comparative history

46% of Trump voters think there should be a White History Month, compared to 36% who don’t

  • Nearly half of voters who supported Trump think there should be a special month set aside to celebrate white history in the United States, according to a pollpublished Friday by Public Policy Polling.
  • Apparently dissatisfied with white people dominating nearly every aspect of American life and culture for the past 250 years, 46% of Trump voters now desire an official white history month. Only 36% of Trump voters oppose the idea.
  • Additionally, only 47% of Trump voters are aware that legendary black abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass is dead. Read more (2/10/17 11:52 AM)

follow @the-movemnt

2016 AP Score Distributions

AP Macroeconomics:  5: 16.1%; 4: 23.4%; 3: 16.2%; 2: 17.5%; 1: 26.8%.

AP Microeconomics: 5: 15.3%; 4: 27.3%; 3: 23%; 2: 14.4%; 1: 20%. 

AP Calculus AB: 5: 24.4%; 4: 17.4%; 3: 17.6%; 2: 9.7%; 1: 30.9%.

AP Calculus BC: 5: 48.4%; 4: 15.5%; 3: 17.6%; 2: 5.9%; 1: 12.6%.

AP Environmental Science: 5: 7.4%; 4: 23%; 3: 14.8%; 2: 26%; 1: 28.8%.

AP Human Geography: 5: 11.9%; 4: 20%; 3: 19.8%; 2: 19.2%; 1: 29.1%.

AP Chemistry: 5: 9.7%; 4: 15.1%; 3: 27.5%; 2: 25.3%; 1: 22.4%. 

AP Physics 1: 5: 4.3%; 4: 13.6%; 3: 21.3%; 2: 30.7%; 1: 30.1%.

AP Physics 2: 5: 8.5%; 4: 16.7%; 3: 34.3%; 2: 32.3%; 1: 8.2%.

AP Physics C: Mechanics: 5: 30.2%; 4: 27.4%; 3: 18.5%; 2: 13.9%; 1: 10%.

AP Physics C: Electricity & Magnetism: 5: 32%; 4: 22.6%; 3: 13.5%; 2: 19.3%; 1: 12.6%.

AP US Government & Politics: 5: 12.4%; 4: 13.5%; 3: 25%; 2: 24%; 1: 25.1%.

AP Comparative Government & Politics: 5: 20.6%; 4: 21.2%; 3: 20.4%; 2: 21.5%; 1: 16.3%.

AP World History: 5: 6.5%; 4: 15.5%; 3: 29.2%; 2: 28.9%; 1: 19.9%.

AP Studio Art Drawing portfolio: 5: 16.8%; 4: 27.2%: 3: 38.9%; 2: 14.7%; 1: 2.4%.

AP Studio Art 2D Design portfolio: 5: 14.3%; 4: 33%; 3: 35.1%; 2: 15.4%; 1: 2.2%.

AP Studio Art 3D Design portfolio: 5: 13.2%; 4: 25.8%; 3: 35.7%; 2: 22.3%; 1: 3%.

AP Chinese Language & Culture: 5: 62.1%; 4: 16.6%; 3: 14.7%; 2: 2.7%; 1: 3.9%.

AP Japanese Language and Culture: 5: 52.9%; 4: 7.1%; 3: 19.8%; 2: 6.2%; 1: 14%.

AP English Literature: 5: 7.4%; 4: 17.7%; 3: 29.5%; 2: 33.4%; 1: 12%.

AP Psychology: 5: 19%; 4: 26.1%; 3: 19.1%; 2: 14.2%; 1: 21.6%.

AP Statistics: 5: 13.9%; 4: 21.7%; 3: 24.7%; 2: 15.7%; 1: 24%.

AP US History: 5: 11.7%; 4: 17.9%; 3: 22.5%; 2: 23.4%; 1: 24.5%.

AP Seminar: 5: 6.6%; 4: 12.8%; 3: 53.7%; 2: 21.6%; 1: 5.3%.

