Kant: on being reclusive

A further comment is needed.  It is true that our liking for both the beautiful and the sublime not only differs recognizably from other aesthetic judgments by being universally communicable, but by having this property it also acquires an interest in relation to society (where such communication may take place).  Yet we also regard isolation from all society as something sublime, if it rests on ideas that look beyond all sensible interest.  To be sufficient to oneself and hence have no need of society, yet without being unsociable, i.e., without shunning society, is something approaching the sublime, as is the case of setting aside our needs.  On the other hand, to shun people either from misanthropy because we are hostile toward them or from anthropophobia (fear of people) because we are afraid they might be our enemies is partly odious and partly contemptible.  There is, however, a different (very improperly so-called) misanthrophy, the predisposition to which tends to appear in the minds of many well-meaning people as they grow older (my emphasis).  This latter misanthrophy is philanthrophic enough as regards benevolence [Wohlwollen], but as the result of long and sad experience it has veered away from a liking [Wohlgefallen] for people.  We find evidence for this in a person’s propensity toward reclusiveness, in his fanciful wish that he could spend the rest of his life on a remote country estate, or for that matter (in the case of young people) in their dream of happily spending their lives with a small family, on some island unknown to the rest of the world–all of which novelists and writers of the Robisonades use so cleverly.  Falseness, ingratitude, injustice, whatever is childish in the purposes that we ourselves consider important and great and in the pursuit of which people inflict all conceivable evils on one another, these so contradict the idea of what people could be if they wanted to, and so conflict with our fervent wish to see them improved, that, given that we cannot love them, it seems but a slight sacrifice to forgo all social joys to avoid hating them.  This sadness, which does not concern the evils that fate imposes on other people (in which case it would be caused by sympathy), but those that they inflict on themselves (a sadness that rests on an antipathy involving principles), is sublime, because it rests on ideas, whereas the sadness caused by sympathy can at most count as beautiful …. This comment is intended only as a reminder that even grief (but not a dejected kind of sadness) may be included among the vigorous affects, if it has its basis in moral ideas.  If, on the other hand, it is based on sympathy, then it may indeed be lovable, but belongs merely to the languid affects.  My point is to draw attention to the fact that only in the first case is the mental attunement sublime.

–Kant, Critique of Judgment

Inasmuch as it is nothing but pure communicability, every human face, even the most noble and beautiful, is always suspended on the edge of an abyss… . The only face to remain uninjured is the one capable of taking the abyss of its own communicability upon itself and of exposing it without fear or complacency.
—  Giorgio Agamben, Means Without End (96)
Among beings who would always already be enacted, who would always already be this or that thing, this or that identity, and who would have entirely exhausted their power in these things and identities – among such beings there could not be any community but only coincidences and factual partitions. We can communicate with others only through what in us – as much as in others – has remained potential, and any communication (as Benjamin perceives for language) is first of all communication not of something in common but of communicability itself.
—  Giorgio Agamben, Means Without End (10)

LET IT HAPPEN - Jon Savage on The New Pop and how Tame Impala is throwing it all in the Magimix.

Jon Savage in Conversation with Kevin Parker. 

Tame impala are the breakout rock group of the moment: fusing pop, grunge, psychedelia and, on their latest record Currents, contemporary R&B. They are the sound of 2016: making music that sounds completely contemporary,in the now. The surfaces are seductive, but repeated listening reveals many subtleties in sound and in lyrics that examine switchback emotions. The depth of their appeal can be seen in the fact that Rihanna has covered New Person, Same Old Mistakes on her new album Anti - a mash-up of styles that defines 21st century pop. Tame Impala is Kevin Parker. Since 2010 he has released three wonderful albums: Innerspeaker, Lonerism and Currents.

Everything on those records is played, recorded, mixed and produced by himself. The result is a dizzying sequence of songs that use sound itself as a prime communicant - moving through the albums from psychedelia to sensory overload and glistening disco. These moods complement lyrics that deal with serious thoughts: “the only person who’s really judging you is yourself” Alter Ego; “everything is changing / and there’s nothing I can do”(Apocalypse Dreams).“Self questioning through music,” is how Parker describes the first two records. But on the opening track from Currents, Let It Happen, this confusion resolves into a kind of acceptance - a voice saying “let it happen,let It happen (It’s gonna feel so good).” Matched to a fresh clarity and an upbeat sound palette, this introduces a record that celebrates growth and change, endings and new beginnings. The three Tame Impala albums -rather like the four Velvet Underground albums constitute a psychological journey, whether intentional or not, from doubt to joy, from indie to pop,from adolescence to adulthood.

Kevin Parker has just turned 30 and lives in Perth, Australia. He talks about this and many other matters via digital communications from the other side of the world.

JS: Okay, let me just check that this is all working and then we can start. (Jon knocks everything over)

KP: All okay Jon?

JS: This isn’t very good for my image.

KP: It’s a rare occasion that everything works.

JS: actually did a whole interview with a big musical icon once and forgot to turn on the tape recorder.

KP: Oh no, I did one of those too and I only discovered it right at the end.

JS: it was with Iggy Pop and I was just completely mortified.

KP: Iggy Pop!? (laughs)i know… (laughs)

KP: Did you tell him, or did you just make up the rest?

JS: No, you know what - the great thing about Iggy now is that he’s a complete professional and when I said “I fucked up - I’m really sorry” he just did the whole thing again.

KP: No way!

JS: It was good of him, right. So the first thing I wanted to ask you is -is it correct that you wrote and recorded all three albums (Innerspeaker, Lonerism and Currents) by yourself?

KP: Yeah.

JS: So how do you motivate yourself?

KP: It’s just what I do, you know. It’s more a case of if I don’t do it, then I start feeling shit about myself and start feeling like I have no purpose. If I’m ever feeling depressed or down on the dumps - it’s usually because I haven’t written or recorded a song in a while. Even if it’s just a melody or a musical passage: just like coming out with something like that is what makes me feel good about myself.

JS: It’s quite hard to work by yourself, so how do you stop going down the rabbit hole?

KP: I tend to think that getting lost down the rabbit hole is one of the most important parts. It’s one of the best things about writing or recording music by yourself. That’s one of the pleasures. Not to have any ties, or anchors, in reasonable logical thought you know.

JS: So you have no producers or bass players saying “we really can’t do it that way”?

KP: Well I do, but they’re all inside my head.

