color maps

Incoming! We’ve Got Science from Jupiter!

Our Juno spacecraft has just released some exciting new science from its first close flyby of Jupiter! 

In case you don’t know, the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around the gas giant on July 4, 2016…about a year ago. Since then, it has been collecting data and images from this unique vantage point.

Juno is in a polar orbit around Jupiter, which means that the majority of each orbit is spent well away from the gas giant. But once every 53 days its trajectory approaches Jupiter from above its north pole, where it begins a close two-hour transit flying north to south with its eight science instruments collecting data and its JunoCam camera snapping pictures.

Space Fact: The download of six megabytes of data collected during the two-hour transit can take one-and-a-half days!

Juno and her cloud-piercing science instruments are helping us get a better understanding of the processes happening on Jupiter. These new results portray the planet as a complex, gigantic, turbulent world that we still need to study and unravel its mysteries.

So what did this first science flyby tell us? Let’s break it down…

1. Tumultuous Cyclones

Juno’s imager, JunoCam, has showed us that both of Jupiter’s poles are covered in tumultuous cyclones and anticyclone storms, densely clustered and rubbing together. Some of these storms as large as Earth!

These storms are still puzzling. We’re still not exactly sure how they formed or how they interact with each other. Future close flybys will help us better understand these mysterious cyclones. 

Seen above, waves of clouds (at 37.8 degrees latitude) dominate this three-dimensional Jovian cloudscape. JunoCam obtained this enhanced-color picture on May 19, 2017, at 5:50 UTC from an altitude of 5,500 miles (8,900 kilometers). Details as small as 4 miles (6 kilometers) across can be identified in this image.

An even closer view of the same image shows small bright high clouds that are about 16 miles (25 kilometers) across and in some areas appear to form “squall lines” (a narrow band of high winds and storms associated with a cold front). On Jupiter, clouds this high are almost certainly comprised of water and/or ammonia ice.

2. Jupiter’s Atmosphere

Juno’s Microwave Radiometer is an instrument that samples the thermal microwave radiation from Jupiter’s atmosphere from the tops of the ammonia clouds to deep within its atmosphere.

Data from this instrument suggest that the ammonia is quite variable and continues to increase as far down as we can see with MWR, which is a few hundred kilometers. In the cut-out image below, orange signifies high ammonia abundance and blue signifies low ammonia abundance. Jupiter appears to have a band around its equator high in ammonia abundance, with a column shown in orange.

Why does this ammonia matter? Well, ammonia is a good tracer of other relatively rare gases and fluids in the atmosphere…like water. Understanding the relative abundances of these materials helps us have a better idea of how and when Jupiter formed in the early solar system.

This instrument has also given us more information about Jupiter’s iconic belts and zones. Data suggest that the belt near Jupiter’s equator penetrates all the way down, while the belts and zones at other latitudes seem to evolve to other structures.

3. Stronger-Than-Expected Magnetic Field

Prior to Juno, it was known that Jupiter had the most intense magnetic field in the solar system…but measurements from Juno’s magnetometer investigation (MAG) indicate that the gas giant’s magnetic field is even stronger than models expected, and more irregular in shape.

At 7.766 Gauss, it is about 10 times stronger than the strongest magnetic field found on Earth! What is Gauss? Magnetic field strengths are measured in units called Gauss or Teslas. A magnetic field with a strength of 10,000 Gauss also has a strength of 1 Tesla.  

Juno is giving us a unique view of the magnetic field close to Jupiter that we’ve never had before. For example, data from the spacecraft (displayed in the graphic above) suggests that the planet’s magnetic field is “lumpy”, meaning its stronger in some places and weaker in others. This uneven distribution suggests that the field might be generated by dynamo action (where the motion of electrically conducting fluid creates a self-sustaining magnetic field) closer to the surface, above the layer of metallic hydrogen. Juno’s orbital track is illustrated with the black curve. 

4. Sounds of Jupiter

Juno also observed plasma wave signals from Jupiter’s ionosphere. This movie shows results from Juno’s radio wave detector that were recorded while it passed close to Jupiter. Waves in the plasma (the charged gas) in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter have different frequencies that depend on the types of ions present, and their densities. 

Mapping out these ions in the jovian system helps us understand how the upper atmosphere works including the aurora. Beyond the visual representation of the data, the data have been made into sounds where the frequencies
and playback speed have been shifted to be audible to human ears.

5. Jovian “Southern Lights”

The complexity and richness of Jupiter’s “southern lights” (also known as auroras) are on display in this animation of false-color maps from our Juno spacecraft. Auroras result when energetic electrons from the magnetosphere crash into the molecular hydrogen in the Jovian upper atmosphere. The data for this animation were obtained by Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph. 

During Juno’s next flyby on July 11, the spacecraft will fly directly over one of the most iconic features in the entire solar system – one that every school kid knows – Jupiter’s Great Red Spot! If anybody is going to get to the bottom of what is going on below those mammoth swirling crimson cloud tops, it’s Juno.

Stay updated on all things Juno and Jupiter by following along on social media:
Twitter | Facebook | YouTube | Tumblr

Learn more about the Juno spacecraft and its mission at Jupiter HERE.