AP Research:  5: 11.7%:  4: 16.3%;  3: 39.7%;  2: 30.7%.  1: 1.6%.

AP French Language and Culture: 5: 17.3%; 4: 26.5%; 3: 32.6%; 2: 18.7%; 1: 4.9%.

AP German Language and Culture:  5: 20.7%;  4: 22.3%;  3: 27.1%;  2: 20.9%;  1: 9%.

AP Italian Language and Culture:  5: 21.8%;  4: 18.9%;  3: 31%;  2: 20.2%;  1: 8.1%.

AP Spanish Language and Culture:  5: 28%;  4: 34.8%;  3: 26.9%;  2: 9.1%;  1: 1.2%.

AP English Language & Composition:  5: 10.6%;  4: 17.5%;  3: 27.2%;  2: 32.1%;  1: 12.6%.

AP Biology:  5: 6.3%;  4: 20.6%;  3: 33.6%;  2: 29.2%;  1: 10.3%

AP Latin:  5: 12.8%;  4: 20.7%;  3: 32.2%;  2: 23.1%;  1: 11.2%.

AP Spanish Literature:  5: 8.7%;  4: 24.3%;  3: 36.7%;  2: 22.6%;  1: 7.7%.

AP European History:  5: 7.9%;  4: 16.2%;  3: 29.5%;  2: 34.2%;  1: 12.2%.

AP Art History:  5: 11.1%;  4: 22.6%;  3: 27.7%;  2: 27.6%;  1: 11.0%.

AP Music Theory:  5: 18.1%;  4: 17.2%;  3: 24.2%;  2: 26%;  1: 14.5%.

AP Computer Science A:  5: 20.7%;  4: 20.4%;  3: 23.2%;  2: 12.5%;  1: 23.2%.

(All from @AP_Trevor on Twitter!


A video from Arika Okrent with a quick introduction to historical linguistics. For more on historical sound change in European languages, especially Germanic, I always enjoy this classic youtube series on Verner’s Law

Nathan Chen vs. Victor Nikiforov

Kubo has made some comments recently about how when YOI was being created she wanted it to be a ‘little ahead of where skating is right now’. It’s not as if they had the characters doing quintuples or something. She just, jump content wise, had the characters somewhat ahead of the standard of the top skaters in competition. Victor’s program in the first episode stood out to a lot of people. It seemed a bit fantastic! 

He performed four different quads. No one had done that before. Jin Boyang had first done four quads in a program before, almost a year previous to YOI’s premiere. But… they weren’t four different quads. It did still seem a bit fanciful, although yes, it was inevitable that it would occur within a couple years. There were skaters, multiple ones, who we knew probably had the capability to do it. There was a lot of talk about a trio of teenagers nicknamed the ‘quad squad’ and which one would be first to pull it off. These three young men are Jin Boyang of China, Shoma Uno of Japan, and Nathan Chen of USA. 

Anyway, the ‘first to pull it off’ ended up being Nathan Chen of the USA, and not only did he ‘pull off’ Victor Nikiforov’s jump layout, but he did him one over and completed a more difficult one. There’s no quad toe triple toe in there, but instead the harder combination the quad lutz + triple toe loop. However, he did do four different quads, and on top of that, one more, for a total of five quads. He’s now done this twice in two months, once at US Nationals and once at Four Continents. 

Even Kubo-sensei herself expressed amusement at this. She meant to make the show a little bit in the future, but within a month of the series ending, actual figure skating surpassed it! 

So how does Victor’s (record breaking in the YOI universe) Stammi Vicino free skate compare with Nathan Chen’s (history making in our universe) Polovtsian Dances free skate? Let’s take a look! 

