What she means:
I'm working for an hourly wage, I went to high school, but I didn't do great, Still I gotta make more cash, more education is what I'm looking at. When I get a degree I will make a bigger salary. So now I've got to see which college is right for me. I went on the internet and found Education con-nec-tion. I took a some free tests to find out my direction. I'm taking my classes online getin my degree at my own time. Education con-nection. Matched me with the right college for free! Get connected for free (free!) with education con-nec-tion. Get connected for free (free!) with education con-nec-tion.
There is no simple way to respond to this, and no way to summarize all the different things that all architects do. We basically spend our days resolving problems in creative and innovative ways.
But the term “architect” is used to encompass many types of architects. Architects in larger firms tend to specialize in two ways (smaller firms tend to have architects that play more than one of these). First by role in a project/office. There are designers, planners, technical, managers, business developers, and others depending on the firm focus. Second by typology. There are residential, commercial, education, healthcare, institutional and many other types of architects.
Perronet House. Elephant and Castle. n 1969 Sir Roger Walters was commissioned by the Greater London Council to design a high density block of social housing to complement the already completed high rise buildings of commercial, educational and governmental establishments. It won a commendation in the 1971 Good Design In Housing awards.
In 1909, he became resident gift book illustrator for MacMillan and produced illustrations for The Water Babies, Green Willow, and
Other Japanese Fairy Tales, The Complete Poetical Works of Geoffrey
Chaucer, Stories from the Pentamerone, Folk
Tales of Bengal, The Fairy Book, and The Book of Fairy Poetry.
During World War I, he was
employed in the drawing office of Woolrich Arsenal, and volunteered for service
with the Red Cross in
France. He worked occasionally for New York MacMillan, and produced editions of Treasure Island
and Kidnapped. Goble gradually gave up illustration to pursue sculling, cycling, and
travelling. He died in his Surrey home in 1943.”
Iv been working on a a big commission over the last few months for somewhere really exciting! Soon i can show you all the illustrations in context but in the mean time here is a little preview, famous world traveller and explorer!
Anime director Makoto Shinkai (The Garden of Words, Children Who Chase Lost Voices) created the “Cross Road” television commercial for the major correspondence education company Z-Kai.
The story of “Cross Road” centers on high school students Miho (Ayane Sakura) and Shōta (Kensho Ono) as they prepare for tests. Miho comes from an island without even one cram school, while Shōta lives in Tokyo and works a part-time job. Both are striving to pass tests so they can enter college. The pair enroll in Z-Kai’s correspondence education courses, and their lives cross before they realize.
For years she had tried to be the perfect wife and mother but now, divorced, with two sons, having gone through another break-up and in despair about her future, she felt as if she’d failed at it all, and she was tired of it. On June 6, 2007, Debbie Hampton, of Greensboro, North Carolina, took an overdose. That afternoon, she’d written a note on her computer: “I’ve screwed up this life so bad that there is no place here for me and nothing I can contribute.” Then, in tears, she went upstairs, sat on her bed, and put on a Dido CD to listen to as she died.
But then she woke up again. She’d been found, rushed to hospital, and saved. “I was mad,” she says. “I’d messed it up. And, on top of that, I’d brain-damaged myself.” After Debbie emerged from her one-week coma, her doctors gave her their diagnosis: encephalopathy. “That’s just a general term which means the brain’s not operating right,” she says. She couldn’t swallow or control her bladder, and her hands constantly shook. Much of the time, she couldn’t understand what she was seeing. She could barely even speak. “All I could do was make sounds,” she says. “It was like my mouth was full of marbles. It was shocking, because what I heard from my mouth didn’t match what I heard in my head.” After a stay in a rehabilitation center, she began recovering slowly. But, a year in, she plateaued. “My speech was very slow and slurred. My memory and thinking was unreliable. I didn’t have the energy to live a normal life. A good day for me was emptying the dishwasher.”
Makoto Shinkai has done it again–but unfortunately, it’s only a stunning commercial for a correspondence education service Z-Kai called “Cross Road”. Not only was Makoto Shinkai on board with this, but also many other famous contributors too!
The story of “Cross Road” centers on high school students Miho (Ayane Sakura) and Shōta (Kensho Ono) as they prepare for tests. Miho comes from an island without even one cram school, while Shōta lives in Tokyo and works a part-time job. Both are striving to pass tests so they can enter college. The pair enroll in Z-Kai’s correspondence education courses, and their lives cross before they realize it.
