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Spanish Vocabulary - El universo y el espacio exterior

Palabras útiles

  • el planeta = planet
    planetario/a = planetary
  • la esfera = sphere, globe
  • el globo = globe [also “balloon”, or el globo ocular is “eyeball”]
    global = global
  • la atmósfera = atmosphere [in non-space terms it can mean “mood” or “ambiance”]
  • la frontera = frontier
  • el extranjero = abroad / foreign
    el extranjero, la extranjera, los extranjeros = foreigner(s)
  • el viajero, la viajera = traveler
  • la gravedad = gravity
  • la órbita = orbit / sphere of influence
    en órbita = in orbit
  • el cielo = sky
    celestial = celestial / sky-related
    celeste = sky-related (less common) / light blue
  • el sol = sun
    solar = solar
    el astro rey = sun [used very rarely, it’s more poetic but it’s like the central point of something that has orbit… for almost every occasion you’d use el sol]
  • la luna = moon
    lunar = lunar [in other terms, el lunar can be “beauty mark”… or ropa a lunares means “polka dots”]
  • el cráter = crater
  • la estrella = star
  • el sistema solar = solar system
  • el astro = star / heavenly body, celestial body
    los astros = the stars [more dramatic than the literal estrellas; think “the heavens”]
  • el cuerpo celestial = heavenly body, celestial body
  • el cosmos = cosmos
  • el/la astronauta = astronaut
  • el/la cosmonauta = cosmonaut [I think this only applies to Soviet Union things?]
  • el astrónomo, la astrónoma = astronomer
  • la astronomía = astronomy
  • el satélite = satellite
  • el cohete = rocket
    [can be used for space, fireworks, weaponry… like el lanzacohetes is “rocketlauncher” (or you just say el RPG which sounds like el erepejé)... so that’s fun]
    el cohete (espacial) = rocketship
  • la sonda = probe (in medicine it could be “gauge” or “catheter”)
    la sonda (espacial) = (space) probe
  • la nave = ship
    la nave espacial = spaceship
  • la Tierra = Earth
    la tierra = soil, ground, earth
  • terrestre = terrestrial
  • extraterrestre = extraterrestrial
  • la humanidad = humanity
  • humano/a = human
    (there are a lot of words thrown around to mean “earthling” including terrícola and terrano/a but they’re all built around the root word tierra)
  • alienígena = alien
    [I don’t see this word too often outside of sci-fi, but alienígena is used for “alien” or “foreign” in a very formal way… it would be further away from our own solar system, not something like marciano/a meaning “Martian”, but it’s a very sci-fi word when the aliens come from somewhere else entirely.]
  • el OVNI [el objeto volador no identificado] = UFO [unidentified flying object]


Los planetas

  • Mercurio = Mercury
  • Marte = Mars
  • Venus = Venus
  • la Tierra = Earth
  • Júpiter = Jupiter
  • Saturno = Saturn
  • Neptuno = Neptune
  • Urano = Uranus
  • Plutón = Pluto

*Note: All of the planets in the solar system are technically masculine aside from Earth. You don’t add the definite article to most of them (except Earth), but it’s assumed that these masculine planets take masculine adjectives when necessary. Otherwise it ends up looking like… Marte es un planeta rojo “Mars is a red planet” or something like that.


El universo

  • el universo = universe
    universal = universal
  • el mundo = world
    mundial = worldly / related to the world
  • el espacio = space
    el espacio exterior = outer space
    espacial = space / spatial [adjective; as in la nave espacial is “spaceship”]
  • la nebulosa = nebula
  • la galaxia = galaxy
    galáctico/a = galactic
  • el año luz = light year
    los años luz = light years
  • MRL (más rápido que la luz) = FTL (faster-than-light)
    superlumínico/a = faster-than-light / superluminal
  • el cúmulo = cluster / bunch 
  • el cometa = comet
    (la cometa, feminine, is another word for a “kite”)
  • el asteroide = asteroid
    el cinturón de asteroides = asteroid belt
  • el meteoro = meteor
  • la lluvia de estrellas = meteor shower
  • la estrella fugaz = shooting star [lit. “short-lived star”]
  • la (estrella) gigante = giant (star)
  • la (estrella) enana = dwarf (star)

[with this, combined with colors you’d get… la gigante roja “red giant”, or la enana marrón “brown dwarf” etc]

  • el agujero negro = black hole [sometimes you see hoyo negro but that’s less common; el agujero and el hoyo are both “hole” though]
  • la Vía Láctea = the Milky Way