colored with permission

Scientists 'Watch' Rats String Memories Together

By using electrode implants to track nerve cells firing in the brains of rats as they plan where to go next, Johns Hopkins scientists say they have learned that the mammalian brain likely reconstructs memories in a way more like jumping across stepping stones than walking across a bridge. A summary of their experiments, published in the journal Science on July 10, sheds light on what memories are and how they form, and gives clues about how the system can fail.

(Image caption: Each of the five panels shows a memory snapshot created by hundreds of place cells while the rat was physically stationary at the top of the 1.8 m track (black). The time difference between the first and last snapshot is a mere one-fifth of a second; the positions represented by the neurons are shown in bright colors. Reprinted with permission from Pfeiffer and Foster, Science, 349:180 (2015))

“My own introspective experience of memory tends to be one of discrete snapshots strung together, as opposed to a continuous video recording,” says David Foster, Ph.D., an assistant professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Our data from rats suggest that our memories are actually organized that way, with one network of neurons responsible for the snapshots and another responsible for the string that connects them.”

Foster and his team focused their experiments on a group of nerve cells in the hippocampus of the brain known — in animals and people — for creating a mental “map” of experiences, or memories. The cells are called place cells because they each develop a preferred place in an environment and mainly fire only when the animal is in that place.

In previous experiments, Foster’s group learned that when a rat wants to get from point A to point D, it maps out its route mentally before starting on its journey. They could “see” this happen by implanting many tiny wires in the brains of the rats so that they could monitor the activity of more than 200 place cells at a time. By doing so, they found that the place cells representing point A would fire first, followed by those for point B, then C and D.

Their latest work, says Foster, is essentially a higher resolution “map” of the same process, which revealed gaps in between points A, B, C and D — not because they weren’t capturing enough place cell activity, but because there are actual “gaps” between discrete “memories” in the rats’ brains.

“The trajectories that the rats reconstructed weren’t smooth,” says Foster. “We were able to see that neural activity ‘hovers’ in one place for about 20 milliseconds before ‘jumping’ to another place, where it hovers again before moving on to the next point.”

He says that what seems to be happening during the hovering phase is an individual memory is being strengthened or focused. “At first, you get a ‘blurry’ representation of point A because a bunch of place cells all around point A fire, but, as time passes, the activity becomes more focused on A,” he explains. Then the activity jumps to a “blurry” version of B, which then gets focused.

“We think that there is a whole network of cells dedicated to this process of fine-tuning and jumping,” says Foster. “Without it, memory retrieval would be even messier than it is.”

In the future, the group plans to see what happens when certain memories within a path go missing, hoping to learn more about what memories are and how we can preserve them in those suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders.

Via John Overholt, the permissible colors for decorating the interiors of Victorian neo-Gothic churches. It is necessary to avoid those garish colors that lead to “the utter destruction of repose.”

My Rules

I have received a few requests for my rules and I finally put them all together so.. enjoy! 

Sir will choose a fitting punishment. Refusal will result in a more severe punishment. Rules are subject to change at any time.

Always trust Sir

Say “Please, Sir” “Thank you, Sir” “Yes, Sir”

Always ask for permission to cum

Always ask for permission to play

One cheat day a month

Sass in and out of the bedroom is grounds for punishment

Always swallow unless told otherwise

You must straighten your hair once a week

Be awake by 9 am

Bedtime is 1 am if you work in the morning

You will drink three bottles of water each day

Wear Sir’s favorite perfumes

Sir will choose your nail polish color

Always ask for permission to post our photos anywhere

Wear your collar on nights neither of us cum

You will send Sir photos of his choice each Thursday evening

You will give Sir a wishlist of 10 things when the previous is completed

Sir will give you a wishlist of 5 things when the previous is completed

Minimum of two wishlist fulfilments per month

One nice date a month

You will complete every task Sir assigns

You will wear a plug on double dates

Plan as little as possible

(WHOOPS I mistakenly deleted this post. My bad.)

These garter socks are so cute when paired with pastel colors (ΦωΦ)

Just waiting on permission to release these–I don’t like posting things by creators w/o checking (when a TOU isn’t explicitly stated).

anonymous asked:

Mt boss is pissed at me bc after she told me that we weren't allowed to have unnatural hair colors I emailed hr to double check bc the policy doesnt say anything explicitly about hair and now her manager and a few others are debating whether (pt1)

(Pt2) my hair color is permissible in the work place. So she is now being extra picky about everything I do. And the whole thing has me in a constant, low key rage. -Just wanted to share that without getting in trouble at work. Have a great day!

wow man work stuff sounds annoying sorry and hope your superior backs off and you get to keep your hair!

send me gossipy things

I saw that someone made an edit of my edit/coloring without my permission (they didn’t give me credit for it either) so I talked to them about it, they were really nice about the whole situation (which I’m thankful for) & they finally gave me credit for it.. PLEASE if you want to use any of my edits for ANYTHING PLEASE ask for my permission first. I don’t mind people using my edits BUT just ask first.