JS: [Laughs]

KP: I mean, all the times that I’ve written and made music with other people, it’s been a completely different experience. It’s no less fun - it’s probably more fun, it’s more about doing something crazy but there’s always a voice of reason like people kind of leverage each other out.If someone has an idea that’s kind of like way out - chances are that someone will think it’s really bad, but when you’re by yourself thoughts just rattle around infinitely in your head. It’s extremely pleasurable and it’s become the thing that I live for, because if I’ve made a song and I haven’t been completely lost at some point - you know lost in a good way, as you say down the rabbit hole - if that hasn’t happened, then I won’t be satisfied with making that song. To me that’s a sign that I’m on to something good, you know that I’m able to completely disappear into it.

JS: I very much got that feeling on Lonerism. I mean it’s such a bright, buzzy sound on that record and sometimes it almost threatens to overwhelm you.and I thought that was part of the thing that you were doing. It’s a record about trying to connect and you got all this buzzing stuff going on, which is in the way sometimes.

KP: Yeah, I know exactly what you mean. I think with Lonerism I really kind of tapped in to what was possible doing it by myself. You know, like the first album I felt like I had to make it sound like it was a band. I started out and kind of ended up sounding like a bunch of dudes jamming out. That’s why so many people thought we were a band. It just sounded like that and I was good at playing along with myself, like multi-tracking.Just lying down playing the guitar and then playing drums on top and doing it in a way that sounds like a collective of people, and only limiting the amount of sounds to what was potentially possible for a group of people in a room. Whereas with Lonerism I just threw all of that out of the window and went “fuck it” I really explored the possibilities of multi-tracking,over dubbing yourself hundreds of times. You know, there were songs that had 120 channels in them and stuff - you know like a vocal surge that had 16 voices in it just for one, you know all of that kind of stuff. Having three melodies go at once, all completely distorted and blown out you know. It was that kind of album.

JS: One thing that I really like about it - I mean I really like the lyrics as well,is the way that the sound is part of the whole deal, very much so. Obviously you got the melodies and the structures of a pop song, but then the sound is communicating as well as the lyrics - you’ve got a sort of fourth level going on.

KP: Okay, for sure. You’re spot on.

JS: Is that something that’s very intuitive?

KP: Yeah, of course. It’s kind of the part that I take pride in the most. It’s definitely what I spend the most time on. I’ll do a drum take, it’ll just be the first take and even if I fucked up a few times in the take I’ll just leave it because it had the most natural feel, but then I’ll spend 6 months mixing the drums for it. You know, going back every day and changing something small. Same with every other thing - I’ll do a keyboard take and then spend the best part of a year making it sound right.The actual recording part is a fraction of the whole thing, because for me the sound is like… I guess that’s what producers do when they'rein the outside world - all those roles roll in to one. I never know what’s producing, mixing, song writing - it means the same thing but for me the difference between a song sounding completely amateur and sounding like the best thing I’ve ever done is just how I make it sound.

JS: I think the fact that you’re combining all those roles is what makes it sound unique, because it sounds like a complete whole. In a way I couldn’t distinguish one part from the other. I don’t mean music parts, I mean all the different things you put in. I think that’s really great. It actually makes for very distinctive, very contemporary pop music.

KP: Yeah, I think as I’ve grown up and as my music has gone out to the world that’s kind of one of the qualities that I’ve noticed that it has. At the start I never really knew why I got a record deal [laughs], why people were listening and why more people were getting in to it. I’m starting to appreciate that that’s what people like about it is that it sounds like one big monster, one big thing rolled together.

JS: So what music did you - I mean obviously there’s a lot of psychedelia in your work. Is that what you listened to when you were a kid?

KP: Not when I was a kid… I’m trying to work out when it was that I listened to the most psychedelia, or the music that influenced what I sound like. For me it’s never been a conscious thing. I mean there was a time when me and a bunch of the guys that are in the band, the live band and a few other people - we all kind of lived together in this kind of shared house and living this life style, listening to that kind of music.You know, everything from The Doors to Aphex Twin. It was pretty much like as long as it was freaky in some way.

JS: You were born in early 1986. So when you were about 12, sort of the end of the millennium. I’m just trying to think what was the kind of music you really started listening to when you were a kid.

KP: When I was 12, I mean I was just coming into teenage years so it was pretty much anything with any kind of angst [laughs] sewn into it.I listened to a lot of Smashing Pumpkins and then there was all of that early 2000 punk rock, Unwritten Law - that kind of stuff. Even like Rage Against the Machine.The Smashing Pumpkins record that I had - or the one that my brother had - was Siamese Dream, which still just defines an entire part of my life.That’s the album that kind of for me makes the most sense of what my music ended up sounding like.The vibe that I get from listening to it seems to be, you know the closest thing to what I’m heading towards, that kind of emotion. It’s crusty and aggressive but it’s completely sensitive at the same time. You know, it’s like blown out. Years later I found out that that album is mostly Billy Corgan on his own. He was completely multi-tasking the whole thinq and was layering like 60 guitars of his own - his own takes on top of each other. It’s funny how I ended up being that same kind of deal.

JS: And did you like My Bloody Valentine?

KP: Yeah, but you know what - My Bloody Valentine is one of those bands that I ended up finding out about later when people said that I sounded like them.There’s a few other bands I got into because people were like “oh it sounds a bit like My Bloody Valentine or it sounds like Kyuss.

JS: I saw them twice in 1990 when they were doing Loveless live.

KP: Wow, what was that like?

JS: Oh fantastic! Absolutely fantastic!

KP: I saw them a couple of years ago. It was everything I hoped but I was standing near the sound desk and people were literally just turning around and swearing and abusing the sound guy, and I remember the sound guy joking to us saying that he used to have a sign that he held up saying that it’s supposed to sound this way [laughs]. So yeah, take from that what you will.

JS: So in a way you also grew up totally with digital music with all music being available really. Did you feel that when you were growing up?

KP: Not really. I mean the days of me being totally obsessed with music, which was like late teens - when I got the real depths of it. Not to say that I’m not obsessed with music now but you know, like how it completely defined who I was. I remember like downloading a song on the internet and starting it at the start of a night and maybe at the end of the night I had that song - you know, being absolutely over the moon when the song finally finished downloading, from wherever it was legally, illegally, whatever. It was funny later when I was older - music was available to anyone, because it didn’t really feel very available at the time for me.

JS: So you still kind of had to seek things out?

KP: Yeah, definitely. I still saved up to buy albums and stuff. I must have been 16 or something and I had CDs stacked in my room. CDs were still a big thing.

