community cycles

Cycle Your Tank!

For real though, this is the biggest thing that can make or break the hobby for anyone.

It doesn’t matter if you want a betta, a goldfish, a few shrimp or even a tank full of nothing but plants. Get a proper filter and cycle your god damn tank. Fishless most preferably…

How and why to do this:

It doesn’t matter what you keep, all living things produce waste. In a lot of cases Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate are in your tap water already. It doesn’t hurt us, but it will kill your fish… and in the case of a fully panted tank… I hope you love algae…cause you’re going to get it. Planted tanks another time though. You don’t want your fish to die, cycle.

So how do you do this? 

Step one: Set up your tank. It needs to be at minimum a 2.5 gallon but I always recommend bigger. If you’re new and planning to keep anything but shrimp or a betta I insist you go bigger anyways because they will thrive. Have this tank filtered with an appropriate filter. I highly recommend a filter that doesn’t use a cartridge, it cycles much easier and you won’t really ever need to replace your media and it keeps the cycle. Best filters for 20 gallons and under are usually sponge filters. But get a filter with removable media or a sponge.

Step 2: Get a liquid test kit. I say liquid because it’s more accurate (light damages the strips and readings), cheaper in the long run, lasts longer, and just overall easier. The test kit needs to check PH, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate. Once you have this go ahead and test your tap water, write that down. 

If your PH is lower than 6 or really close to you’re going to have to find someway to get it above stably (DO NOT USE PH UP OR DOWN FOR THIS) I have very hard alkaline water so I normally have to bring it down. Crushed coral in the filter can help bring it up though!

If you have ammonia in your water be glad that you’re doing this and not throwing your fish in… cause if you do congrats you just burned their gills. My water has 1ppm ammonia in it already so I don’t have to add as much while cycling.

Nitrite is the same as ammonia in terms of yay that’s one less step! 

Nitrate, it can be frustrating to have. Learn how much you have though and adjust accordingly. You may need a remover, or some plants until the right bacteria form.

Step 3: Declorinate whenever adding new water(I like prime but use what you want). And get things running. Now the fun process of waiting begins. You need 3 things to happen:

Ammonia to form. This is produced by anything living including plants. You want a source though and for it to be between 2-4ppm. Sources can be fish food, a raw piece of shrimp, or carpenters liquid or powder pure ammonia/ammonium. I like using the pure ammonia because it’s less of a mess and easier to control. Remember this is to simulate a fish though and I pray you didn’t put one in yet. Either way dose it up (test your water to know what you’re at) and write it down. You want to keep track of things, temp, ph, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate…

Now you wait, check daily, or every second day. Wait until it hits 0 and dose it again. Basically what’s happening is bacteria is forming in your filter to convert the ammonia (which is deadly) to Nitrite (which is also deadly). Start checking your Nitrites after the first big ammonia drop. You’ll see one of two things, a huge spike possibly off the charts in Nitrite, or never see them but have nitrates in your water that weren’t there before. This can be the longest or shortest point in the cycle.

Wait for your nitrites to drop. If they get too high to read cut back on dosing ammonia or do a large pwc to help bring them down so you can read them. Once Nitrites hit 0 dose again. If within 24 hours or less there are no ammonia readings or nitrite and some nitrates, congrats you are cycled. Do a large partial water change and add a few fish! I recommend no more than 10% of your stock a week.

Things that can speed up this process (Normally can take 2 weeks - 3 months depending on a number of factors)

-Seed your tank. This is the best, if you have a friend with a healthy tank ask to borrow some decorations, gravel, or a chunk of filter media. Note bacteria is not in the water, don’t take that but transfer what you do take in it.

-Turn your temperature way up! Bacteria multiplies better in hot water, so turn the heater up.

-Add oxygen. Bacteria is alive and needs to breath.

-Plants they help buffer the water and if from a cycled tank can bring some bacteria with them.

-Bacteria in a bottle. Now be very careful with this… most don’t work and are a waste of your money and actually harm your cycle. Ones that have proven to be effective though. Dr. Tims one and only, safe start, bio-sphere, stability seachem. All others are the wrong type of bacteria and will die in your tank and starve the right type of bacteria.

I know this probably wasn’t super comprehensive, but if you have questions ask. I’m happy to help!

"I'm sorry."

“…except when I’m not.”

