clinical disorders

This is a great example of what I mean when I talk about the symptoms of personality disorders. Lots of people have the traits described in personality disorders. Most people have them at the “adaptive” or “subclinical” levels. Not many people experience these things to the “disordered” or “severely disordered” level described above.

Note - these specific examples are not enough in and of themselves to diagnose a personality disorder; a personality disorder is a collection of many different traits that all must be experienced at the disordered or severely disordered levels.

Theodore Millon, Personality Disorders in Modern Life (second edition), 2004.

Image transliteration after the jump.

Keep reading

What is NOT Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?

OCD is not colored candies, separated by their place in the spectrum of a rainbow.
OCD is not shoes lined up neatly in a closet from lowest heels to highest heels.
OCD is not a photo album in which the photos are in chronological order.
OCD is not being annoying by insisting on proper use of grammar and spelling.
OCD is not wanting to know everything about your favorite celebrity and collecting all the information and photos of them that you can find.

What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?

OCD is knowing you did something and you did it right, but within seconds, part of your mind ‘forgets’ and  commits itself to convincing you that you didn’t do it or that you didn’t do it right and something bad is going to happen because of it.
OCD is like being locked in a room full of television screens that are on 24/7 tuned to different channels and talking over each other.
OCD is wanting to take your brain out of your head, shove it in a box, and bury it somewhere because it will not shut up; it talks at you constantly as long as you are conscious; it repeats itself relentlessly, and it keeps searching for new things that might be a threat somehow and scaring itself. Then it insists you to do something about what is beyond your control. It is not cute.

Psychology Book Recommendations

Foundational Authors & Works

Carl Rogers, On Becoming a Person

B. F. Skinner,  Beyond Freedom and Dignity and About Behaviorism and Walden Two

Viktor Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning

Sigmund Freud, Civilization and its Discontents

John Norcross (editor), Evidence-Based Practices in Mental Health

Psychopathology & Diagnosis 

David Barlow (editor), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders

Oliver Saks, Hallucinations

Kelly Lambert, Clinical Neuroscience

Criticisms & Controversial Topics

Stephen Hinshaw, The ADHD Explosion

Robert Whitaker, Mad in America and Anatomy of an Epidemic

Ronald Miller, Not So Abnormal Psychology

Allen Frances, Saving Normal

Bruce Wampold, The Great Psychotherapy Debate

Therapy Theories 

Carl Rogers, Client-Centered Therapy

Irvin Yalom, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

Aaron Beck, Cognitive Therapy of Depression

Steven Hayes, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Judith Beck, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Danny Wedding, Current Psychotherapies

William Miller, Motivational Interviewing

Jacqueline Person, Cognitive Therapy in Practice

Evidence-Based Therapy Manuals 

Marsha Linehan, DBT Skills Training Manual and Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

Michelle Craske, Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic

David Burns, Feeling Good

Richard Zinbarg, Mastery of Your Anxiety and Worry

Martha Davis, The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook

Lisa Najavitis, Seeking Safety

Expert Therapist Perspectives

Irvin Yalom, The Gift of Therapy and Love’s Executioner

First Person Perspectives

Kay Jamison, An Unquiet Mind

Elyn Saks, The Center Cannot Hold

William Styron, Darkness Visible

Carolyn Spiro and Pamela Spiro Wagner, Divided Minds

Research Design & Analysis

Alan Kazdin, Research Design in Clinical Psychology and Single-Case Research Designs

John Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design

Culture & Diversity

Derald Wing Sue, Counseling the Culturally Diverse and Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy

Stigma

Stephen Hinshaw, Breaking the Silence and  The Mark of Shame

Grad School and Careers in Psychology

Peggy Hawley, Being Bright is Not Enough

Adam Ruben, Surviving Your Stupid, Stupid Decision to Go to Grad School

Peter Feibelman, A PhD is Not Enough

Paul Silva, How to Write A Lot

Karen Kelsky, The Professor Is In 

yaboy-guzma  asked:

is a misdiagnosis for schizotypal personality disorder common for autistic people? I got mine because I have a high IQ and am asocial to an extreme. I asked about my other symptoms and he gave me bullshit excuses like "I think you just don't WANT to make eye contact." no shit bruh??

This is a fairly common misdiagnosis, yes. This is the case with all of the schizophrenia spectrum. Autistics often score high on schizophrenia scores during testing and evaluation - so much so that some of us (myself included) score clinical levels and technically meet the criteria for a variety of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

I think the big question here is whether or not you have delusions. Delusions are defined in the DSM more or less by having a significant belief in something that persists when shown objective information that it is not the case.