Shinkai storyboarded, directed, edited, and worked on the backgrounds in the animated commercial at CoMix Wave Films. Masayoshi Tanaka (anohana, Toradora!) served as the character designer, the animation director, and a key animator. Nagi Yanagi (Bakemonogatari, Nagi no Asukara) performs the insert song “Cross Road.” An Irish folk song inspired the melody, and Shinkai wrote the song’s lyrics with Aki Oxford. The key animators include Taisuke Iwasaki, Hiroshi Tomioka, Tomoyuki Shimoya, Yuu Yamashita, Ushio Tazawa, Kōichi Hayashi, and Miho Suzuki. Masahiko Tanaka voiced the instructor in the ad.
if you're open for taking questions, what do you think is the reason for why college keeps getting more and more expensive? i can't make sense of all the different theories and statistics.
Answering questions on this website is my favourite thing. It’s taking the time to do it that’s a bit tough, but if you can stay patient, I’ll get around to it eventually.
Overall, the biggest factor is the usefulness of debt to the ruling class and the consequent encouragement of it under Neoliberalism. Ideologically, there are two layers to Neoliberalism. The first is the stated one, that Capitalism is the only efficient way to structure human society, and the second is the hidden one, that Neoliberalism’s policies actually entrench obedience to the ruling class within people’s lives. In the case of university debt, turning things into markets and making people pay for more and more services is supposed to make them more efficient. It’s commonly stated that order evolves out of the chaos of humans pursuing their own interest, one that’s more efficient than if these humans had been told what to do in an effort to carry out the same goal. Capitalists implement these policies because they believe that they will make university cheaper or give better education or a combination of the two. In actuality, however, all this does is saddle students with debt, and debt is one of the most anti-revolutionary tools in existence. It’s ingrained in people’s heads that debts must be paid no matter what, even if they cause harm to the payer. I will work my measly dead-end job if it means the repo man won’t take away what little I have. A society in debt will rarely revolt, and when it does, its first thought will be to getting rid of the debt and not how to transform society so that debt never happens again. Having the most well-educated in society in debt before they even begin is a boon to the ruling class, even if it’s not a boon to actual economic growth.
Of course, this is only the why, not the how. For that, there’s a wide array of works on the matter, citing all manner of statistics, only a few of which played more than an minor role. I’m going to go with the ones I know were important. The first is the increasing role of economists as experts of everything that isn’t economics since WW2.
Back in the day, if you were an economist, you didn’t do much in the way of actual practical work. Most of the time, the government would hire somebody who had actually done the job to do planning for another one. When the Great Depression and WW2 came around, that all changed. The US government hired economists to figure out how to get everything going again, how to set the country on a war footing, and how the world would work afterwards (see for instance the negotiations between John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White to establish the IMF and World Bank, in which numerous economists were enlisted to put their ideas into actionable plans). By the time the war ended, most had gotten used to their jobs as independent analysts and began starting up think tanks that did the same work on contract for the government. They were trusted by government figures, and soon became trusted by corporate and academic figures as well by making themselves useful to them in various ways. Soon, they were doing work in nearly every subject. Neoliberals jumped into the University of Chicago’s law department and then spread to the law departments of numerous other universities like a contagion. They claimed that corruption could only occur under the state, and any other transaction was under the purview of the all-powerful market that destroyed corruption. Academic managers worked under their advice, and economists were often appointed to head up universities directly, like Larry Summers at Harvard, Hugo Sonnenschein at U Chicago, Harold Shapiro at Princeton, or Richard Levin at Yale. They allowed the commercialization of all areas of the university. Drug companies could pay academics in the medical field to falsify research and then point to research done by people from the best universities in the business to sell their products. Banks could get economists to put their names on all manner of absurd derivatives and claim that they were safe enough to sell to pension funds as AAA-rated. And sports, god, sports. That discussion could go on for hours. Yves Smith goes a bit more in-depth about the process here.
So of course all these economists were telling the government things like, it’s better to have student loans given out by private institutions rather than the government, because then they can work their magic and make everything so much more efficient. The only thing was, these lenders needed a bit of a push to lessen the risk to them, so the government said it would guarantee the loans, meaning the lender gets paid whether the student can pay or not. Consequently, a bank has a financial interest in lending to as many people as possible. Numerous lawsuits have been filed over the years over the amount of kickback money that travels between universities and banks to promote loans amongst students. Both groups knew they’d make a killing by financializing the entire process, so they did. This is the sort of corruption Neoliberals say can’t exist, because it doesn’t make sense in their theories.
Guaranteeing loans rather than providing them also moves them off the books of cash-strapped governments, especially at the state level. Part of the Neoliberal onslaught was to lower taxes on the financial sector. Drops in capital gains and higher levels of income taxes meant that these governments needed to cut spending fast in order to maintain their bond ratings. Forcing the user to make payments is the point of the Friedmanite slogan “There’s no such thing as a free lunch”. It’s the idea of the tragedy of the commons, that if I don’t have to pay for something, I’m going to abuse it to the greatest degree I can. Thus, it was seen as perfectly fine for governments to stop funding poorer students as an easy way to cut costs, even a good thing, because it ensured they wouldn’t abuse it to take all sorts of useless degrees.
There’s also the Neoliberal-managed destruction of manufacturing jobs and the race to the bottom in wages. With the opening of the Third World to offshoring, especially through the Neoliberal ascendancy in China, US manufacturers resolved to break labour unions by moving high paying jobs that only required high school educations out of the country. They taught American workers that solidarity was pointless, that they couldn’t save their places of work, and that their only chance to fulfill the aspirational aspect of Capitalism was to act in their self-interest by going to a newly commercialized college. In part, this was a conscious strategy to maintain America’s dominance in the world. By forcing its workers to become the most educated workforce on the planet, but also ensuring they didn’t take less commercially useful educational paths, America could maintain its economic dominance over everybody else by making sure the manufacturing workers it did keep were the most productive in the world on the basis of massive R&D expenditures. The problem is, when demand for something increases, so does price, so that fueled the rise in education costs to some degree.
A little is from bloated administrations, but that mostly comes up because there’s lots of retired academics with pensions that need to be paid, and lots more needs to be spent on healthcare nowadays with rising costs there. Most of the big wage increases stem from the previously mentioned corruption, where people are getting paid out the ass to do side work for corporations.
Simple solution? Nationalize it, streamline it under a single federal bureaucracy, and make it free for everybody with the costs paid out of taxes on future earnings and productivity gains. Problem is, this nets banks no money and gets nobody mired in debt, so it’s unlikely to happen. There’s also the issue that we don’t want it to look like Germany or China, where not doing well on certain tests gets you shunted into career paths whether you like it or not.
There’s also the question of whether student loans will end up going the same route as the subprime fiasco of 2007. The idea is, there’s no penalties for giving out loans that won’t be paid back, but these still go on banks’ balances as positive values. Especially with the wild securitization that goes on nowadays, these loans are going to be packaged in tranches and sold to other investors as risk-free. At some point, there’ll be so many that go delinquent that they’ll bring down banks, and then we’ll be in a recession again. I think there’s a good chance this happens, but only as part of another financial meltdown, with the failure of other income streams forcing the failure of student loans as well and contributing to the mess. Once again, another effect caused by Neoliberalism taking the upside of having an innovative, dynamic Capitalism with the downside of having massive destruction of wealth every decade.
This is a huge topic so here I’ll aim to give a general overview (beware, it’ll be long).
Education went through enormous changes throughout the Victorian period and its focus and quality varied greatly depending on which social class it was aimed at and the resources available. At the beginning of the 19th century education was basically in complete chaos. There were no effective centralised authorities to govern schools– no set curriculums or exams or reliable methods of raising funds, distributing educational materials or providing adequately trained teachers. For the majority attendance at school was dismal and good quality education was reserved for the privileged few. Compulsory, universal, free education didn’t come into existence until the last years of the 19th century. Illiteracy was rife amongst the lower classes and even some of the rich struggled. One-to-one teaching didn’t exist and large classes were the norm (1 teacher to 43 children was the average) so children frequently got left behind. Having gone through an ineffective system themselves many teachers were barely more educated than their pupils. Until the 1890s all schools (aside from charity initiatives) were fee-paying which put education out of reach of a large number of the working classes. For much of the 19th century the Church held sway over education and it continued to resist change and calls for modern subjects to be introduced in favour of traditional and religious education. Great importance was placed on religious education with all social classes having a daily Bible reading or study session. Over the course of the 19th century mainstream education shifted from unregulated, locally run, private initiatives to a predominantly government-funded, formal system.
Learning by repetition was the norm in this era and was practised across all social classes and academic subjects. Poorer children repeated the alphabet while their richer counterparts learnt Latin phrases and grammar by rote. This type of learning focused on memorising information rather than teaching the children how to reason and work out answers for themselves. It was severely criticised by reformative thinkers but remained in place for most of the Victorian period. Towards the end of the 19th century the ‘observation method’ was brought in to try to improve the situation but the result was generally the same – the child would be shown an object or image, the teacher would read a series of sentences on the topic and prompt the children to finish the sentence with the appropriate memorised word.
Very few schools in the Victorian era had what we would call uniforms, they merely had standards of dress which for the upper classes involved a smart, fashionable suit/dress and for the very poorest whatever they could scrape together to look vaguely presentable. School hours also varied considerably. Upper class schools had a more rigid daily structure while lower class children attended school when and if they could, fitting lessons around other responsibilities. Before compulsory education was introduced lower class children only had to spend an allotted number of hours (very rarely consecutive and usually amounting to around 20 weeks) in school to pass the year. Many of these children would leave school for lunch then come back in the afternoon.
There were many different types of educational institutions. The ones I’ll detail here are: public schools, grammar schools, private schools, elementary schools, dame schools, girls’ schools, technical schools, reformatory or industrial schools, Sunday schools, Ragged schools, higher grade schools, teacher training colleges and Universities.