JS: So did you grow up in Perth?

KP: Yeah, I was born in Sydney. I spent most of my life in Perth.

JS: Okay, so when you were young were there alternative record stores and mainstream record stores?

KP: I didn’t really care. It was just a CD shop you know. There were record stores but it wasn’t something I discovered until I was like 20.

JS: And so you would listen to what - a mixture of electronic and punk and a bit of grunge?

KP: Yeah, I listened to a range really. I think when I first heard Radiohead I was into… that was the thing with me - someone would show mean album and I’d get obsessed with it and not even look at the rest of the albums by that band. It was a terrible ethic. There was a Radiohead album that I listened to over and over again - Amnesiac, and that was at the same time as I was listening to like Incubus or something, and there was that and around the same time I found the Air album so there was just four completely different things.

JS: I love Air. They’re really amongst my very favourites.

KP: Oh man. I think Talkie Walkie is probably my favourite album of all time.

JS: I can see that because I can see a little bit of Air in you.

KP: Yeah. Well actually Air is a kind of artist, or band, that I always loved and always completely respected, but never have worked into my own music until this album. This album is the first time Air shone through.Now that I think about it, it’s crazy! When I first heard that album - I must have been 16 or 17 - I was making music in my parents’ music room which was their converted garage. My dad had sound proofed it,you know so he could play guitar really loudly. There was a computer that used to be the family computer that was just sitting in there in the music room now, and my dad’s friend put this music program on it, on this like CD rom. My dad and his friend used to use it to rehearse songs together. They had this duo where they practiced songs.The computer was so primitive, you couldn’t even play music out of it while you were recording music into it. I was just discovering. Up until then I just used a tape machine to record, you know like a living room variety tape player to record music. I suddenly had this digital thing. I didn’t know what I was doing but I was recording little bits and putting them in to where I could - making music out of it and I was listening to Air at the same time and Radiohead. I was just like amazed and sort of obsessed with this idea… you know I found a piece of swimming pool pipe and I swung it around and it made this kind of weird whirling sound and I was like "sweet, I’ll record that’.’ I was just kind of infatuated with recording music on my own.

JS: Air are a fantastic group to wake up to. Because it’s kind of creamy and very melodic and it’s a whole sound again and also the lyrics are actually pretty sharp.

KP: Yeah, I just love it how it’s so soothing and alien and freaky at the same time. I love all things that seem like opposites, going together. You know, opposites that weirdly belong together.

JS: Well I think that’s very important - it’s like a sort of juxtaposition and that’s the way you make something new.

KP: Yeah, exactly.

JS: I didnt expect us to end up talking about Air. How fantastic we share that passion. So tell me about your lyrics, are they autobiographical or do you just get yourself into a mode?

KP: I think they all are to some degree. Again, I don’t think I’d be able to finish a song, I don’t think I’d be able to feel passionate enough about it to finish it unless it’s a story that’s close to my heart, you know. It’s sort of therapeutic to me first and foremost. I like the idea that if I write some lyrics or a song that has some message to it, that it’s going to be a message to other people as well as me.That’s something I only started thinking about when I started making the albums I knew people were waiting for and I knew that people were going to listen to, which is like after the first album. For me it’s important that it’s something I know closely, you know.

JS: Yes. I mean there’s a lot of fascinating stuff in the lyrics, I have to say.There are some great lines. I was thinking of the first album - "the only one who is really judging you is yourself” from Alter Ego. From your first album I very much got a sense of confusion and paradoxes - “dare I face the world” Is that how you felt then? Because you must have been 20 something? Early 20?

KP: I was 22-23, definitely a time where I was trying to work myself out.I had a lot of questions: it was this time when I was living with a bunch of other guys and we lived that kind of lifestyle where we were trying things and I was secretly bringing out all the soul questions that I had. I was taking a bit of acid, smoking a lot of weed. My dad had actually died the year before I made Innerspeaker.

JS: That’s a really serious event.

KP: Yeah, it was a weird time. I was sorting myself out. I was trying to solve a few questions… I don’t know, I don’t know. It was a huge time of self discovery and self questioning for me. It kind of kicked off the whole Tame Impala perspective in a way. That kind of self questioning through music.

JS: That’s very good. Self Questioning Through Music: I love it [laughs].Where did the name come from?

KP: I don’t really know where it came from. I was thinking of a name for a psychedelic band. It was meant to fit that mould. It’s an Impala because my parents were Zimbabwean and South African so I wanted it to be an African animal. I felt that was kind of my personal thing rather than like a panther or…

JS: A Kangaroo?

KP: Yeah, well I’ve got massive cultural cringe so I was never going to be an Australian animal. I liked the impalas. I thought they were cool animals and that kind of reminded me of somewhere that I’ve come from historically, not geographically. As soon as I was trying to think of a name I just said Tame Impala in my head. I don’t know why. I also thought in the end that I liked the idea that the name described this connection with a wild animal.The idea is not that it’s a tamed impala - it’s still a wild one but fora brief moment… the idea is that you would see one in the wild and you suddenly have this connection with it and it has a connection with you.It’s like an unspoken connection with something foreign and way out. And then it flickers of into the wild, you know. It’s this brief spontaneous connection, kind of thing.

JS: So on the second album you’re still trying to work out where you are in the world.

KP: With Lonerism I definitely wanted to tell a story. Or not a story - in fact I didn’t want anything.The kind of music I was suddenly making, or being able to make: melodically, it kind of just reminded me of when I was a kid trying to connect with people and feeling quite alienated socially.The first album didn’t really have anything to do with someone in their place - that kind of social world around them - but for some reason the second album just felt right to be talking about that.It’s also because since the first album came out we were touring a lot more and there were a lot of social situations that I hadn’t been in since I was much younger. You know, I spent the Innerspeaker days pretty much just with seven people. I just shut myself off and didn’t have to worry about other people. With Lonerism, the theme of the album just happened. I started singing about things that I hadn’t really talked about before which was the feeling of being alienated, trying to be connected with other people and the feeling of failing. It was still quite self questioning - it still had that kind of thing but the songs were all about not knowing your place in the world socially.

JS: I here’s some fantastic lines there - Nothing That Has Happened So Far Has Been Anything We Could Control [laughs].

KP: That one…l felt a kick out of making it such a long song title. I was like this feels daring. That song is kind of about finding yourself in a situation, like a predicament. You and someone else and the only comfort you have is by reassuring yourselves that it wasn’t you that decided to do it like that. It wasn’t under our control - the steps that led to this predicament. You know? Like it wasn’t our fault - we were just doing what we were doing.