The question I would ask, rather than do I or do not want to make eye contact, is, “What delusion do you think I have, and what is the sub-type specifier for my schizotypal diagnosis?”

When you get a diagnosis for schizotypal, they are supposed to include a specifier. In this case, there are seven sub-types, one of which must be specified.

If the specifier is mixed or unspecified, I would personally consider it a red flag because it is extremely vague and specificity matters when distinguishing autism from a schizophrenia spectrum condition because of the immense overlap.

If the sub type is persecutory and you are not a white chishet man then it would raise red flags of potential racism, sexism, homophobia, etc. When the persecution you describe is in line with others of the communities you are in, and it is described as a persecutory delusion, the people diagnosing you need to be particularly careful. And if you are black, or especially if you are a black man, then I would get a second opinion as a matter of course because of the exceptional rate of racism in diagnosis of black men as being schizophrenic. Does this mean you are unlikely to have delusions? Well, know. But this is a systemic issue that is well studied, and that means that being exceptionally detailed in diagnosis becomes important.

If the specifier is somatic, that is also a red flag. Specifically, somatic experiences - what we call sensory issues - are part of the autism diagnosis. If this is the specifier then the only way that a professional has to differentiate this from autism is to do a detailed developmental history. If the somatic experiences are present in early developmental periods then it is not going to be something that is schizophrenia spectrum, rather it is going to be a developmental disability. In this case, autism.

I want to be absolutely clear that I am not saying that the professional is wrong. I wasn’t there. I didn’t do the evaluation. I don’t know you nor have I observed you. But this is a common misdiagnosis, there are systemic issues in this diagnosis, and I do think that you are justified in your wariness of the diagnosis. And of course, part of the definition of a delusion is that you do not recognize it as a delusion, and that will be thrown in your face.f

If you want to confront this, you have to ask specific questions, starting with what they think your delusion is, and what subtype is assigned. From there you can start asking the hard questions to make sure that they are not misdiagnosing you.

- Sam

As someone who is mentally ill this video had a profound impact on me. I have severe GAD, panic disorder, and clinical depression, to which I’ve been seeing a therapist for once a week to treat. For Dan to be so open and honest and unashamed to say he sees a therapist makes me feel so much less alone. These boys have gotten me through my absolute lowest points and for Dan to say that he has struggled as well and continues his fight against depression gives me so much hope. This video was absolutely amazing. He already meant a lot to me before, but he means so much more to me now. You truly are incredible, Dan Howell. Thank you so much.

Self Diagnosis

So!

I’ve seen a lot of self diagnostic bullshit on this toxic piece of shit site, and it fucks me off to no end. Because of these fuckwits, I have to fight 10x harder for the assistance I need, for the actual diagnosed mental problems I have. There are (in no particular order)

  • ADD/BPD/Bipolar (all three intersect, if you imagine a ven diagram, I’m smack bang in the middle).
  • PTSD
  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Adjustment Disorder
  • Social Anxiety
  • Binge eating disorder
  • MDD (Major Depressive Disorder/Clinical depression)

This shit is ALL properly diagnosed, and i’ve had to fight tooth and nail to get the support I need, and you know why? They specifically stated that it’s because of a lot of people tying up the system with fake diagnosis. You are literally taking resources from people who NEED them, and also creating a stigma against people who try to come and get a proper diagnosis. Well done. Bravo.

Your self-Dx is not valid.

So basically yeah, Fuck you :)

There are five main categories of delusions that are commonly found in individuals who are experiencing psychosis or schizophrenia. They include the following:

  1. Delusions of persecution. These are delusions in which the individual believes he or she is being persecuted, spied upon, or is in danger (usually as the result of a conspiracy of some kind).
  2. Delusions of grandeur. Delusions in which the individual believes he or she is someone with fame or power (e.g. Jesus christ or a famous music star).
  3. Delusions of control. Delusions where the person believes that his or her thoughts, feelings or actions are being controlled by external forces (e.g. extraterrestrials or supernatural forces).
  4. Delusions of reference. Delusions where the individual believes that independent external events are making specific references to him or her.
  5. Nihilistic Delusions. Delusions where individuals believe that some aspect of either the world or themselves has ceased to exist (e.g. the person may believe that they are in fact dead).

I HAVE AN APPOINTMENT

GUYS AND GALS AND BOTH AND NEITHER I HAVE A NEW PATIENT APPOINTMENT WITH AN AUTISM PSYCHIATRIST AAAAAH IM SCREAMING (internally) OH MY GOSH IT’S AT AN INCREDIBLY INCONVENIENT TIME BUT FUCK IT I HAVE AN APPOINTMENT! I’VE FINALLY TAKEN THE NEXT STEP ON MY AUTISM JOURNEY AND I’M SO HAPPY AND TERRIFIED AND EXCITED!!!

Originally posted by gifsme

anonymous asked:

(1/3)This may not exactly be the place, but I am struggling and could use thoughts. I'm afab and recently completed a psych eval. I was diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder based off of answers to the MMPI which indicated I have magical thinking and delusions. I am between agnostic and atheist, and have no delusions or any hallucinations that I am aware of. I was told that the reason this was chosen over autism was that test, despite not showing any of those symptoms in the interview

(2/3)and because during the interview the clinician did not see any social inadequacies, I seemed “warm and friendly”. She acknowledged that I met the diagnosis by my examples, but basically I guess she didn’t believe me? I don’t know how to take this. Is the clinician being ableist? Did I answer the questions inappropriately because I was too concerned with being literal, like if it was “I sometimes feel like X” and if I had ever thought it, even if for 5 minutes 15 years ago, I would say true.

(3/3)Or is it likely that I am pushing for autism because it is something I have latched onto and just don’t want to give up? Almost all of autism still feels correct, but it has a lot of overlap with schizotypal. I feel wrong for questioning the clinician, and more so such a thorough test(over 500 questions) I want to think just work more on getting better and worry less about the label, but it is so upsetting to not know. Again, maybe not the right place, but any thoughts are appreciated.


Ok. Let me start by saying that I am not going to suggest that the evaluation and subsequent diagnoses are wrong. I would however, suggest that you consider them critically because there are some things about it that, to me, are red flags that need to be questioned.

First, “warm and friendly” is a specific phrase that is used by psychologists. Neuropsychological evaluations are always supposed to include observations of your demeanor, and “warm and friendly” is a common phrase used to describe that demeanor. This in and of itself doesn’t mean anything particular, unless the psychologist gives it specific weight with other commentary. It is also not necessarily clinically relevant to an autism diagnoses.

Second, if the psychologists agrees that by your examples you meet the criteria, but that they did not see it during the evaluation, there are other things to consider. Was there another person (such as a parent) there to provide developmental history? Did it support your examples? Did the developmental history follow a track similar to what is expected for autism? Did examples of autistic traits appear in the developmental history? Did examples of schizotypal appear in stories of developmental history?

Third, what else did the MMPI say? The MMPI is a broad testing tool that includes baseline questions to determine how likely you are to answer the questions truthfully, and to try and detect an implicit bias you might have. This information is supposed to be in the neuropsych report. It is exceptionally important information, and I would look for it. If it says that you reported accurately, then there is something else to consider.

Fourth, autistics score differently on the MMPI than neurotypicals. ADHD does as well. Specifically, we tend to score high - subclinical or even clinical - on diagnostic questions about perceptions of reality, impulsivity, and impaired judgement. What does this mean? It means we score high on diagnoses like schizophrenia, bipolar, and a few personality diagnoses like Schizotypal. This does not mean we have these diagnoses - rather, this is supposed to be taken as clinical evidence supporting an autism and/or ADHD diagnoses.

Example: On my own neuropsychological report, there is no mention at all of my demeanor. My own developmental history contains examples of autism at an early age, some that mimic bipolar disorder. My MMPI results showed that my answers are consistent and not like to indicate deception. My MMPI also scored high - in the clinical range! - for depression, anxiety, bipolar, and schizophrenia. The only diagnoses I received were for general anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder primary inattentive. My report flat out says that my clinical scores in bipolar and schizophrenia are “consistent with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.”

You are absolutely right that because of how we literally answer questions on the MMPI we often score clinical in diagnoses that we do not have. This is important. At the same time, if the evaluator does their job properly, they can take this into account and still correctly figure out the diagnosis if it really is something other than ASD. Either way, your neuropsychology report should say this.

Do you have schizotypal personality disorder? I don’t know. I know how they work, but I’ve not evaluated you, nor have I read your report. I do think it is worth asking these questions you are asking though.

Some things to consider:

Are you in therapy? Do you see a psychiatrist? Do they think that you have schizotypal? Do the coping tools and techniques for schizotypal help you improve your life? Do the coping tools and techniques for autism help you improve your life? Do you think you fit the DSM criteria for schizotypal? Do you experience, relate to, and understand the things that the schizotypal community shares and experiences? How about the ASD community?

If the answers to these questions suggest ASD is more likely, it might be worth a second opinion on the ASD diagnosis. But if the answers to these questions suggest schizotypal, well, keep an open mind about it - especially if the community experiences seem relatable to you. To me, that’s the best indicator of whether or not they got the right diagnosis or not - do you relate to the experiences that other people in that community share.

I’m sorry I can’t give you a solid answer, but I hope this helps you figure out what you want to do about it, and helps you figure out what the next step is.

- Sam

What’s So Bad About OCD?

The illness itself

OCD is a clinically recognised disorder. It is debilitating and paralysing. People with OCD experience intensely negative, repetitive and intrusive thoughts, combined with a chronic feeling of doubt or danger (obsessions). In order to quell the thought or quieten the anxiety, they will often repeat an action, again and again (compulsions).

Stigma

One of the greatest challenges that people with OCD face is the need to fight both the all pervasive stigma of mental health disorders and the widely held belief that OCD is a mild or even “quirky” problem that is nothing more than hand washing. Many people now use the term “a bit OCD” without understanding the onerous nature of the disorder in its severe form.

Getting Help

There is an average delay of 12 years between the onset of OCD and treatment being received. There are many reasons why people with OCD delay seeking help. These include a fear that they will be committed to a secure institution, a fear of the stigma associated with mental health disorders, or a simple belief that no one can help them. This is 12 years of pointless misery and isolation brought about by a disorder that can be successfully managed.

Relationships

OCD does not just affect the individual with the disorder but draws in their friends and families, colleagues and employers. OCD rituals can take a huge toll on family life and drive a wedge between parents and children, husbands and wives, who often feel unable to comprehend the pain a loved one is experiencing, let alone how best to support them.

November 10, 2017: Marcel Hesse agreed to undergo an MRI scan of his brain and a blood test that was suggested on his previous day of trial. Before the proceedings began in September, he was given a psychological examination, which showed no evidence of a clinical disorder. However, his explosive aggression detailed in several witness accounts, lack of empathy, and expressionless emotional state may be indicative of a brain disease, so the psychiatrist recommended it’s best he be examined further.

Marcel’s best friend at the time of murders, a 19-year-old soldier from Gelsenkirchen, was the featured witness. Numerous messages sent to him from Marcel through WhatsApp were presented to the court, which revealed he had already developed plans of murder at least four days before he killed nine-year-old Jaden. In one message, he wrote, “Now I’m making murder weapons.” In another, he said, “I think I’m going to strangle somebody tomorrow,” at one point adding, “I’ve been practicing choking - with my thumbs.” His first crime scene was also decided upon as the ideal location to kill a person: “My old apartment is a good place to pick up and keep young people - until they’re cold. Whoever is inside will die - within two minutes.” Marcel apparently had specific targets for these plans, and some of them were named in the messages. One potential victim was a former male classmate that he described as overweight, which he took into consideration for his chosen method of murder: “The rope must be nice and tight so that it can withstand the weight. All I have to do then is push my body weight against it, wait a minute for the chimpanzee to be dead.” A girl was also mentioned among the names. Marcel’s friend testified he wasn’t concerned about the messages because he did not take them seriously and “thought it was another stupid joke of his.” The 19-year-old was investigated for failure to report a planned offense, but no further action was pursued against him.

anonymous asked:

What's the difference between ptsd and Cptsd

Hi! Thanks for asking.

The short version is that PTSD usually results from a singular traumatic incident and is reflected in emotional responses to that incident, while C-PTSD is a result of long-term sustained trauma and results in longer term behavioral issues. 

The longer explanation, below the cut, is heavily referenced from Out of the Storm and Out of the Fog, sister websites detailing PTSD and C-PTSD. TW, of course, for descriptions of both and their potential causes.

