community cycles

Cycle Your Tank!

For real though, this is the biggest thing that can make or break the hobby for anyone.

It doesn’t matter if you want a betta, a goldfish, a few shrimp or even a tank full of nothing but plants. Get a proper filter and cycle your god damn tank. Fishless most preferably…

How and why to do this:

It doesn’t matter what you keep, all living things produce waste. In a lot of cases Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate are in your tap water already. It doesn’t hurt us, but it will kill your fish… and in the case of a fully panted tank… I hope you love algae…cause you’re going to get it. Planted tanks another time though. You don’t want your fish to die, cycle.

So how do you do this? 

Step one: Set up your tank. It needs to be at minimum a 2.5 gallon but I always recommend bigger. If you’re new and planning to keep anything but shrimp or a betta I insist you go bigger anyways because they will thrive. Have this tank filtered with an appropriate filter. I highly recommend a filter that doesn’t use a cartridge, it cycles much easier and you won’t really ever need to replace your media and it keeps the cycle. Best filters for 20 gallons and under are usually sponge filters. But get a filter with removable media or a sponge.

Step 2: Get a liquid test kit. I say liquid because it’s more accurate (light damages the strips and readings), cheaper in the long run, lasts longer, and just overall easier. The test kit needs to check PH, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate. Once you have this go ahead and test your tap water, write that down. 

If your PH is lower than 6 or really close to you’re going to have to find someway to get it above stably (DO NOT USE PH UP OR DOWN FOR THIS) I have very hard alkaline water so I normally have to bring it down. Crushed coral in the filter can help bring it up though!

If you have ammonia in your water be glad that you’re doing this and not throwing your fish in… cause if you do congrats you just burned their gills. My water has 1ppm ammonia in it already so I don’t have to add as much while cycling.

Nitrite is the same as ammonia in terms of yay that’s one less step! 

Nitrate, it can be frustrating to have. Learn how much you have though and adjust accordingly. You may need a remover, or some plants until the right bacteria form.

Step 3: Declorinate whenever adding new water(I like prime but use what you want). And get things running. Now the fun process of waiting begins. You need 3 things to happen:

Ammonia to form. This is produced by anything living including plants. You want a source though and for it to be between 2-4ppm. Sources can be fish food, a raw piece of shrimp, or carpenters liquid or powder pure ammonia/ammonium. I like using the pure ammonia because it’s less of a mess and easier to control. Remember this is to simulate a fish though and I pray you didn’t put one in yet. Either way dose it up (test your water to know what you’re at) and write it down. You want to keep track of things, temp, ph, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate…

Now you wait, check daily, or every second day. Wait until it hits 0 and dose it again. Basically what’s happening is bacteria is forming in your filter to convert the ammonia (which is deadly) to Nitrite (which is also deadly). Start checking your Nitrites after the first big ammonia drop. You’ll see one of two things, a huge spike possibly off the charts in Nitrite, or never see them but have nitrates in your water that weren’t there before. This can be the longest or shortest point in the cycle.

Wait for your nitrites to drop. If they get too high to read cut back on dosing ammonia or do a large pwc to help bring them down so you can read them. Once Nitrites hit 0 dose again. If within 24 hours or less there are no ammonia readings or nitrite and some nitrates, congrats you are cycled. Do a large partial water change and add a few fish! I recommend no more than 10% of your stock a week.


Things that can speed up this process (Normally can take 2 weeks - 3 months depending on a number of factors)

-Seed your tank. This is the best, if you have a friend with a healthy tank ask to borrow some decorations, gravel, or a chunk of filter media. Note bacteria is not in the water, don’t take that but transfer what you do take in it.

-Turn your temperature way up! Bacteria multiplies better in hot water, so turn the heater up.

-Add oxygen. Bacteria is alive and needs to breath.

-Plants they help buffer the water and if from a cycled tank can bring some bacteria with them.

-Bacteria in a bottle. Now be very careful with this… most don’t work and are a waste of your money and actually harm your cycle. Ones that have proven to be effective though. Dr. Tims one and only, safe start, bio-sphere, stability seachem. All others are the wrong type of bacteria and will die in your tank and starve the right type of bacteria.

I know this probably wasn’t super comprehensive, but if you have questions ask. I’m happy to help!

"I'm sorry."

“…except when I’m not.”

“I’m sorry” is an expression that depending on how our parents used it and depending on the circumstances and the people we say it to can have quite different meanings. For example:

1: I’m sorry. I genuinely regret what I did. I hope I don’t repeat it. Well, I’ll try not to. I’ll try to remember. Uh… can we move on now, please?
2: I’m sorry. I realise I was wrong. Ugh, I’m such a bad person. I really shouldn’t have done it, I should have known better. I’m such a failure.
3: I’m sorry. I’m sorry you understood my words/actions wrongly. That’s too bad.
4: I’m sorry. Kinda. Although truth be told I’m rather angry at you instead. I’m angry because you keep reproaching me for all the mistakes I do and don’t ever see the good things I’m trying to do.
5: I’m sorry. You’re blaming me, so I’m really starting to feel guilty about what I did. I guess you’re right. I shouldn’t have done it if you say so.
6: I’m sorry. Well, not really but if I don’t say it, there will be unpleasant consequences like punishment or guilt-tripping. So I’m saying it.
7: I’m sorry. I’m sad about what I did because I would have liked to do xxx instead. I think I know why I did it, though, so next time I’ll be better able to avoid such a reaction.

Why is it important to exactly be aware of what you mean when you say ‘I’m sorry’? And how do you talk to yourself when you’re less than perfect? That’s the topic of this post.

Keep reading

Academic word list

The Academic Word List (AWL) contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. 

Group 1

sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •

Group 2

community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •

Group 3

comments • convention • published • framework • implies • negative • dominant • illustrated • outcomes • constant • shift • deduction • ensure • specified • justification • funds • reliance • physical • partnership • location • link • coordination • alternative • initial • validity • task • techniques • excluded • consent • proportion • demonstrate • reaction • criteria • minorities • technology • philosophy • removed • sex • compensation • sequence • corresponding • maximum • circumstances • instance • considerable • sufficient • corporate • interaction • contribution • immigration • component • constraints • technical • emphasis • scheme • layer • volume • document • registered • core •

Group 4

overall • emerged • regime • implementation • project • hence • occupational • internal • goals • retained • sum • integration • mechanism • parallel • imposed • despite • job • parameters • approximate • label • concentration • principal • series • predicted • summary • attitudes • undertaken • cycle • communication • ethnic • hypothesis • professional • status • conference • attributed • annual • obvious • error • implications • apparent • commitment • subsequent • debate • dimensions • promote • statistics • option • domestic • output • access • code • investigation • phase • prior • granted • stress • civil • contrast • resolution • adequate

Group 5

alter • stability • energy • aware • licence • enforcement • draft • styles • precise • medical • pursue • symbolic • marginal • capacity • generation • exposure • decline • academic • modified • external • psychology • fundamental • adjustment • ratio • whereas • enable • version • perspective • contact • network • facilitate • welfare • transition • amendment • logic • rejected • expansion • clause • prime • target • objective • sustainable • equivalent • liberal • notion • substitution • generated • trend • revenue • compounds • evolution • conflict • image • discretion • entities • orientation • consultation • mental • monitoring • challenge •

Group 6

intelligence • transformation • presumption • acknowledged • utility • furthermore • accurate • diversity • attached • recovery • assigned • tapes • motivation • bond • edition • nevertheless • transport • cited • fees • scope • enhanced • incorporated • instructions • subsidiary • input • abstract • ministry • capable • expert • preceding • display • incentive • inhibition • trace • ignored • incidence • estate • cooperative • revealed • index • lecture • discrimination • overseas • explicit • aggregate • gender • underlying • brief • domain • rational • minimum • interval • neutral • migration • flexibility • federal • author • initiatives • allocation • exceed •

Group 7

intervention • confirmed • definite • classical • chemical • voluntary • release • visible • finite • publication • channel • file • thesis • equipment • disposal • solely • deny • identical • submitted • grade • phenomenon • paradigm • ultimately • extract • survive • converted • transmission • global • inferred • guarantee • advocate • dynamic • simulation • topic • insert • reverse • decades • comprise • hierarchical • unique • comprehensive • couple • mode • differentiation • eliminate • priority • empirical • ideology • somewhat • aid • foundation • adults • adaptation • quotation • contrary • media • successive • innovation • prohibited • isolated •

Group 8

highlighted • eventually • inspection • termination • displacement • arbitrary • reinforced • denote • offset • exploitation • detected • abandon • random • revision • virtually • uniform • predominantly • thereby • implicit • tension • ambiguous • vehicle • clarity • conformity • contemporary • automatically • accumulation • appendix • widespread • infrastructure • deviation • fluctuations • restore • guidelines • commodity • minimises • practitioners • radical • plus • visual • chart • appreciation • prospect • dramatic • contradiction • currency • inevitably • complement • accompany • paragraph • induced • schedule • intensity • crucial • via • exhibit • bias • manipulation • theme • nuclear •

Group 9

bulk • behalf • unified • commenced • erosion • anticipated • minimal • ceases • vision • mutual • norms • intermediate • manual • supplementary • incompatible • concurrent • ethical • preliminary • integral • conversely • relaxed • confined • accommodation • temporary • distorted • passive • subordinate • analogous • military • scenario • revolution • diminished • coherence • suspended • mature • assurance • rigid • controversy • sphere • mediation • format • trigger • qualitative • portion • medium • coincide • violation • device • insights • refine • devoted • team • overlap • attained • restraints • inherent • route • protocol • founded • duration •

Group 10

whereby • inclination • encountered • convinced • assembly • albeit • enormous • reluctant • posed • persistent • undergo • notwithstanding • straightforward • panel • odd • intrinsic • compiled • adjacent • integrity • forthcoming • conceived • ongoing • so-called • likewise • nonetheless • levy • invoked • colleagues • depression • collapse •

Look, peeps. I’m glad Amedot has had its time in the sun, and I hope the sunshine stays. And I’m glad Lap*dot has been addressed as something very messy and flawed in the actual show. 

However! If we could keep Lap*dot hate in Amedot posts out of the Lap*dot tag, that’d be awesome. It’d also be awesome if Lap*dot hate posts that are just that and don’t have Amedot in it NOT be added into the Amedot tag, either? The latter one… just feels obvious. Unless you can connect your post to Amedot, then don’t bother.

I love seeing the fandom prosper, and seeing more activity in the tags, but can we also be a bit respectable? You can hate all you want—people who have seen my rants on Lapidopdip know my feelings towards the ship—but don’t let other fans see your posts because it’s just going to make them angry, annoyed, and it’s going to ‘cause discourse I don’t want to see in the tags. 

I get the Amedot fandom has dealt with serious problems from those fans—hell, even I’ve gotten kys messages and I’M NOT WELL KNOWN PEOPLE!!—but I’d rather take the high horse here and respect other communities. End the cycle, you dummies.

flickr

(via Momentum Magazine in Chicago, Feb, 2009 - Working Bikes Co… | Flickr)