JS: And also, that’s what it’s like when you’re in your twenties. You know,you’re living in a world that adults have created - it’s not the world you created is it?

KP: Yeah, for sure.

JS: Okay, the most recent album. It’s very different, and what I like about it… I mean you laid it out on Let It Happen - you’re actually saying you’ve got to adapt to change, this is inevitable, just roll with it basically. I loved the counter synth melody on that one. It comes about three minutes in and it just sweeps you up. Do you know the one I mean?

KP: Oh yeah, the big string section. Cool!

JS: I also like the way you did - 1 don’t know how you call it - the repeat that sounds like a CD is stuck. That’s a very effective, new pop device. You did it in a very crude, broken-sounding way. How do you do that?

KP: I just did it manually, literally… there’s lots of ways you can do it digitally, but I just did it one way which is the only way I know how. I just love the idea of that; for me it really pricked my ears up, made me feel really satisfied. I guess it’s the only way to describe it - having that really cold digital repitition, that cold digital repetition and then suddenly this kind of really organic string thing comes sort of just washing in - this orchestral surge. It’s the most organic thing that can possibly happen coming on top of this seemingly broken CD player sound.

JS: [Laughs]

KP: Again, I love the way those two things seemed like opposites that go together in a way. Again, I’m not really sure what made me think of that string thing, that string part in the song but I’ve always been into Serge Gainsbourg… I can’t remember who the guy was who arranged his strings. Jean-Claude Vannier or something?

JS: Oh yeah, he did a fantastic solo LP too. I can’t remember what it’s called now. Something about the flies (L'Enfant Assassin des Mouches).

KP: That’s a good example of me being influenced by something. I just did it and then it was recorded and it was done and then I sort of try to trace back to what made me think of that in the first place - like where did that come from? And I think it was actually something to do with Serge Gainsbourg.

JS: So I mean the album in general - it seems like a whole piece to me, even though obviously there’s lots of different tracks and whatever and I like the short tracks. You know, I like Gossip and I like Nangs, they just break it all up. But also it seems to be about… it’s adapting to change, dealing with the end of a relationship and what happens when you start with a new one - a sort of sense of opening but yet being scared. You, know it’s a very strange time when you start a relationship. Is that correct?

KP: Yeah, for sure. A phrase that comes to mind when I think of what the album is telling you is “just give in” It’s like an album that’s telling you just to give in to these kind of forces that are there. You know, it’s kind of meant to be a bit of a 180% turn from what the Tame Impala perspective is - which is like self discovery, discipline in a way because I think with the first album there are a few concepts that were meant to be vaguely Buddhist in nature. You know, to appreciate only what is real and what is right. But with this album it’s kind of like, “well you know what, there are a million voices in my head telling me all this. I’m just going to go with this”.

JS: So it’s about intuition and to some extent surrender, which is a great thing I think.

KP: Exactly. Surrender.

JS: Because the ego always says you’ve got to do this, you’ve got to do that, you’ve got to put your stamp on it and sometimes it’s just impossible.

KP: Right, right. It’s kind of also about growing up and realising if you don’t follow your intuition now - you never will. It’s now or never basically.

JS: Are there moments when you record when you feel as if the music is playing you rather than you playing the music?

KP: Yeah, that’s usually when I feel like I’m in the zone, when I’m not really thinking per se - it’s just something… you know, you reach this kind of like… you know it’s what people that are meditating want to achieve - it’s that sort of state where you’re not having to think of anything, you just do it but you’re listening to it and if the music tells you to do something you do it. It’s like this cycle - you’re creating and listening at the same time.

JS: And you’re completely lucid as well.

KP: Yeah. Exactly.

JS: So on the last track - New Person, Same Old Mistakes - it’s kind of the ultimate track isn’t it and you’ve got a great bridge there and you’re kind of going against yourself by the end.

KP: That was meant to be the concept. The concept of the song is someone arguing with themselves, it’s like the angel on your shoulder and the devil on your shoulder you know. That kind of… not to make it so Disney or whatever, but that kind of internal conflict. If you listen carefully you can actually hear one side of the argument is pan slide to the left and the other side is pan slide to the right, you know so that the kind of narrator in response is slightly panned left and slightly panned to the right.

JS: So were you surprised when Rihanna covered it?

KP: Yeah, it was more just like “woah, this is happening’.’ I didn’t know what they were going to do, officially. They just said that Rihanna wanted to do something with it on her album. You know, these days I’ve learnt to sort of expect crazy things. You know like things like that out of the blue turn up all the time.

JS: It was a great tribute as well, a real moment.

KP: Yeah, well especially because when I was writing the song I kind of had an RnB artist in mind. You know, that’s something I do a lot - think of a song and imagine the song in its natural habitat and then think about where it’s going to end up later. You know, I’ll just record it… you know, I don’t even always record songs knowing they’re going to be Tame Impala songs. I’ve got a bunch of songs that I’ve started - that I don’t have any intention to be Tame Impala songs. In fact, a lot of the songs that are on the albums didn’t start out as intentional Tame Impala songs. It’s something like half and half. So yeah, New Person, Same Old Mistakes - when I was writing it,when I was doing the demo for it, I was thinking that I could give it to an R’n’B artist and maybe if they like it they can put it on their album. That would be my dream - to write songs for other artists. It’s kind of like a secret fantasy for me. So in the end I thought by the time I’ve finished the song it actually sounds like Tame Impala because it’s me doing it in the end. It’s my kind of production, it’s me playing all the instruments so it ends up sounding like Tame Impala. So I kind of forgot about the fact that I intended it to be for a different artist, and so when Rihanna finally did a version of it, it was crazy how full circle it felt. I was like "oh shit,this is how in my head it sounded at the very beginning”.

JS: And did she use some of the backing track or did she record her own?

KP: I think it’s mostly my instrumentation. I gave them the stems thinking they were going to sort of make their own completely new version of it. I didn’t know they were going to leave it mostly intact.

JS: Modern R’n’B just sounds fantastic.

KP: I know what you mean. I’ve been obsessed as well. It’s just this thing like “how do I make that” you know.

JS: And it’s probably the most creative, as far as sound is concerned - the most creative mainstream pop format.