Keep reading

Tôi có một người chị, cuộc sống của chị luôn là điều đáng mơ ước và ngưỡng mộ của nhiều người phụ nữ. Vào một ngày cách đây 3 năm, người ta phát hiện chị qua đời tại phòng riêng, chị tự sát ở tuổi 32.
Lúc đó tôi vô cùng bàng hoàng, bạn bè và người thân của chị lại càng bàng hoàng hơn. Không một ai tin rằng người luôn lạc quan và hạnh phúc như chị lại có thể làm điều dại dột như vậy. Mọi người vẫn cảm thấy chị ổn, không có dấu hiệu hay động cơ nào để thực hiện hành vi này.
Chỉ có chồng chị là hiểu rõ nhất.
Nửa năm trước khi xảy ra sự việc, chị đã chia sẻ với chồng mình về sự “không ổn” của bản thân. Nhưng chị không biết điều “không ổn” đó nằm ở đâu và phải khắc phục như thế nào. Tôi luôn cho rằng đó là một sự “cầu cứu” từ chị, tuy nhiên chồng chị đã bỏ qua các dấu hiệu này, thậm chí cho rằng chị đã rảnh rỗi sinh nông nổi, bởi vì quan sát ở bên ngoài, chị hoàn toàn bình thường.
Trầm cảm (Depression) là một bệnh lý rối loạn về tâm trạng, hay còn gọi là rối loạn khí sắc (Mood disorder). Ở một khía cạnh nào đó, ngành tâm lý học tại Vn vẫn chưa thực sự được quan tâm đúng mức nên căn bệnh này vẫn chưa thật sự được hiểu rõ, rất nhiều người trong xã hội hiện đại mắc phải căn bệnh này. Có người may mắn ý thức được tình trạng của bản thân để tìm cách khắc phục đúng hướng, nhưng cũng có người hoàn toàn không biết vì sao, họ bắt đầu có suy nghĩ và hành động lệch lạc, những người xung quanh họ cũng không nhận ra.
Nếu bạn có những dấu hiệu dưới đây, có khả năng bạn đang trầm cảm và bạn cần được hỗ trợ để giải quyết dứt điểm căn bệnh này càng sớm càng tốt:
- Cảm giác buồn bã, thất vọng và thường dễ khóc.
- Mất đi sự quan tâm, hứng thú và không cảm thấy vui với những thứ mà trước đây vẫn từng cảm thấy thích thú.
- Cảm thấy mình vô dụng, không có giá trị hoặc luôn cảm thấy có lỗi
- Suy nghĩ về cái chết hoặc có ý định tự sát
- Mất ngủ hoặc ngủ quá nhiều
- Mất cảm giác ăn ngon, sụt cân, hoặc ngược lại có thể rối loạn thói quen ăn uống kèm theo sụt cân hoặc tăng cân không theo chủ định
- Thường xuyên có cảm giác uể oải, mệt mỏi
- Khó tập trung suy nghĩ và khó đưa ra những quyết định
- Có triệu chứng đau nhức trong cơ thể nhưng không đáp ứng với điều trị thuốc giảm đau thông thường
- Cảm thấy bất an, bức rức và dễ bực bội, nổi nóng
- Tự cô lập bản thân ra khỏi các mối quan hệ xã hội
- Kèm theo mắc chứng bệnh đau nửa đầu (Migraine)
Về nguyên nhân gây ra bệnh trầm cảm có thể là vì cái chết của một người thân, các cú sốc trong cuộc sống, vợ chồng ly hôn hoặc sau một sự chuyển đổi chỗ ở, công việc, tình trạng giao động khí sắc y sau khi sinh con, y học gọi đây là chứng trầm cảm sau sinh (Postpartum depression).
Để dứt điểm căn bệnh này, ngoài các tư vấn của bác sĩ chuyên khoa về phác đồ điều trị phù hợp thì còn cần sự tỉnh táo và lý trí của bản thân mỗi người, nó giống như việc chúng ta phải đặt bản năng sinh tồn ở chế độ cao nhất, dùng lý trí cao độ để ý thức được tình trạng của bản thân, đừng tự trách mình vì căn bệnh này hoàn toàn không phải do bạn gây ra.
Ngoài ra người thân xung quanh cũng là yếu tố quan trọng giúp người bệnh vượt qua giai đoạn khó khăn nhất, xin đừng bỏ qua bất cứ dấu hiệu nào hoặc bất cứ lời “cầu cứu” nào của người bệnh. Họ thật sự cần được thông cảm, khích lệ và hỗ trợ.
(Bài viết có sử dụng tư liệu từ Clinical Depression)
—  Tuệ Nghi

anonymous asked:

Have you guys had experience taking the scid-d?

I was assessed with the SCID-D, but that was a few years ago. I don’t remember it well, but I know that it took an hour and a half for the diagnostic interview and the debriefing afterwards. The SCID-D mainly assesses depersonalization, derealization, identity confusion, identity alteration, and dissociative amnesia, so there were questions focused on all of those, and the results were given in that form. I had a parent with me at the time, but she was not allowed back during the interview, and the diagnostician was very careful not to tell her anything that I hadn’t given her permission to share during the debriefing.

Just be honest with the diagnostician, and it will go fine. The SCID-D isn’t something that a professional administers without proper training, so the diagnostician usually knows what they’re doing! They’ll work with you to make sure that all relevant information is known, and they’ll assess you based on the information given. It’s also entirely possible for your diagnosis to change later as more information is revealed. (Mine did; I was diagnosed when the DSM-IV was still in effect and many clinicians still wanted to witness a switch before they would diagnosis DID, so I was first diagnosed with DDNOS-1 and was later diagnosed with DID after my therapist had gotten to know my system better.)

If you have any specific questions about the process, you’re welcome to message us again.

-Katherine of Those Interrupted