As a note, I don’t really have a way to know exactly the levels and base values of Victor’s step sequences and spins, so this will be based on jumps only. Also this is based on Nathan’s jump layout at US Nationals. His jump layout at Four Continents was slightly different. :)

Originally posted by eggplantgifs

Nathan Chen:

  1. Quad Lutz + Triple Toe loop
  2. Quad Flip
  3. Quad Toeloop + Double Toe loop + Double Loop
  4. Quad Toeloop
  5. Triple Axel
  6. Quad Salchow
  7. Triple Lutz
  8. Triple Flip + Triple Toe loop

Base Value of jumps alone 91.96

I pulled these base values directly off icenetwork’s official scoring sheets, so if there’s anything wrong, blame them not me. 

Originally posted by vkusnykatsudon

Victor Nikiforov

  1. Quad Lutz 
  2. Quad Flip 
  3. Triple Axel 
  4. Quadruple Salchow
  5. Triple Axel + Triple Loop + Double Loop 
  6. Triple Lutz
  7. Triple Flip
  8. Quadruple Toe Loop + Triple Toe Loop

Base Value of jumps alone: 88.79 

If there’s a mistake in these though, it’s my fault. 

Why is Victor’s so close to Nathan’s despite having one less quad? It’s mostly because his program is a little more backloaded with jumps than Nathan’s is. He puts his quad/triple as his last jump element, and he even squishes that three jump combination in his latter half of the program.  Remember that jumps in the latter part of your program get a 10% bonus on scores. This is emphasized in YOI especially with Yuuri’s character, as his stamina allows him to put the most difficult elements of his program near the end of his programs to take advantage of that. A quad flip within mere moments of your program ending is absolutely balls to the wall nuts, but Yuuri does it in both his short and long programs at the GPF. 

Nathan Chen’s original program plan at US Nationals was a triple loop where the last quad salchow is. If he had done that, he would have had four quads and his base value would have been: 85.51, which is a little below Victor’s (despite the fact that Nathan’s quadruple jump combo, the 4 lutz/3 toe is more difficult than Victor’s choice of a 4 toe/3 toe. In fact, at Four Continents it broke a record for the highest score on an individual element!). The power of those latter half bonuses is strong! 

Anyway, the scores being close w/ four quads all makes sense, as the quads Victor and Nathan have in their competitive arsenal are identical. The one quad they both don’t do is the loop (Victor apparently can but has only done it in exhibition, so perhaps it’s not something he’s consistent enough on? And of course no one does the axel). 

I wouldn’t call Nathan’s program particularly front loaded. However, if he does want his sky high base scores to be even higher, he can try to move some more of those jumps to the latter half. He is still only seventeen though, so he may not have developed the stamina for it yet. Victor on the other hand, has been working on this forever. That being said, that also proves what an athlete Victor is, because he’s twenty-seven years old and still doing this, which is incredible. Twenty-seven is still very young, but figure skating, like gymnastics, is known as a sport with a mayfly life span for a lot of athletes. It’s very hard on the body. Thus, Victor slamming out those quads at the end of his program at twenty-seven is pretty darn amazing. 

But yes Nathan is an absolutely stunning (and non-fictional!) athlete. It’s wonderful what he’s done. I’d be interested to see how Victor’s short program layout compares to his, but we don’t have any info on that, although I could do a comparison to JJ’s Rostelecom layout or Yuuri’s (planned) GPF one! 


Peter Parker X Reader

Word Count: 1907

Warning: There is a teeny bit of kissing. But it’s kind of cute????

A/N: Hey, I know this isn’t a Crash Landing update, but I’m kind of struggling with it at the moment. So, I wrote this. Also, if you haven’t seen an earlier post, I’m away for the next four-ish weeks, so don’t expect to hear all too much from me for a bit. I am trying to queue up some writing, but I can’t make any promises! I love you guys!

Want to be tagged in future fics? Please let me know!

(not my gif)

Keep reading

AP World History Essay Tips

3 essays in two hours. Crazy, right? Here are some tips to help you for each essay.

DBQ: 40 minutes + 10 minutes for reading documents

  • Use and analyze all the documents given in your essay.
  • Don’t simply quote/paraphrase a document- analyze. Explain how the document’s meaning supports your thesis.
  • Analyze point of view in 2+ documents. Determine how who the person is affects what is in the document.
  • You need one additional document, but it’s safe to write two in case one is not written properly.
  • Try to bring in some relevant historical evidence if at all possible.

CCOT: 40 minutes

  • I use a timeline to plan out this essay. That way, you stay in the time period given in the prompt. I put changes on top (marking dates if I can remember them) and continuities below.
  • Analyze global context/historical context. Bring in information from other regions outside the prompt.
  • Analyze reasons for continuity/change. You’ll get credit for saying what changed or stayed the same, but do your best to explain why those changes/continuities occurred.

Comparative: 40 minutes

  • Make sure you pick the right regions and time frame from the prompt.
  • Make clear, direct comparisons between regions. (exm. “Slave labor was widely used in Rome, while in Han China, agricultural labor relied on peasants.)
  • Analyze reasons for similarities/differences. Again, it’s nice to list the similarities/differences, but it’s better to explain why those occurred.

Other tips and tricks

  • You’re going to have to know information for the CCOT and Comparative essays from the top of your head. Review your textbook, notes, study books (5 Steps to a 5, Strive for a 5, Cracking the AP World History Exam) or watch Crash Course (x).
  • PLAN PLAN PLAN. Even if you don’t feel like you have enough time, try and plan out your essay and organize your thoughts. That way, writing will be easier because you know exactly what to write.
  • Don’t dawdle. It seems simple, but try to stay focused.
  • The recommended times (for total work on an essay and planning times) are actually accurate and good guidelines. Try not to spend more than 5 minutes planning and 35 minutes writing.
  • Get a good night’s rest- i.e., don’t cram all night. That’s no good. Also, eat a nice breakfast. (I think we’ve all done enough standardized testing to know this.)
  • Don’t panic. You know a lot of stuff- you’ve been learning all year! Just calm down, breathe, and show the AP readers that you know what you’re talking about.
  • Throughout the exam, you may not know everything. This isn’t a memorization test- make comparisons and inferences from things you know. You may not know much about the Gupta empire, but you probably know it’s in India- which was primarily Hindu. And you know a lot about Hinduism.

The best of luck to you all tomorrow morning!


An Ancient Greek Transgender Person

We read this passage in class yesterday and I thought it might interest youse guys. The passage is from Lucian’s Dialogues of the Courtesans 5; it’s a discussion between Clonarium, a young man, and Leaena, a courtesan who had an unusual experience at a drinking party.

Eventually Megilla, being now rather heated, pulled off her wig, which was very realistic and fitted very closely, and revealed the skin of her head which was shaved close, just as on the most energetic of athletes. This sight gave me a shock, but she said, ‘Leaena, have you ever seen such a good-looking young fellow?’ ‘I don’t see one here, Megilla,’ said I. ‘Don’t make a woman out of me,’ said she. ‘My name is Megillus, and I’ve been married to Demonassa here for ever so long; she’s my wife.’ ‘Then, unknown to us, Megillus, you were a man all the time, just as they say Achilles once hid among the girls, and you have everything that a man has, and can play the part of a man to Demonassa?’ ‘I haven’t got what you mean,’ said she, ‘I don’t need it at all. You’ll find I have a much pleasanter method of my own.’ ‘You’re surely not a hermaphrodite,’ said I, ‘equipped both as a man and a woman, as many people are said to be?’; for I still didn’t know, Cleonarium, what it was all about. But she said, ‘No, Leaena, I’m all man.’ ‘Well,’ I said, ‘I’ve heard the Boeotian flute-girl, Ismenodora, repeating tales she’d heard at home, and telling us how someone at Thebes had turned from woman to man, someone who was also an excellent soothsayer, and was, I think, called Tiresias. That didn’t happen to you, did it?’ ‘No, Leaena,’ she said, ‘I was born a woman like the rest of you, but I have the mind and the desires and everything else of a man.’ ‘And do you find these desires enough?’ said I. ‘If you don’t believe me, Leaena,’ said she, ‘just give me a chance, and you’ll find I’m as good as any man; I have a substitute of my own. Only give me a chance, and you’ll see.’

Translation: M. D. Macleod, Loeb, 1961.

So Megilla - who, as a side note, is from Lesbos - was born a woman but identifies as a man, going by Megillus. Still, for some reason, they* disguise themselves as a woman. The whole situation is a bit confusing but the bolded bit is clear: Megilla/Megillus is, in modern terms, transgender.

Lucian’s Dialogues are fictional, but the fact he mentions a trans person speaks for their existence at the time. Remember that whenever people claim trans people are a recent phenomenon!

*I’m using they/them pronouns because it’s unclear exactly how they refer to themselves. Greek conjugated verbs are mostly non-gendered (so what the translation renders as ‘she said’ is actually ‘he/she/they said’), but there is one participle in the feminine (οὐδὲν ἐνδέουσάν με τῶν ἀνδρῶν, I’m as good as any man) despite Megilla/Megillus asking Leaena not to refer to them as a woman. So, unclear.


5 April 2017

I think it’s clear to say that you are a little obsessed with reading, when you read another book during your “reading break”. Anyway, I’m currently reading Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground and it’s absolutely great. I adore the fact that the narrative evolves around someone’s thoughts and perceptions of the world and not necessarily a chronological line of facts. It is definitely a classic that I would recommend!

For uni I’m reading about witchcraft and antisemitism in late Medieval/Early Modern Portugal and I’m so interested in the topic, I believe this might be the time period I enjoy studying the most. Specially when we focus on actual people of the time, the poor and marginalized. It’s such a contrasting and refreshing view of history when compared to texts that focus only on the nobility.

Post Snk 94 East Sea Clan crack theories

“What if there are Marley’s enemies to the East, aka the East Sea Clan people, living in Marley’s internment zones together with the Eldians?”

(This is only a theory~A crack, wild East Sea Clan crack theory~! Have fun reading EEEEEKKKKKK)

So one of the focuses of this post is my suspicion about Pieck having the Eastern bloodline. Let’s begin with this panel:

Can we talk about how short Pieck is? Uhh well, what I’m trying to say is—In my headcanon, the East Sea Clan people are generally shorter comparing with other races including the Eldian and Marleyan. Currently there are only 2 known East Sea Clan members and talking about Mikasa’s mother we can see this:

Hmmm. I can’t say it’s safe to assume that Easterners are generally shorter because there’s only ONE known pure blood member urghhhhhh eeeekkkkk!

—So that’s why you need CRACK THEORY POST!!!

More important, is her look:

Go back to Snk 93:

Look similar? Does she remind you of someone? You know who I’m talking about.

Pieck is not the only one suspected by me to have East Sea Clan blood. Another notable mention is Grisha’s mother, who can be seen in the newest chapter:

Wait a minute.

Now there’s an interesting question. Why the people living in internment zones of Marley need to dress like that? Did Marleyan government force them to do so? What are those hoods and hats for? 

Remember the time when Grisha’s mother is at home without that hood thing?

Snk chapter 86:

Look at her eyes.

And that random female internment resident at the gate?

And don’t forget the eye color changes of Grisha after he inherits the titan power:

There’s still no explanation about these.

But all these let me go to the path of writing more wild crack East Sea Clan theories—It is so deep and it’s a dungeon. Deeper than the Mariana Trench and there’s no turning point gdi!!!!!

But in the first place, why did the Marleyans put East Sea Clan people into the internment zones? If we try to compare Snk with rl history stuff by googling or go to wiki, it seems that some countries would put people of their enemy countries to the internment zones—not only putting particular races there.

Marley has an enemy in the East.

Chapter 87

And their hostility appears to have continuing since 25 years ago (before the time Grisha join the revolutionary group).

If you are interested, I’ve also write a crack theory about how some of the East Sea Clan people were driven into the internment zones by the Marleyan government:

Snk crack theories: The hostility between Marley and the East Sea Nation

Thomas Hickey.

