.

Leptin’s effect on metabolism has been found to control the brain’s neuronal circuits, but no previous studies have definitively found that leptin could control the behavior of cells other than neurons.

To test the theory, Horvath and his team selectively knocked out leptin receptors in the adult non-neuronal glial cells of mice. The team then recorded the water and food intake, as well as physical activity every five days. They found that animals responded less to feeding reducing effects of leptin but had heightened feeding responses to the hunger hormone ghrelin.

“Glial cells provide the main barrier between the periphery and the brain,” said Horvath. “Thus glial cells could be targeted for drugs that treat metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes.”

Lab Animal Residency motivations

Doing lit reviews on the topic of bovine models of ventricular assist devices was quite depressing, considering how many people are suffering from heart failure in this day and age, and how few heart donors there are. You’d think that since modern science/medicine/research is awesome enough to be able to do successful heart transplants, that we’d be able to figure out how to make decent, long-lasting ventricular assist devices or total artificial hearts. But nothing is as good as a native heart. Yes we have devices that work, and that help improve patients’ quality of life, but there is vast room for improvement. Hopefully in the next 50 years we will be able to create better, more efficient assist devices, and regenerate heart tissue, and create new hearts with stem cells. Hoping to be part of it!

I honestly thought about EP09 and I came up with someone for Jyuushimatsu…

The thing is that I personally think he gets stressed out by his brothers fighting a lot, he depends on them a lot more than one would suggest. His smiles are there to partially convince his brothers that he is okay, but I personally think he reduces his stress by playing baseball a lot (i. e. the scene at the shore, where he swung the bat over 6000 times).

Not only do I believe that he is mentally challenged by a lot of things, such as coping with other humans, I also think that he supports his brothers passively by giving him the same derpy smile day in day out.

But what truly got me was the scene at Chibita’s shop. When all of the Matsuno brothers started fighting, Jyuushimatsu suddenly bursted out in tears, and he only stopped once the brothers stopped fighting and sat back down, all calm and quiet. I think, that was a huge sign from him that he cannot cope with his brothers fighting very well, just that the distraught of emotions has brought up his true feelings for once. It was the first time he showed how sad he feels when his brothers would pick up fights with each other instead of getting along, instead of trying to be happy with each other, they cause trouble with one another all recklessly.

It also showed how badly he needed a shoulder to lean on. When did you ever hear him talk freely about his emotions? Never. He always talks about baseball. And that was the first time he actually talked about how it breaks his heart that he was rejected and how he was happy that someone loved him. It was the first time the brothers realise that he, too, had feelings and he was just a human being despite his acts of insanity and chaos.

Looking back, you see how Jyuushimatsu tried hard for Ichimatsu to become friends with someone – or with a cat – just for the sake of him having friends and not being sad and lonely anymore. Truth is: Jyuushimatsu is the closest to Ichimatsu with all his brothers, and yet he always held back his own needs and the urge to talk about his stress level in front of him because he does acknowledge Ichimatsu’s stress level. He just doesnt know how to react to these things (due to his mental ability), therefore he tries to brighten up the mood by being silly.

It was also Ichimatsu who reacted the most shocked out of all brothers when seeing Jyuushimatsu nearly having a mental breakdown in front of them. Despite them being so close, he wasn’t aware of how Jyuushimatsu really felt and never considered to think “Hey, he is also just a human with feelings!” – and it saddens me, because I think that Jyuushimatsu, too, noticed how everyone looked at him as a freak, but I don’t think they truly thought so, he just couldn’t put a finger to it properly.

This disability to cope with people’s feelings (his own included) was the reason for him to have such a breakdown: he didn’t know how to approach anyone of them and ask them to listen to him and his feelings. And instead he just… quite literally showed them a cry for help, started to weep and sob.

Another thing about the mental illness part:
We could all see the water trick he did for the girl. And clearly, there was water shooting out of his frontal lobe, too. Now, biologically, that wouldn’t be possible, but if you put that aside, the frontal lobe hole might also be an indicator for him suffering of some kind of mental illness that was treated with a frontal lobe hole by some doctor. We have to consider: that series originated back in the 1960s and I think it would only make sense that this Showa-Anime would indicate that characters were treated in a medical way that isn’t to be compared with nowaday’s medicine! I’m not saying that this is to be taken seriously, but I think it’s a small hint for what I believe is that Jyuushimatsu really has a mental illness that was treated poorly under the circumstances of psychological medicine being rather neglected and unheard of during these days, so that his conditions got worse instead of better thanks to the frontal lobe treatment.

That’s all.