KP: Definitely. Yeah, especially because it’s such a fine line between something sounding amateur and something sounding like a million dollars. Even the top producers in R’n’B - they’re used to doing it on their laptops with a program that’s probably free off the internet. The difference between something that gets heard by one person and something that gets heard by millions of people is really just this sort of subtle placement of a chord or a drum hit, which fascinates me. Because for me - I was growing up on pop music on one side and alternative music on the other side and whatever you do - it has to be miles different from everyone else.

JS: But that split between pop and alternative is bullshit of course.

KP: Right. Exactly. Which is something I discovered while making this album - things don’t have to be completely polarized.

JS: What I don’t like about a lot of pop music now - it’s so obviously someone’s idea of mainstream pop music and that’s what I really liked about your records is that they do combine pop music with that element of surprise really, not even freakiness - surprise, something new. A ‘new pop’.

KP: I think the tides are turning on that more tired aspect of pop music.You know, I actually believe that it’s all getting more inventive and also the line between what is mainstream and what is alternative is becoming more and more blurred, which for me is a good thing.

JS: Well, I agree because I always like to hear something I’ve never heard before. When you were doing Currents, when you were planning it, when you were doing it - did you have an idea that it was going to be different from the first two or did it just happen that way?

KP: I did want to do something different but then at the same time,I always want to do something different. For me there’s no point in doing it unless it is in some way different. As I’ve been making albums,I kind of get addicted to that feeling of going completely out of your comfort zone - both for my own appreciation, trying something new,and also to surprise other people that are anticipating it. The feeling of giving people the idea that they don’t know what’s going to happen. It’s something I got addicted to. Along with that, there are just so many things musically, that I realise that I hadn’t pursued yet - things that I have always loved, types of music that I have always loved and that have always been so close tome -that I hadn’t really incorporated. Pop music, disco, funk music, or all kinds of things that I considered guilty pleasures because I considered them sort of like disposable or less intellectual than alternative music or experimental music. You know, I suddenly just shook off that kind of indie guilt… what’s the word. Punk rock guilt. All that kind of thing. I just realised that my love of music and making music was bigger than that. Also I guess I felt like, in the past,I didn’t know how to include those kind of elements in the music that I was making. I still consider Lonerism to be a total pop album because the melodies are pop.They’re all pop songs in my own opinion, my own mind. But going down that kind of Michael Jackson vein of pop music was something I hadn’t really done. I didn’t know how to incorporate that into the kind of psych rock I was making. But I think this time, I was just willing to try anything.

JS: How did you do? Did you start with the groove?

KP: I guess it depends which song but usually it starts with the melody, always. Melody and chords. I just have the idea for that. I mean it’s kind of all at the same time though, you know. I’ll just have the idea for the song. It sounds cheesy, but I just start playing in my head like I just flicked on the radio. Do you know what I mean?

JS: Great.

KP: It’s kind of something I’ve got better at doing since I was really young.

JS: So was there any disco records you particularly liked?

KP: Not strictly disco - anything from Daft Punk to the Beach Boys to Michael Jackson. That’s kind of the triangle of my influence in terms of the disco part. It’s an amazing moment of liberation, you know when you’ve learnt to accept or decide not to shut out things that you’ve felt inclined to shut out before.

JS: There’s nothing wrong with wanting to have fun and a lot of alternative music is just not fun.

KP: Yeah, because a lot of it is wrapped up in the message… it’s more exclusive than inclusive.

JS: I see a lot of rock music as being about generational identification - you know, it’s something you do with a bunch of people in a particular time in your life.

KP: Yeah.That identity thing is something that was so deeply imbedded in me for so many of my years growing up. By deciding what I loved it informed what I hated at the same time. I considered myself a grunge¦ kid 50 that pretty much dictated what I thought was pulp and also the demographic you know. I was part of these people that listened to that music therefore all the people I didn’t associate with were teeny buffers that listened to pop music.

JS: Yeah, I was the same.

KP: Yeah, I think we all were at some point.You just have this realisation. There’s no such thing as intellectual music.

JS: So, do you feel connected to your generation at all or are you very much just in your own world? Do you feel connected now with the outside world?

KP: I feel more connected now than I have in a long time; more than I did when I was 20, ten years ago. Only because now… not that I’m trying to accept, but I’m just interested.Ten years ago I wasn’t interested in what people in the same age as me were listening to.

JS: So what’s next?

KP: Physically, we’re going to be touring for the rest of the year, but everything non physical… for the first time I don’t really know.

JS: That’s interesting.

KP: It is, it is. I think with this last album it was kind of a gateway album.It kind of opened a lot of doors - it’s was kind of half the intention as well, to open things up.

JS: So you’re not going to do a new album very soon?

KP: I don’t know. I could suddenly wake up tomorrow and make a whole new album, but I didn’t wake up today feeling that way… Do you know what I mean?JS: I don’t blame you [laughs]. But if you’ve had a success, you might as well enjoy it.

KP: Yeah, I mean at the same time it’s not really the way my brain works. You know, I’m extremely bad at appreciating what I’ve earned.I’m the kind of person that really wants something; I want the album to be successful or whatever and then the album comes out and it is successful, but I don’t care by that point. I’m extremely bad at resting on my laurels.

Tame Impala play in Asia during April and then a number of major festivals across North America and Europe between June and August.

Many thanks to the bestest dude for extracting the text using his superior skillz. Tame fans salute you.

And The Answer To Yesterday’s Race Quiz Question is:

12. A An Indian Identity or: B. Democracy

Indians didn’t think of themselves as Indians when European settlers arrived, but rather as members of separate tribes or nations, divided by language, custom and religion. United States’ representative democracy drew upon the traditions of the Iroquois Confederacy.  The idea of “blood quantum,” i.e., the determination of Indian identity by ancestry, was imposed by the federal government. In contrast, tribal membership traditionally was open to anyone, even Europeans, as long as they accepted tribal customs and authority. There were no horses in the New World until they were brought over by Europeans. Measles, small-pox and other communicable diseases were also unknown in the Americas prior to European exploration. Some historians estimate that up to 90% of all Atlantic coast Indians died from diseases contracted from European traders and explorers by the time of the first Plymouth settlement.

Alright, thus concludes our race quiz!  Click here to see the full quiz what we cribbed the questions from.

Snorting Meth: Side Effects and Danger

Methamphetamine (meth) is classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a Schedule II stimulant, meaning it has a high potential for abuse. As the brand formulation Desoxyn, methamphetamine was historically prescribed in low doses for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or as a short-term component of weight loss treatment. These days, safer alternatives have largely supplanted methamphetamine for these applications. Most of the meth in the United States is purchased illegally and is produced in “superlabs” and small neighborhood labs located in the U.S. or Mexico.

