Columbia Engineering researchers have, for the first time, harnessed the
molecular machinery of living systems to power an integrated circuit
from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of life. They
achieved this by integrating a conventional solid-state complementary
metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit with an artificial
lipid bilayer membrane containing ATP-powered ion pumps, opening the
door to creating entirely new artificial systems that contain both
biological and solid-state components. The study, led by Ken Shepard,
Lau Family Professor of Electrical Engineering and professor of
biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, is published online Dec.
7 in Nature Communications.
“In combining a biological electronic device with CMOS, we will be able
to create new systems not possible with either technology alone,” says
Shepard. “We are excited at the prospect of expanding the palette of
active devices that will have new functions, such as harvesting energy
from ATP, as was done here, or recognizing specific molecules, giving
chips the potential to taste and smell. This was quite a unique new
direction for us and it has great potential to give solid-state systems
new capabilities with biological components.”
Caption: Illustration depicting biocell attached to CMOS integrated circuit with membrane containing sodium-potassium pumps in pore. Credit: Trevor Finney and Jared Roseman/Columbia Engineering
What's up with capitalizing the titles of books and songs?
Here is the general rule in the simplest form:
Capitalize every word EXCEPT for the following:
a, an, and, at, but, by, for, in, nor, or, of, on, or, so, the, to, up, yet
UNLESS they are the first or last words of the title.
To Kill a Mockingbird
On Top of Old Smokey
With or Without You
Born to Run
About a Boy
In Between Days
She Bangs the Drums
The Crying of Lot 49
Blood on the Leaves
NOTE: There are other “rules” and “standards” for capitalizing titles. If you are instructed by your teacher, professor, or editor to comply with a specific style, consult the appropriate guide, e.g., The BBC News Style Guide, The Associated Press Stylebook, MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, The Chicago Manual of Style.
In a study published today in Nature Communications, a research team led by Ken Shepard, professor of electrical engineering and biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, and Lars Dietrich, assistant professor of biological sciences at Columbia University, has demonstrated that integrated circuit technology, the basis of modern computers and communications devices, can be used for a most unusual application – the study of signaling in bacterial colonies. They have developed a chip based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology that enables them to electrochemically image the signaling molecules from these colonies spatially and temporally. They made an integrated circuit, a chip that, Shepard says, is an ‘active’ glass slide, a slide that not only forms a solid-support for the bacterial colony but also 'listens’ to the bacteria as they talk to each other.“
Daniel L. Bellin, Hassan Sakhtah, Jacob K. Rosenstein, Peter M. Levine, Jordan Thimot, Kevin Emmett, Lars E. P. Dietrich, Kenneth L. Shepard. Integrated circuit-based electrochemical sensor for spatially resolved detection of redox-active metabolites in biofilms. Nature Communications, 2014; 5 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4256
The development of colony biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is affected by redox-active compounds called phenazines. A phenazine-null mutant forms a hyperwrinkled colony with prominent spokes, while wild-type colonies are more constrained and smooth. Credit: Hassan Sakhtah, Columbia University
Yo, Grammar: What's up with the possessive form of nouns that end in "s"?
If the regular noun is a plural noun that ends in -s, we just add an apostrophe to express its possessive form:
The four cars’ owners were angry.
The veterinarian examined five dogs‘ ears.
If the regular noun is a singular noun that ends in -s, we add ’s to express its possessive form:
The boss’s chair is broken.
The class’s attention span is decreasing at an alarming rate.
Lastly, when it comes to a person’s name that ends in -s, it ultimately comes down to which style guide you’re required to follow.
Unless your teacher or editor has a preference, choose one style and use it consistently.
The YUNiversity prefers “Chris’s,” “Nicholas’s,” “Thomas’s,” “James’s,” etc. Since we put ’s after every other proper name, it doesn’t make much sense to not do the same with people’s names just because they happen to end in “s.” A singular name is a singular name.