Bullet Journal Pages

Basic

  • Future planning
  • Index 
  • Yearly
  • Monthly
  • Daily
  • Weekly

Trackers

  • Weight
  • Exercise
  • Grade/assignment
  • Mood
  • Habit
  • Savings
  • Gratitude 
  • Blog stats
  • Water
  • Study
  • Car maintenance
  • Sleep
  • Period
  • Dreams
  • Weather

Lists

  • A-Z - Make a list from a-z of things that inspire you, you love, your favorite _____. Whatever you want!
  • Movies - Watched/to watch/favorites/review
  • TV shows - Watched/to watch/favorites/review
  • Books - Read/to read/favorites/review
  • Foods/recipies - What are your favorite foods? Favorite recipes? Any recipes you want to try?
  • Words - Favorite words, words that inspire you, words you love the meaning to.
  • Favorite blogs - Make a list of your favorite blogs. 
  • Places - Make a list of places you’ve been to/want to go to. For more creativity draw a map and color in these places!
  • Currently - What are you currently listening to, reading, watching, feeling, doing, eating, needing, wanting?
  • Things to try - Want to try some new restaurants, crafts, projects, etc?
  • Happy - Make a list of things that make you happy. 
  • Sad - Make a list of things that make you sad. Maybe add things that you do to feel better.
  • Firsts - First kiss, date, job, house, car, concert, vacation, thing you do in the morning, thing when you get home, teacher?
  • Rainy day - What are things you like to do on a rainy day? What do you eat/drink? How do you feel?
  • Bored - What are things you do when you’re bored? Ideas for the next time you’re bored?
  • Wants/needs - What are things you want? What are things you need?
  • Songs/artists - What are your favorite songs?
  • Bucket list - What are things you want to do before you die. 
  • Advice - What is your favorite advice you’ve given? Received? 
  • Relax - What are ways you relax?
  • Questions - What are questions you want to know the answer to?
  • Fears - What are your fears?
  • Funny - What are some funny things that have happened to you? What are things you find funny? 
  • Games - What are your favorite games? What are some games you want to play?
  • DIY projects - What DIY projects you want to try?
  • Playlists - Create some playlists for your moods. 
  • Colors - What are your favorite colors? Color schemes?
  • Smells - What are your favorite smells?
  • What I learned today - What is something you learned today? Maybe do this by month/week/day. 
  • Flowers/plants - What are your favorite flowers/plants? What’s their meaning? Draw doodles of them.
  • Admire - Who are people you admire?
  • Things you can’t leave the house without - Or a what’s in your bag list.
  • Drinks/beverages - What’s your favorite drink? Any drinks you want to try?
  • Childhood memories - What are some of your favorite childhood memories? Memories in general?
  • Stationery - What is your favorite stationery? Pens, notebooks, etc. 

I hope you all enjoy these prompts! I might add some if I think of more! X

Started going through my head right after I saw the election results last week…

Be brave and be kind.

-The National, “Baby, We’ll Be Fine”

Kuretake brush pen, Winsor & Newton alcohol markers, stencil, and Micron pens on an atlas page.

make way for the raven king 

in celebration for the release of the 4th book!! #savethegangsey

instagram

🎨

“So Dex here is my D-man partner in our hockey team … He’s kinda annoying, hated my guts when we first started out, but has learned to chill since then, especially after we became roommates. He’s a cool dude, wants to make a difference in the world with his Computer Science hacker skills, and just came from an interview, which is why he’s looking so fly in his suit and all.”

“Well, this is Nursey, and he’s the most annoying brat I’ve met, and I have 4 other siblings. He grew up here in Manhattan and was taking me sightseeing … He even offered to let me rent out a room at his place here. But I told him he can have Manhattan, I’ll be off in Queens with Yiddish grandma neighbors.”

text from ohjustletmewriteinpeace’s ficlet You Can Have Manhattan 

Mirror For The Sun - Part 7: The Grand Tetons

Masterlist  -  Series Masterlist  -  Part 6 - Part 8 

Summary: (Bucky POV) Nat tricks you into leading a road trip with Bucky, Sam and Steve. Her plot is partly to get the boys to travel for fun for once but mostly to get you and Bucky together. You and Bucky, who seemingly despise each other.

Warnings: swearing, super mild smoot (it’s not really even smut)

Word Count: 4501

Author’s Note: This part is way too damn long. I really just like the ending. But I also couldn’t figure out what I wanted to cut so you’re getting all of it.

Originally posted by annutystan

As we climb back to the car, Y/N has slipped off of Sam’s shoulders and shoved past him, nearly running up the trail, farther away from Sam. And from me. When we make it to the top of the trail and the edge of the parking lot, Steve looks to me with a shocked and unsure shrug, lifting his hands up in question. She barely speaks to anyone, only muttering a disgruntled, “Trunk, please” to Steve.

Once we’ve changed into dry clothes, Y/N tosses her now useless phone haphazardly into the trunk and grabs for her dated Atlas before slipping into the car without a word. She doesn’t move closer to me, she doesn’t look up from her Atlas. Goddamn it. She’s so upset. “Go left,” she instructs with a heavy sigh as she flips through the pages until she finds the map for South Dakota. She traces over an already marked road until it reaches the end of the page, before moving quickly over to Wyoming.

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