How Meth Is Used

Meth can be taken in pill form, but is more commonly smoked, snorted, or injected. People who use meth might choose to snort the drug because of fear of using needles or contracting hepatitis or HIV/AIDS. Although the risks are much lower when compared with non-sterile needle techniques, communicable diseases such as the hepatitis virus may still be transmitted by snorting if people using meth share paraphernalia used to snort the drug, especially if there is blood on the items or if there are cuts or abrasions within the nose.

Snorting meth provides a euphoric high with a relatively less intense a rush than that encountered with either smoking or injecting meth. This experience might lead people who use the drug to snort increased amounts. Increasing the dose puts them at higher risk for overdose. Frequent snorting of meth can cause problems within the nose and sinus cavities, increase stuffiness and nosebleeds, and damage the lining and cartilage of the nose.

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Snorting Meth: Side Effects and Dangers

Methamphetamine (meth) is classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a Schedule II stimulant, meaning it has a high potential for abuse. As the brand formulation Desoxyn, methamphetamine was historically prescribed in low doses for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or as a short-term component of weight loss treatment. These days, safer alternatives have largely supplanted methamphetamine for these applications. Most of the meth in the United States is purchased illegally and is produced in “superlabs” and small neighborhood labs located in the U.S. or Mexico.

How Meth Is Used

Meth can be taken in pill form, but is more commonly smoked, snorted, or injected. People who use meth might choose to snort the drug because of fear of using needles or contracting hepatitis or HIV/AIDS. Although the risks are much lower when compared with non-sterile needle techniques, communicable diseases such as the hepatitis virus may still be transmitted by snorting if people using meth share paraphernalia used to snort the drug, especially if there is blood on the items or if there are cuts or abrasions within the nose.

Snorting meth provides a euphoric high with a relatively less intense a rush than that encountered with either smoking or injecting meth. This experience might lead people who use the drug to snort increased amounts. Increasing the dose puts them at higher risk for overdose. Frequent snorting of meth can cause problems within the nose and sinus cavities, increase stuffiness and nosebleeds, and damage the lining and cartilage of the nose.

Manufacturing Meth

Meth is a man-made drug synthesized from various, often toxic, chemicals, which may each individually contribute to the possibility of negative health effects. Common ingredients used in the illicit manufacturing of meth include:

Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine (a common ingredient in cold medicines).Acetone.Anhydrous ammonia (found in fertilizer).Battery acid.Ether.Drain cleaner.Freon.Iodine crystals.Lithium (from batteries).Paint thinner.Red phosphorus (from matchsticks).

Authorities are monitoring and controlling these ingredients, especially pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, more tightly by limiting access to large quantities. Small labs can create approximately $1,000 worth of meth in a few hours using about $100 of materials.

The process of manufacturing illegal meth produces toxic byproducts that are harmful to those who come into contact with them, including the manufacturer and anyone in the immediate vicinity. For every pound of meth that is created, approximately five to six pounds of hazardous waste is produced.

These waste products can poison farmland and forests, create toxic runoff, negatively affect animals in the area, and require specialized teams to clean up the hazardous materials. In a large number of U.S. states, property owners can be held responsible for the financial cost of these hazardous material cleanups, even if they aren’t directly involved in the manufacture of meth.

Short-Term Effects of Snorting Meth

While meth may provide a pleasurable and euphoric high, it carries the risk of many side effects and dangers, regardless of how the drug is taken. Because meth is a central nervous system stimulant, using it essentially creates an extended fight-or-flight response. Such a state of persistent nervous system activation is associated with often dangerous increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. Users may experience a profound increase in energy levels, along with reduced appetite and dilated pupils – the latter a tell-tale sign of artificially stimulated sympathetic nervous system activity. These conditions can last for up to 24 hours.

When speaking, people under the influence of meth might jump from one topic to another, might feel more assertive or confident, and might even behave in paranoid or suspicious ways. The high is followed by a dramatic crash, leading the person to want to continue using the drug to avoid coming down. Individuals who are crashing will show excessive fatigue, hunger, thirst, strong cravings, mental confusion, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and lack of pleasure in ordinary activities. The desire to avoid these unpleasant feelings leads some people to take repeated doses over extended periods of time.

Long-Term Effects of Snorting Meth

Over time the effects of continued meth use can cause serious damage to the nervous, circulatory, renal, and respiratory systems, leading to negative mental and physical effects. These physical consequences include weight loss, dental problems, insomnia, and an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and liver and kidney damage.

Tolerance can develop with repeated use, requiring users to obtain and abuse increasing amounts of meth to get high or even just to feel normal. Psychological consequences include paranoia, delusions, anxiety, confusion, concentration and memory problems, depression, suicidal thoughts, mood changes, and psychosis. Eventually, many users suffer from skin sores and damage to the teeth.

The routine of feeding a meth addiction – which consists of obtaining, using, and recovering from meth use – takes up much of the user’s time. While meth can give users excess energy, the dramatic crash can lead to a lack of motivation, which can cause problems with schoolwork and employment. Meth users might drop out of school due to excessive absences or poor performance. Employees might lose their job because of their meth use. Withdrawal symptoms might contribute to the likelihood of continued use. Chronic use can create long-lasting – or even permanent – changes in the brain, including changes that affect the brain’s pleasure and reward centers.

Meth use can easily lead to dependence and addiction, requiring special attention and care in a private treatment facility. Some people become addicted after using the drug just once, while others who try it might decide not to use it again. Low-intensity users might ingest the drug to experience increased wakefulness to finish a job, such as a long drive or a big project. Even low-intensity meth use can eventually lead to binge use or addiction.

Manufacturing Meth

Meth is a man-made drug synthesized from various, often toxic, chemicals, which may each individually contribute to the possibility of negative health effects.

anonymous asked:

I read the link about HIV transmission, and I personally wouldn't want to risk it, even if the chances are low. I'm confused (I have several cognitive issues), are you saying it's ok to for a person to lie about having a possibly deadly and expensive to treat, communicable illness? Are you saying that it's bigoted to ask about someone's HIV status? I'm getting conflicting and confusing answers.

I’m saying it shouldn’t be illegal. Have whatever feelings or forgiveness you want, no aspect of having an illness should be illegal.