“I’m sorry” is an expression that depending on how our parents used it and depending on the circumstances and the people we say it to can have quite different meanings. For example:

1: I’m sorry. I genuinely regret what I did. I hope I don’t repeat it. Well, I’ll try not to. I’ll try to remember. Uh… can we move on now, please?
2: I’m sorry. I realise I was wrong. Ugh, I’m such a bad person. I really shouldn’t have done it, I should have known better. I’m such a failure.
3: I’m sorry. I’m sorry you understood my words/actions wrongly. That’s too bad.
4: I’m sorry. Kinda. Although truth be told I’m rather angry at you instead. I’m angry because you keep reproaching me for all the mistakes I do and don’t ever see the good things I’m trying to do.
5: I’m sorry. You’re blaming me, so I’m really starting to feel guilty about what I did. I guess you’re right. I shouldn’t have done it if you say so.
6: I’m sorry. Well, not really but if I don’t say it, there will be unpleasant consequences like punishment or guilt-tripping. So I’m saying it.
7: I’m sorry. I’m sad about what I did because I would have liked to do xxx instead. I think I know why I did it, though, so next time I’ll be better able to avoid such a reaction.

Why is it important to exactly be aware of what you mean when you say ‘I’m sorry’? And how do you talk to yourself when you’re less than perfect? That’s the topic of this post.

Keep reading


(via Momentum Magazine in Chicago, Feb, 2009 - Working Bikes Co… | Flickr)

Academic word list

The Academic Word List (AWL) contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. 

Group 1

sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •

Group 2

community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •

Group 3

comments • convention • published • framework • implies • negative • dominant • illustrated • outcomes • constant • shift • deduction • ensure • specified • justification • funds • reliance • physical • partnership • location • link • coordination • alternative • initial • validity • task • techniques • excluded • consent • proportion • demonstrate • reaction • criteria • minorities • technology • philosophy • removed • sex • compensation • sequence • corresponding • maximum • circumstances • instance • considerable • sufficient • corporate • interaction • contribution • immigration • component • constraints • technical • emphasis • scheme • layer • volume • document • registered • core •

Group 4

overall • emerged • regime • implementation • project • hence • occupational • internal • goals • retained • sum • integration • mechanism • parallel • imposed • despite • job • parameters • approximate • label • concentration • principal • series • predicted • summary • attitudes • undertaken • cycle • communication • ethnic • hypothesis • professional • status • conference • attributed • annual • obvious • error • implications • apparent • commitment • subsequent • debate • dimensions • promote • statistics • option • domestic • output • access • code • investigation • phase • prior • granted • stress • civil • contrast • resolution • adequate

Group 5

alter • stability • energy • aware • licence • enforcement • draft • styles • precise • medical • pursue • symbolic • marginal • capacity • generation • exposure • decline • academic • modified • external • psychology • fundamental • adjustment • ratio • whereas • enable • version • perspective • contact • network • facilitate • welfare • transition • amendment • logic • rejected • expansion • clause • prime • target • objective • sustainable • equivalent • liberal • notion • substitution • generated • trend • revenue • compounds • evolution • conflict • image • discretion • entities • orientation • consultation • mental • monitoring • challenge •

Group 6

intelligence • transformation • presumption • acknowledged • utility • furthermore • accurate • diversity • attached • recovery • assigned • tapes • motivation • bond • edition • nevertheless • transport • cited • fees • scope • enhanced • incorporated • instructions • subsidiary • input • abstract • ministry • capable • expert • preceding • display • incentive • inhibition • trace • ignored • incidence • estate • cooperative • revealed • index • lecture • discrimination • overseas • explicit • aggregate • gender • underlying • brief • domain • rational • minimum • interval • neutral • migration • flexibility • federal • author • initiatives • allocation • exceed •

Group 7

intervention • confirmed • definite • classical • chemical • voluntary • release • visible • finite • publication • channel • file • thesis • equipment • disposal • solely • deny • identical • submitted • grade • phenomenon • paradigm • ultimately • extract • survive • converted • transmission • global • inferred • guarantee • advocate • dynamic • simulation • topic • insert • reverse • decades • comprise • hierarchical • unique • comprehensive • couple • mode • differentiation • eliminate • priority • empirical • ideology • somewhat • aid • foundation • adults • adaptation • quotation • contrary • media • successive • innovation • prohibited • isolated •

Group 8

highlighted • eventually • inspection • termination • displacement • arbitrary • reinforced • denote • offset • exploitation • detected • abandon • random • revision • virtually • uniform • predominantly • thereby • implicit • tension • ambiguous • vehicle • clarity • conformity • contemporary • automatically • accumulation • appendix • widespread • infrastructure • deviation • fluctuations • restore • guidelines • commodity • minimises • practitioners • radical • plus • visual • chart • appreciation • prospect • dramatic • contradiction • currency • inevitably • complement • accompany • paragraph • induced • schedule • intensity • crucial • via • exhibit • bias • manipulation • theme • nuclear •

Group 9

bulk • behalf • unified • commenced • erosion • anticipated • minimal • ceases • vision • mutual • norms • intermediate • manual • supplementary • incompatible • concurrent • ethical • preliminary • integral • conversely • relaxed • confined • accommodation • temporary • distorted • passive • subordinate • analogous • military • scenario • revolution • diminished • coherence • suspended • mature • assurance • rigid • controversy • sphere • mediation • format • trigger • qualitative • portion • medium • coincide • violation • device • insights • refine • devoted • team • overlap • attained • restraints • inherent • route • protocol • founded • duration •

Group 10

whereby • inclination • encountered • convinced • assembly • albeit • enormous • reluctant • posed • persistent • undergo • notwithstanding • straightforward • panel • odd • intrinsic • compiled • adjacent • integrity • forthcoming • conceived • ongoing • so-called • likewise • nonetheless • levy • invoked • colleagues • depression • collapse •

No okay I just I really love Ian Alexander ( @lilskeletonprince ) because like he doesn’t have supportive parents and he wears makeup and he didnt automatically know he was trans and he’s open about his struggles with mental health and I’ve almost never found someone who is so much like me even in the trans community like he’s literally cycled through the same labels I did in the same order I did I just omg I have so many feelings about him ??? 

Headcanon Wednesday: Mating/Marriage Customs

Turian, Volus, Quarian, Krogan and Batarian edition

Turian: Turians place far more emphasis on birth celebrations than they do coupling. A commitment between turians couples is sanctioned by the Hierarchy and may be observed with a small gathering of friends and family, but the spiritual aspect of coupling is not heralded until offspring is produced, either through natural conception or adoption. Lavish spiritual celebrations with family and friends take place after a child’s birth in honor of the Kenotra, or family spirit, which they call upon to protect the new child and bless the family through strength and prosperity. Gifts for the child and the couple, dancing and food not unlike a human wedding reception are the norm.

Volus: Similar to the salarians, the volus do not place any emotional attachment on mating. There is no ‘marriage’ in the sense that humans define it, and sex is for reproduction not for pleasure. Low priority is placed on family units, and many volus are raised communally. Their fertility cycles only occur during a narrow window of their lives and tend to be very predictable. Therefore selecting a mate is generally contingent on financial gain.

Quarian: Quarians mate for life, and due to their close quarters living and strict population control, the bonding of a quarian couple is considered a significant and much celebrated milestone. No gifts are exchanged, and feasts are uncommon due to the strain they create on flotilla resources, but singing, dancing, oration and recitations of family histories back to the exile from Rannoch are the norm. Family members of the betrothed present the couple with new suits – each bearing a token of the couple to symbolize their union.  

Krogan: There is no marriage custom among the krogan. Males submit breeding requests to fertile females, who then select mates based on physical prowess and desirable genetics. In the wake of the genophage krogan females can afford to be choosy, even going as far as requesting gene studies and medical histories where available, therefore many krogan who have not proven themselves suitably in battle or provided satisfactory genetics still remain childless. The females raise the young, and have the overriding say on who they train with once they come of age.  

Batarian: Batarians also mate for life, but unions are tightly restricted to caste and must be approved by the Hegemony. Bonding outside of the Hegemony is punishable by death, and if children result from such a union they are often confiscated and euthanized. If the child is of significant age, they are stripped of their caste and denied access to education of any kind.

A batarian ‘underground’ that is greatly assisted by outside races does exist to help such couples escape the Hegemony’s persecution. Despite the brutality of the Hegemony’s practices, such ‘forbidden’ love stories are bedrock of batarian in art, theater and music, though the responsible artists often face brutal retaliation from their government. Few aliens ever obtain access to batarian culture and art, however those that do often declare those love stories to be among the most poignant artistic expressions found in any known culture.   

Looking for blogs to follow

I haven’t been around that much in a while, and now that I’m back I want to follow more booklr blogs. Reblog or like this, if you post about:

- The Throne of Glass series


- Harry Potter 

- The Shadowhunter Chronicles  

- The Raven Cycle 

- The Darkest Minds trilogy

- The Vampire Academy series 

- The Percy Jackson/ Heroes of Olympus series

- Honestly, I just like so many books/ book series.  Just reblog or like if you post about books. 


replied to your



But you have 2 days off a week for art.

Yeah, I so very much hear this. I feel lucky if I can string 3-4 hours together in a row to work on art. Usually it’s less. (on the very very rarest of occasions it might be more.)

Right?  On the bright side, if people see your art and don’t realize how long it takes, you’re making it look easy.  My teachers tell me that’s the goal.  But on the downside, if you make it look easy, no one respects how long this shit takes to do.