This is a ‘Tree Type’ gold stater of the Dobunni tribe. It was struck circa 20 BC to AD 5 during the rule of Corio. On the obverse is the image of a tree-like emblem known as a Dobunnic Tree, with a pellet below. The reverse bears the name Co[rio] above a triple-tailed, stylized Celtic horse, with a wheel below and other symbols in the field. The Dobunnic Tree’s meaning is unclear although corn, ferns and a form of a wreath have all been suggested as explanations.
The Dobunni were one of the Iron Age tribes living in the British Isles prior to the Roman invasion of Britain (43-84 AD). They lived in the southwestern part of Britain that roughly coincides with the English counties of Bristol, Gloucestershire and the north of Somerset, although at times their territory may have extended into parts of what are now Herefordshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire. Their capital acquired the Roman name of Corinium Dobunnorum, which is today known as Cirencester. Unlike the Silures, their neighbors in what later became southeast Wales, the Dobunni were not a warlike people and submitted to the Romans before they even reached their lands. Afterwards they readily adopted the Romano-British lifestyle.
Corio was a 'king’ of the southwestern Dobunni. No one knows if 'king’ is the correct term for their leaders however, it is likely that this is what the Romans called them. The Dobunni rulers are only known from names found on their coinage and the exact order of each of their reigns has yet to be determined. Some of the other Dobunni kings’ names are Anted, Eisu, Aatti, Comux, Inham and Bodvoc.
On one corner of a magnificent 19th-century mansion in Vienna, Austria, is a rather unusual glass case. Inside is the midsection of an ancient tree. And it is completely covered in nails. Back in medieval Europe, hammering iron nails into living trees, wooden crosses and even rocks was a common practice for luck – similar to throwing coins into fountains today. Some trees became particularly known as “nail trees,” like the spruce in Vienna. Called Stock Im Eisen, or “staff in iron,” it is estimated to be somewhere over 600 years old. The first nails were hammered in while the tree was still alive, sometime before it was felled in 1440.
The idea of iron nails in living trees being lucky fell out of favor sometime in the late 1800s. And many nail trees quietly disappeared. But not Stock Im Eisen. It remains, watching over its corner.
The bee on the front, and the palm tree and the stag on the back of this four-drachma coin, a tetradrachm, are emblems of Ephesus, a Greek city on the west coast of Turkey. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Originally the bee was the symbol of an early Anatolian goddess who the Greeks later identified with Artemis. So close was the connection between Artemis and bees that the priestesses of the goddess were called “honey bees.” The two Greek letters, epsilon and phi, on either side of the bee are an abbreviation for Ephesus.
On the back, the palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where, under a palm tree, the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother, Apollo. The forepart of a stag symbolizes Artemis’ affinity with animals, and may also refer to the stag figures that flanked her cult statue in the temple at Ephesus. The inscription names a man, Karno, who was probably one of the magistrates supervising the mint.
Sicily, AR tetradrachm. 17.23 gr, 26mm. 476-431 BC. AITNAION, head of
the satyr Silenos, bald and bearded, right, with pointed horse’s ear,
and wearing a wreath of ivy wreath, beetle below / Zeus Aitnaios seated
right on ornamented throne covered with a panther’s skin, himation
draped over his left shoulder and arm, holding thunderbolt in extended
left hand and a knotted vine staff bent into a crook at the top in his
right hand; to right a pine tree with an eagle perched on top. Hill,
Coins of Ancient Sicily, P. 74
For all the minting is associated, in the ancient mind, with the work of the forge, heat, and fire, it’s relatively rare to find a coin that actually comes from a volcano. This tetradrachm was struck at a mint on Mount Aetna on the island of Sicily, which is still an active volcano today. While I doubt that lava was used in the striking of the coins, the reverse shows a distinctive local Zeus, who is particularly associated with the place.
This coin is also the only case I know of where a pine tree appears on a Greek coin. Evergreen trees are not particularly rare, even in the southern Mediterranean, yet the image is not a common one.
A rare coin from the city that once housed the Library of Aristotle
This silver drachm is from the ancient city of Skepsis in Troas circa 480-450 BC. On the obverse is the forepart of Pegasus with the inscription ΣKHΨIΩN.
The reverse shows a fir tree with two grape bunches all within a linear and dotted border.
The ancient city of Skepsis was located in the Troas region (aka Troad), which is the modern Biga peninsula in Turkey. It is about 31 miles southeast of the ancient site of Troy. The settlement is notable for being the location where the famous library of Aristotle was kept before being moved to Pergamum and Alexandria. Strabo wrote in his Geographia XIII, 1, 54-55 that Aristotle was “the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library."
A silver tetradrachm. Obverse: Magistrate Antialkidas. E-Φ , bee with straight wings. Reverse: ANTIAΛKIΔAΣ, forepart of a stag to right, its head turned back to face left, a palm-tree on left.
Ephesos (Ephesus) used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesus because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesus and Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees.
The city was also the location of the famous Temple of Artemis. Her priestesses were called ‘melissai" or “honey bees” of the goddess. The stag, like the one used on this coin is also an attribute of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt. This animal was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesus. The palm tree on the obverse alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. This coin represents its city of origin well.
Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometers southwest of present-day Selçuk in Izmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists.
I’m assuming this is for when you are trying to study and are avoiding social media because it is making you procrastinate!
One easy thing you could do is leave all your electronics (phone, laptop, etc) in another room while you study. That way, it is far away and you can’t easily access it. I usually can’t do this because I need my phone or laptop to message people or look thing up when I don’t understand something.
There are some apps you can download on your phone, some of my favourites are:
1. FocusTimer: This is my favourite app to use! It does cost $2.99, but I think it’s worth it. The best thing about this app is that there is no set time. Most apps are Pomodoro Timer styled where you study for a set amount of time and then take a short break. With this app, you just place your phone on the table and it will start timing how long you study.
2. Forest: Another really cool app! It costs $2.79. I love the whole idea of the app and how if you save up a certain amount of coins, you can plant a tree in real life!
Some other popular apps are: Focus Keeper and Tide. I’ve never tried them before though!
Some extensions that you can add to your browser are Forest(you can blacklist certain websites for a set period of time), and SelfControl which follows the same concept.
It is said that if you knock a coin into the trunk of this fallen tree your wish will come true. There are thousands upon thousands of coins in this tree today, creating a scaled log deep in the woods and even causing it to deserve it’s own little sign. There are foreign coins, old coins, illegible coins, all people together, united. I love coming here, it makes me feel less alone.
I have a large wooden piggy bank in my house shaped like a cylinder that can only be opening by being smashed open with a hammer (got it at a thrift store) when I get spare change (or just wish to make a money offering in general) I give it as an offering to deity by putting it in this bank while saying a prayer. The plan is when the bank is all full up to smash it open and donate the money to charity. That’s how I do money offerings. Thou sometimes I do leave offerings of coins at trees and graves as well.
Studyblr community! Let’s work together to make the world a better place!
This morning, I noticed that my favourite productivity app Forest is pairing up with WeForest to plant trees in disadvantaged communities!
How it works: You accumulate coins by staying off of your phone / iPad / other device for a specified period of time (while you’re being productive); if you unlock your device and exit the app in that period, your tree dies and you don’t get as many coins. You can now (and only for a limited time) use 2500 coins to plant a tree in either India or Zambia which will help their local communities!
The app is paid, but it doesn’t cost very much (the price will change depending on your currency) and I personally think that it’s so worth it, knowing how much more work I get done while using it!
So please, if you already have the app or would like to try it out, be productive and plant a tree in India or Zambia! So far over 250 trees have been planted and if we work together we can really make a difference to people’s lives!
While studying for the MCAT, I’ve had to pull out my hard-core finals study habits to keep myself focused on working. One of my FAVORITE ways to keep myself off my phone while working is this app! It’s called Forest: Stay Focused and it is literally a lifesaver.
On this app, you plant a tree, and it will take a certain amount of time to grow…. as long as you don’t use your phone for anything else. You can choose any time from 15-120 minutes, and you get coins for growing trees. You can use those coins to buy new types of trees, or you can even save up and plant a real tree! It’s such a fun way to motivate yourself to stay focused on your work instead of checking your phone every few minutes. I would highly recommend it!