Thomas Hickey was a Continental Army soldier in the American Revolution. But his legacy does not lay there, Thomas Hickey is known as the first person to be executed for treason in the United States. Hickey was born in Ireland and first came to America as a British soldier and personal assistant to Major General William Johnson during the Seven Years War. But, he deserted from British lines to the other side when the Revolution broke out. He became part of Washington’s Life Guard.

In April 1776, Washington and his army marched into New York City. Hickey’s rank is debatable–though it is most likely he was a Sergeant. In the transcript of Court Martial for the Trial of Thomas Hickey and Others, on 26 June 1776, Hickey is referred to as a “private sentinel” in Washington’s Life Guards, under the command of Major Gibbs. This copy was made shortly after he Revolutionary War ended, when many official papers were being copied for “preservation”. But in George Washington’s Enforcers, Hickey’s rank is a Sergeant, and notes that Captain Gibbs was not promoted to Major until 29 June 1778, two years after Hickey’s trial. When enlisted soldiers are convicted, it is normal for their punishment to include reduction to the lowest rank–a private. A postwar transcript would explain why Hickey is listed at his lowest rank and Gibbs is identified at his highest rank. 

Thomas Hickey was a Sargeant in Washington’s Guard which was a unit formed on the 12th of March 1776 to protect General George Washington, his official papers and the Continental Army’s cash. That spring, Hickey and another soldier were arrested for passing around counterfeit money. While imprisoned at Bridewell prison, New York, Hickey revealed to another prisoner–Isaac Ketchum–that he was part of a conspiracy of soldiers who were prepared to defect to the British. The goal was to kidnap Washington and “murder all the staff officers, blow up the magazines, and secure the passes of the town.” according to Alexander Hamilton, then a Captain but these claims have been highly inflated. The prisoner gave him up and Hickey was turned over to the Continental Army for trial. 

“Thomas Hickey, one of Washington’s Guard, was tried by a court-martial and sentenced to death, being found implicated in a plot to murder the American general officers on the arrival of the British, or at best to capture Washington and deliver him to Sir William Howe. The plot had been traced to Governor Tryon, the mayor (David Mathews) having been a principal agent between him and the persons concerned in it.”

At his trial Hickey produced no witnesses. He was the only person put on trial for the conspiracy and twelve others were briefly imprisoned for another conspiracy possibly brewing with the Loyalist Mayor of New York. The conspiracy became greatly exaggerated in rumor as said above.He was court martialed and found guilty of mutiny, sedition and sentenced to death. 

June 28, 1776 with a crowd of around 20,000 spectators in New York, all turned out in a meadow near the Bowery at the corner of Chrystie and Grand Streets. The prisoner remained “unrepentant” and it was to make an example. Hickey “waived the presence of a chaplain, explaining that “they are all cutthroats.” He kept his air of bravery until the hangman slipped a blindfold and noose over his head and at which point wiped tears away.

On March 5th 1785, Samuel Fraunces a congressman claimed that it was he who discovered the assassination plot, but he was falsely accused of being part of it and was jailed until acquittal. 

That he [Fraunces] was the Person that first discovered the Conspiracy which was formed in the Year 1776 against the Life of his Excellency General Washington and that the Suspicions Which were Entertained of his agency in that Important Discovery accationed [sic, occasioned] a public Enquiry after he was made a Prisoner on which the want of positive Proof alone preserved his Life.

Congress awarded him £2000, and paid $1,625 to lease his tavern for two years to house federal government offices. The legend of Pheobe Fraunces (Samuel’s daughter) saving Washington from a poisoning attempt by Hickey is refuted and proven to be untrue because she does not exist anywhere. 

In season two of Turn: Washington’s Spies Thomas Hickey appears as a life guard to General Washington and part of a plot to assassinate him at the end of Season two. Hickey is one of the men getting hanged in the first episode of Season three–though the dates compared to history and Turn are completely off. 

In the end, the rumors greatly damaged the reputation of Loyalists throughout the United States.