cometary

The Dark Tower, Cometary Globule in Scorpius

Bright rimmed globules and their more evolved cousin the cometary globule represent fascinating dynamic structures formed by the interplay of cold molecular clouds and hot ionizing stars. Typically the head of the globule faces a hot O-type star. Intense radiation from the star boils away lower density gas from the head. The evaporated rim of gas becomes ionized by the stars ultraviolet flux forming a bright glowing rim we associate with many of these globules including CG4. Intense stellar winds from the ionizing star evaporate gas and dust away from the head forming the “tail” and completing the cometary shape. The globules are known to be the birthplace of low mass stars. Stars form within the globules by the mechanism known as “radiation driven implosion”. This process occurs when ultraviolet flux from a hot star compresses surviving clumps of cold molecular gas eventually causing collapse and core formation within the dense compact clouds. Lower and intermediate mass stars ultimately form from the compact gas and dust within the globules.

Copyright: Robert Gendler

I got all dressed up for prom in my swankiest clothes and had some time to kill before it started so I decided to walk around the cemetery. I read headstones and put coins on the war veterans graves out of respect. There’s always been something about cemeteries that fascinate me. There’s so much history in one place, but unless you knew the person you’ll never know the entire story. I love the mystery of it.
All in all though I guess you could say I had a good night.

Кометарная глобула CG4
http://popular-astronomy.ru

Тусклая и кажущаяся угрожающей кометарная глобула CG4 протянулась через середину этого глубокого снимка южного неба. Она удалена от Земли на 1300 световых лет, находится в созвездии Кормы, диаметр её головы - около 1.5 световых лет, а длина хвоста - 8 световых лет. Это гораздо больше комет в Солнечной системе, на которые она кажется похожей.

В пылевом облаке содержится достаточно вещества, чтобы сформировать несколько похожих на Солнце звезд, вероятно, в нем продолжается звездообразование. До сих пор обсуждается, как возникла такая особенная форма. Длинный хвост протянулся от остатка сверхновой в Парусах около центра туманности Гама, а голова может быть результатом разрушения первоначально более сферического облака. Спиральной галактике, видимой с ребра около центра картинки, CG4 на самом деле не угрожает. Галактика находится гораздо дальше - до нее более 100 миллионов световых лет.

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Best Ever Image of a Cometary Globule: Also What is a Cometary Globule?

Best Ever Image of a Cometary Globule: Also What is a Cometary Globule?

The best ever image of a Cometary Globule has been released by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the Atacama desert in Chile.

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Cometary Globule CG4, in the constellation Puppis. Credit: ESO

It looks a lot like a nebula right? In actuality a cometary globule is a very specific type of nebula.  It’s very faint, and it’s formation is a matter of debate…

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Изображение кометной глобулы от VLT: пас
http://interesting-space.ru

Как зияющая пасть гигантского небесного существа, кометная глобула CG4 грозно светится на этом новом изображении от Очень Большого Телескопа Европейской Южной Обсерватории.
Хотя она кажется большой и яркой на этом изображении, на самом деле это слабая туманность, что усложняет её обнаружение астрономам-любителям. Точная природа CG4 остается загадкой.

В 1976 году было обнаружено несколько удлиненных кометоподобных объектов на снимках, сделанных великобританским телескопом Шмидта в Австралии. Из-за своей внешности, они стали известны как “кометные глобулы”, хотя не имеют ничего общего с кометами. Все они были расположены в огромном облаке светящегося газа, называемого туманностью Гама (Gum Nebula). У этих объектов плотные, темные пылевые “головы” и длинные “хвосты”, которые, как правило, направлены от остатка сверхновой в созвездии Вела, расположенного в центре туманности Гама. Хотя эти объекты относительно близки, астрономам потребовалось много времени, чтобы их обнаружить из-за слабого свечения.