Dennis Adams

Patricia Hearst: A-Z, 1979-1990

Patricia Hearst was a nineteen-year-old newspaper heiress in 1974 when she was kidnapped from her Berkeley apartment by the Symbionese Liberation Army, a left-wing guerilla group. While captive of the SLA, Hearst changed her name to Tania and her politics to those of the SLA. In the wake of Watergate and the Vietnam War, pictures of Hearst circulated through the media and American consciousness like visible traces of the country’s psychological fallout. These many “Patty Hearsts” reactivated America’s identity crisis in the multiple and contradictory personas of a young heiress turned revolutionary terrorist. The country pulsed with an overload of images of Hearst— invented and reinvented by her parents, the SLA, the FBI, lawyers, and psychiatrists—all filtered through an unrelenting media blitz. 

Adams assembled twenty-six headshots of Patricia Hearst that trace her many transformations—from First Communicant, to young socialite, to her incarnation as Tania, to the bride her former bodyguard—and assigned each picture a letter of the alphabet. In the original, 1979 installation he combined these image/letter units to form a gestalt of word associations and displayed them across two perpendicular walls. Two armed policemen were employed to stand guard, framing the installation and metaphorically reenating the role of captors. In a later installation Adams used the images to spell out a run-on sentence, hung across a single wall, lamenting the death of America. With the 1990 edition Adams devised a descending grid of the twenty-six images, from A through Z.

That is is at least as difficult to stay a moral infection as a physical one; that such a disease will spread with the malignity and rapidity of the Plague; that the contagion, when it has once made head, will spare no pursuit or condition, but will lay hold on people in the soundest health, and become developed in the most unlikely constitutions; is a fact as firmly established by experience as that we human creatures breathe an atmosphere. A blessing beyond appreciation would be conferred upon mankind, if the tainted, in whose weakness or wickedness these virulent disorders are bred, could be instantly seized  and placed in close confinement before the poison in communicable.
—  in which Charles Dickens predicts social media. 

What Do NYC’s Rats Get Up To When We Aren’t Watching? 

What ever happened to Pizza Rat? If he’d been RFID-tracked like some of his NYC friends, we might know the answer. Rodentologist Michael Parsons set out to research the activities and movements of urban rats by implanting them with Radio-Frequency Identification microchips. By studying their foraging and social behaviors, Parsons hopes to be able to find out how new diseases are introduced into their populations. With 75 percent of the world’s population expected to live in urban areas by 2050, there will be more and more people packed into tighter living spaces increasing the risks of communicable diseases vectored by rodents. Read more. 

Photograph by Ludovic Bertron via Flickr

alright fam u listen here

1. NEVER dive into a shallow pool, head first. EVER. 

2. I know you’ve read the ‘pool rules’ sign at least once if you’ve ever been to a public pool. One of the rules on there is ‘Do not enter the pool if you have an open sore or communicable disease’. Please Take That Seriously. If you’re going into a pool, whatever bacteria you’re bringing with you is going to be spread around by the filter system putting other patrons and the lifeguards in potential danger. Lifeguards are here to help you, especially when you help yourself first.

3. Do Not EVER touch a lifeguard or other patron without their explicit permission ESPECIALLY if you have an open sore or communicable disease.

4. Please seek help for any mental, emotional, or physical problems you may have. Doctors are paid for a reason. There is always a way to find one, and please be as receptive and responsive as possible to their aid.

5. Please do not go swimming drunk or high. EVER. 

6. If you feel that your children are at risk in any situation, please seek outside help.

WHO, World Bank report urges healthcare reforms in China

Beijing, July 22 (IANS) Though China has achieved a number of milestones in healthcare advancement over the past three decades, further reforms are urgently needed, said a new report by WHO, the World Bank and the Chinese government, released in Beijing on Friday.

The study, conducted over the last two years, urges China to push the healthcare reform (that began in 2009) through innovation and, in turn, relying more on a system of basic healthcare and less on hospitals, which are less sustainable from the financial point of view, Efe news reported.

Despite lifting more than 600 million people out of poverty and expanding medical insurance to cover nearly the entire population over the past 30 years, the Asian country also faces a litany of challenges including an aging population and an increasing non-communicable disease burden, said the report.

The aging population and spike in non-contagious diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and heart problems, pose “the greatest health threat to Chinese people”, noted the report.

The report states that NCDs are further aggravated by high-risk behaviors and habits, including smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and environmental factors such as pollution.

World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim, however, lauded China’s efforts to tackle pollution and reduce carbon emissions as one of the “the most comprehensive, most ambitious” historically.

Kim acknowledged the rapid shift in priorities in China since 2013, when pollution levels shot up in Beijing, and lauded the government efforts to move quickly to address the problem.

Recommendations to China listed in the report include reforming public hospitals to reward for good results rather than the number of patients attended to.

The WHO and World Bank also recommended the government allow the private sector to compete on equal footing with the public sector.



anonymous asked:

Im struggling. My family calls me brainwashed a protestant because im not catholic. My brother says i am leaving jesus at the alter and walking away from him for not taking eucharist. I have so much fear, but i want to trust God. Please pray for me.

I can’t tell you how many times that my family has said that to me over the years.  What I did with my mother was I had Bible studies with her using the Catholic Bible and then I had my Bible there to show her it was the same Bible.

You need to consider what communion represents. Biblically, the purpose of communion is to remember the death of Jesus Christ and the new covenant and to “proclaim” His sacrifice by means of illustration (Matthew 26:28; Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:26). In a Catholic Church, the purpose is entirely different. When a person receives communion in a Catholic Church, the priest says, “The Body of Christ,” and the communicant responds, “Amen” in agreement. This signifies a belief in transubstantiation. The vast majority of Protestants strongly disagree with the Catholic understanding of the Lord’s Supper, and it would be dishonest to say, “Amen.”

Receiving Communion in a Catholic church would be to state, “I am in communion/agreement with you.” In the Catholic faith, receiving communion aligns a person in belief and practice with the Church’s doctrine. Given the many theological disagreements between Catholicism and Protestantism, non-Catholics should not participate in Catholic communion.

This concept is confusing to some Protestants because many non-Catholic churches practice “open communion”—that is, they welcome all who have received Jesus Christ as Savior to participate in communion with them. In communion, we welcome brothers and sisters in Christ and join together to remember Jesus’ sacrifice for our salvation. The Lord’s Supper thus becomes a symbol of unity among believers.

To know best how to witness to Catholics, it is good to know some of the things that make Catholics resistant to the idea of being “born again.”