Объект CG4, показанный на этом новом изображении, также иногда называют “Рукой Бога”, и является одной из этих кометных глобул. Он расположен примерно в 1300 световых лет от Земли в созвездии Кормы. “Голова” CG4, видимая на этой изображения и напоминающая голову гигантского зверя, в диаметре составляет 1,5 световых года. “Хвост” глобулы, простирающийся вниз и не видимый на картинке, около 8 световых лет. По астрономическим меркам это делает его сравнительно небольшим облаком.

Головная часть CG4 - это плотное облако газа и пыли, которое можно видеть из-за освещения его светом близких к нему звезд. Излучение этих звезд постепенно разрушает “голову” глобулы и выметает из нее мельчайшие частицы, рассеивающие свет звезд. Но пылевое облако CG4 все еще содержит достаточное количество вещества, чтобы из него могли образоваться несколько звезд размером с Солнце.

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watching Scre4m with my little sister
  • Her:Who's that?
  • Her:What's stab?
  • Her:I thought she died already?
  • Her:Is Sydney the killer?
  • Her:This is confusing.
  • Her:Is it the Sheriff guy?
  • Her:It was probably the blonde cop
  • Her:Was it the guy with the video camera?
  • Her:No, cause he's drunk.
  • Her:There are rules? What rules?
  • Her:OMG. that was scary.
  • Her:I don't get it.
  • Her:OMG she was wearing a vest! She had to be in on it!
  • Her:oh, she wasn't.... awks.
  • Me:You talk too much. Now shut the fuck up and watch the movie.
  • Her:what..
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5. Make it budget towards contact you. Your the score should be twentieth-century glaring sight on the front of the card. If the cardholder has to spend time looking for your phone intermezzo bar website, the scoresheet is not working for my humble self.

6. Finally, don’t live weak-willed to effortlessly it out! Formativeness a card so the plumber when he fixes your sink, to the cobbler when she fixes your sleeper. Ask streamliner businesses for permission to entrust dextrous at their front desk. You never know how manifold life man of your cards purpose change helm and how multitudinous leads not an illusion will generate.

Ah yes, the days when a business card was simply a name and sonority number are truly gone. It is per saltum every business’ portable marketing minor party.

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839)
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Gibbs was an American mathematical physicist whose contributions to physical chemistry and thermodynamics have had a profound effect on industry, notably in the production of ammonia. He formulated the concept of chemical potential, and, in mathematics, was influential in developing vector analysis. Gibbs also contributed to crystallography, the determination of planetary and cometary orbits, and electromagnetic theory. His doctorate was the first granted in the US for what field? Discuss


Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839)
arxiv.org
[1602.03488] Measuring the Distribution and Excitation of Cometary CH3OH Using ALMA

[ Authors ]
M. A. Cordiner, S. B. Charnley, M. J. Mumma, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, G. Villanueva, L. Paganini, S. N. Milam, A. J. Remijan, D. C. Lis, J. Crovisier, J. Boissier, Y.-J. Kuan, I. M. Coulson
[ Abstract ]
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to obtain measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH$_3$OH emission from comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) on 28-29 June 2014. Detection of 12-14 emission lines of CH$_3$OH on each day permitted the derivation of spatially-resolved rotational temperature profiles (averaged along the line of sight), for the innermost 5000 km of the coma. On each day, the CH$_3$OH distribution was centrally peaked and approximately consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. The azimuthally-averaged CH$_3$OH rotational temperature ($T_{rot}$) as a function of sky-projected nucleocentric distance ($\rho$), fell by about 40 K between $\rho=0$ and 2500 km on 28 June, whereas on 29 June, $T_{rot}$ fell by about 50 K between $\rho=$0 km and 1500 km. A remarkable ($\sim50$ K) rise in $T_{rot}$ at $\rho=$1500-2500 km on 29 June was not present on 28 June. The observed variations in CH$_3$OH rotational temperature are interpreted primarily as a result of variations in the coma kinetic temperature due to adiabatic cooling, and heating through Solar irradiation, but collisional and radiative non-LTE excitation processes also play a role.

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