Catholics are indoctrinated from an early age, and a barrier to biblical truth is carefully erected in their minds. Catholics are taught that everything that comes from Rome takes precedence over the Bible. “If the Pope says it, it must be true” is a cultivated mindset. Unfortunately, Catholics are not taught to think for themselves, and many do not know why they believe what they do. Many Catholics have no concept of what is written in the Bible, other than the two or three passages that are read during Mass.

Also, human nature being what it is, any threat to one’s belief system is automatically resisted. Apologetic confrontation tends to make Catholics defensive and to put up walls. To directly attack the apostasy of Catholic teaching is the wrong way; Catholics have been told to expect this from “Protestants,” so most of them are prepared for confrontation or simply cut off communication. Therefore, generally speaking, confronting a Catholic friend with the unbiblical doctrines of his church is self-defeating. It is usually better to gently point him to Scripture and its authority as God’s Word. Never underestimate the power of God’s Word to change a person’s heart (Hebrews 4:12).

The simplicity of the gospel is what will speak to Catholics the most. That’s the “key” in witnessing to them. In many ways, the Catholic Church insulates people from God, who can only be approached through priests and saints, and then only with the proper prayers, penance, and piety. The Bible teaches us “the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ” (2 Corinthians 11:3, NASB). Jesus extends the invitation to all: “Let the one who wishes take the free gift of the water of life” (Revelation 22:17). “Whoever has the Son has life” (1 John 5:12). Such simplicity appeals to those laboring under a merit-based system of religious works.

Reaching the heart of a Catholic is a gradual process. The armor he wears must be chinked, piece by piece, as doubts arise in his mind about what he has been taught. The idea is to “draw him out” and cause him to ask questions about his own faith. Catholics have to be “spiritually thirsty” in order to search for valid answers. When their questions arise, we want to be in a position to answer them from the Bible. It’s easy to simply condemn what someone believes, but that can easily lead to a lost opportunity for further witness. A Catholic must see the truth for himself.

Of course, it goes without saying that we who witness to Catholics must be in the Word and “prayed up.” We must be compassionate, not antagonistic, and we must let the Holy Spirit guide us. Our prayer should be along these lines: “Lord, You know the heart and the motives of this person. Give me the words she needs to hear.”

I have to say that when they see that you remain a Christian and won’t be moved they will watch you very closely and as they see the love of the Lord in you they will be drawn to that love.  My mother accepted Jesus before she died.  She told me once that she never had to worry about me (I come from a huge family) because she knew that the Lord would take care of me.  It was a relief to her.  Be patient because it will come little by little. 

Of course we will pray for you and your family that the Holy Spirit will move mightily through them and lead them to His saving grace.  We pray that where ever they go that a Christian will be put near them so that that Christian can share the love of Jesus with them.  That the Lord will give them all a great hunger for the Word of God so that they can learn the truth and be set free from the legalism of the Roman Catholic church.  In Jesus name we pray, Amen and Amen.  God bless you dear one!!!  Maranatha!!!  :):)

Описываем характер человека

amiable - дружелюбный
withdrawn - замкнутый, отрешенный
communicable - коммуникабельный
detached - отчужденный
fair - справедливый
unfair - несправедливый
faithful - верный
disloyal - неверный, ненадежный
straightforward - прямой, откровенный
frank - искренний
hypocritical (deceitful) - лицемерный
honest - честный
suspicious - подозрительный
just - справедливый
unjust - несправедливый
merciful - милосердный
merciless - безжалостный
sincere - искренний
false - лживый
sympathetic - сочувственный
indifferent - безразличный
reliable - надежный
unreliable - ненадежный
open - открытый
two-faced - двуликий
outspoken - прямой
reserved - сдержанный
trustful - правдивый
untrusting - ненадежный
trustworthy - заслуживающий доверия
treacherous - коварный
quarrelsome - вздорный, драчливый
trusting - доверчивый
sociable - общительный
keeping aloof - отстраненный
awesome - почтительный
contemptuous - презрительный
sly (cunning)- хитрый
meek - кроткий
haughty - надменный
composed - уравновешенный
affectionate - любящий, нежный
jealous - ревнивый
gentle - мягкий, учтивый
harsh - грубый, резкий
tender - чуткий, нежный
severe - суровый
flexible - гибкий
tough - упрямый, несговорчивый
mild (soft) - мягкий
strict - строгий
rigorous - безжалостный
cruel - жестокий
good-natured - добродушный
firm - твердый, настойчивый
pushy - пробивной
wicked - злой
friendly - дружественный
hostile - враждебный
dignified - с чувством собственного достоинства
mean - подлый
regretful - полный раскаяния
noble - благородный
selfish - эгоистичный, себялюбивый
polite - вежливый
impolite - невежливый
tactful - тактичный
tactless - бестактный

External image

The single public restroom is a pensive one. Waiting in line, we maintain etiquette with mild contempt, indignantly holding it in, then cordially passing a quick nod in our exchange. I walked in, wiped a drop or two of urine from the seat, and sat down. The man who used it before me looked like a six-figure techie, a pleasant waft of designer cologne passing me, so I rested assured that he didn’t have any communicable diseases. I’m sorry, this is the world we live in. The economy does not have time to be fair. The only time it does have is aptly embodied in a thousand dollar watch, which my toilet predecessor wore. I noticed the toilet paper was low, but selfishly, almost in Darwinist spite, used up the roll in my compulsion to wipe myself more than needed. A dirty mind will compensate with the cleanest arse. I felt bad for my toilet successor, washing my hands feverishly with foamed soap, barely looking in the mirror mockingly planted before me. When I opened the door, my worries had materialized in the form of a blond woman patiently waiting for me. Behind a soft placid face, a tight violence whirled in her eyes. “You’ll want to ask for some toilet paper,” I euphemistically said, already ashamed about the fecal redolence with which my awful face, in her mind, would be derisively associated. Before I made my escape through the cafe door, I turned around to make sure she was okay, as if my guilt might somehow shepherd her through. The last I saw, past the maze of laptop hypnotized faces, she was trying to get the barista’s attention, now standing painfully, preparing to say sorry.  

My experience cannot directly become your experience. As event belonging to one stream of consciousness cannot be transferred as such into another stream of consciousness. Yet, nevertheless, something passes from me to you. Something is transferred from one sphere of life to another. This something is not the experience as experienced, but its meaning. Here is the miracle. The experience as experienced, as lived, remains private, but its sense, its meaning, becomes public. Communication in this way is the overcoming of the radical non-communicability of the lived experience as lived.
—  Paul Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning