climate change research

Ocean acidification and the development of calcifying organisms

What is ocean acidification?
Increased CO2 results in a lowering of pH in the ocean, making it more acidic.
Since cold water absorbs CO2 more easily than warm water, polar regions are more at risk.

How does it impact calcifying organisms?
It decreases the saturation state of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), meaning that animals which produce calcium carbonate shells or skeletons (such as molluscs, echinoderms, and corals) will be severely impacted. Their skeletons and shells may become stunted, deformed, and more porous (see below).

Pictured Above:
Echinoderm larvae from tropical, temperate and polar sea urchins under different pH levels (note: the lower the pH, the more acidic). This figure shows that increasing acidity significantly inhibits their development (Byrne et al., 2013). Scale bars = 200 µm. 

Whats going to happen?
- Species extinctions
- A decrease in biodiversity, species richness, and biomass of coral reefs
- Food webs will be simplified
- Habitat complexity will be reduced
- A shift from coral reefs to seagrass/algae based ecosystems in some areas

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The administration is acting like a caricature of the cruelhearted scrooges Democrats would like everyone to believe they are. The program that helps fund Meals on Wheels, Mulvaney said, is “just not showing any results.” I mean really — how many of those elderly shut-ins have pulled themselves up by their bootstraps and gotten jobs? And as for after-school programs for kids, “There’s no demonstrable evidence,” Mulvaney said, that “they’re actually helping kids do better in school.” He said about climate change research that “we’re not spending money on that anymore.” As a result, even some Republicans are recoiling from the administration’s budget. Rep. Hal Rogers (R-Ky.), who used to chair the House Appropriations Committee, called the cuts “draconian, careless and counterproductive.”

Why liberals should be happy about Trump’s appalling budget proposal

I mean really — how many of those elderly shut-ins have pulled themselves up by their bootstraps and gotten jobs? And as for after-school programs for kids, “There’s no demonstrable evidence,” Mulvaney said, that “they’re actually helping kids do better in school.”

Yeah, those elderly people who just want to have a little dignity, a little food, and aren’t able to get out of their homes for some reason or another … fuck those goddamn parasites, right, Mulvaney?

And hungry kids who are so poor they can’t get a good meal before they go to school? How are those little ingrates ever going to learn how to do high-frequency trading and get ready to argue about the carried interest deduction if they’re wasting all that time eating instead of watching Morning Bell on CNBC? Fuck those little shits, right?

From the first issue of the Journal of Alternative Facts.

Other forthcoming articles:

Spicer, S. (2017). Quantifying Crowd Size with Empirical Data: A Wishful Thinking Approach. Journal of Alternative Facts 1(1).

Amaleauthor, I.A. (2017). Reduced Access to Contraception Reduces Abortions. Journal of Alternative Facts 1(1).

Trump, D.J. (2017). An Exhaustive Account of Terrorist Acts Committed by Computer Science PhD Students. Journal of Alternative Facts 1(2).

Trump, D.T. (2017). Definitions & Etymologies of the Words “Fake” as It Applies to News Organizations. Journal of Alternative Facts 1(2).

Trump, D.J. &  Peña Nieto, E. (2017). Badly Needed Walls: The Case of Mexico. Journal of Alternative Facts 1(2).

Find more at our official Twitter account, @JournalAltFacts. This work is all peer reviewed by the very best politicians. 

(Also, please feel free to “submit” article titles here or on Twitter.)

What are scientists up to in your national marine sanctuaries?

In Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, researchers are kicking off an expedition to explore the sanctuary’s deep-sea ecosystems!

Using a remotely operated vehicle, scientists from Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary will explore the sanctuary’s deep-water ecosystems. Photo: Charleston Lab

Located off the coast of Southern California, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary protects remarkable biodiversity, productive ecosystems, and sensitive species and habitats. But more than a quarter of this ocean treasure remains unmapped and little-explored. This month, a research expedition will change that.

Throughout April and May, a team of NOAA-led researchers will explore the sanctuary’s deep seafloor environment. Deep-sea environments like those in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary provide nurseries and habitat for commercially-important species such as lobster, squid, and sea urchins. Some deep coral reefs may also produce chemicals that could be key to the next generation of medicines. However, these habitats are under threat. The two-week cruise on board the NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada will shine a light on how these ecosystems are impacted by a variety of stresses facing them, such as ocean acidification.

When we burn fossil fuels like oil and gas, we release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When the ocean absorbs this carbon dioxide, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH and the amounts of available calcium carbonate minerals. This is known as ocean acidification. Calcium carbonate minerals are the building blocks for the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms, including deep-sea corals.

Lophelia pertusa (white coral at left and lower-right) is a deep-sea coral that is sensitive to ocean acidification. Photo: NOAA

2014 survey results indicate that corals in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are already experiencing effects from ocean acidification, and waters in this area are projected to become even more acidic. Corals support extensive fish and invertebrate populations, including commercially-fished species, so it is important to monitor the potentially harmful effects ocean acidification has on deep-sea corals. Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the ocean acidification team will collect samples of Lophelia pertusa, a stony reef-building deep-sea coral found in the sanctuary. Researchers will also monitor water chemistry in and around reefs to help measure local effects of increased carbon dioxide emissions and to assess this ecosystem’s overall vulnerability to ocean acidification.

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Trump budget would slash science programmes across government
Proposed cuts include 11% at the National Science Foundation, 18% at the National Institutes of Health and 30% at the Environmental Protection Agency.

US President Donald Trump released a revised budget plan on 23 May that would cut science programmes across the federal government in 2018. Biomedical, public-health and environmental research would all be pared back.

Those cuts, along with deep reductions in programmes for the poor, are balanced by a proposed 10% increase in military spending. That echoes the “skinny budget” outline that Trump released in March, which faced opposition in Congress. Earlier this month, lawmakers approved a 2017 budget deal that increased funding for key science agencies and ignored the president’s push for cuts.

“This budget is terrible, and we’re confident that Congress will ignore it,” says Jennifer Zeitzer, director of legislative relations at the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in Bethesda, Maryland.

Here, Nature breaks down the president’s budget request.

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How to make America Great in 16 easy steps

1. I M P E A C H. T R U M P. self explanatory

2. Stop 👏🏾letting 👏🏾billionaires 👏🏾rig 👏🏾elections

Overturn Citizens United, ban campaign contributions and let one voice equal one vote

3. Stop spending 50% of all our tax money on war.

Stop killing civilians in the Middle East, and use the extra trillion dollars to reinvest in the Arab world, America’s urban and rural schools, and make college free.


Refugees and immigrants are usually skilled, open businesses, create innovation and grow the economy. They are also HUMAN BEINGS fleeing war and death and need us to be there for them.

5. Stop putting (black and Latino) kids in prison for nonviolent drug offenses.

Start weakening gangs by legalizing drugs and offering addiction and job training programs.

*bonus: this also greatly reduces gun violence everywhere, especially in large cities*

6. don't👏🏾let👏🏾cops👏🏾get👏🏾away👏🏾with👏🏾shit👏🏾

Put murderers in jail, whether they have a badge or not. Demilitarize police forces, and train officers deescalation tactics. Make sure officers come from the communities they serve. Rebuild trust through human contact with police.

7. end the mass shooting™ Era.

Castrate the NRA. Create an Australia style gun buyback program. Stop letting 14 year olds buy AKs at guns shows. Mandate “safe gun” tech.

*hidden bonus: kindergarteners, churchgoers and the general public will no longer be murdered en masse on a monthly basis. How wacky is that?!?*

8. stop allowing people to go bankrupt because they got sick or hurt

Create a single payer health care system like those in Norway, New Zealand, Japan, the U.K.,
Kuwait, Sweden, Bahrain, Brunei, Canada, the Netherlands, Austria, The UAE, Finland, Slovenia, Denamark, Luxembourg, France, Australia, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Cyprus, Spain, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

9. pay👏🏾women👏🏾the👏🏾same👏🏾amount👏🏾of👏🏾money👏🏾as👏🏾men👏🏾 yea like wtf? It’s 2017. 10. LET WOMEN HAVE CONTROL OVER THEIR OWN BODIES. Again, wtf?!?

11. Don’t let oil and gas companies destroy the Earth for profit.

Implement a carbon tax, and use the money to invest in renewables, and climate change research.

12. Create 25 million jobs, and revive the American Dream.

Spur a National WWII style mobilization to build renewable energy, manufacture electric cars, invest in organic vertical farming, and clean up our polluted oceans, Lakes and rivers.

*secret bonus: this also keeps our kids from having to live in a dystopian hellscape lol*

13. PAY REPARATIONS to African and Native Americans, just like you did to settlers and slaveowners before/after the Civil War.

14. Close Guantanamo bay, and amend the constitution to ban torture

15. Get Involved(cliche but immensely important) protest, call your representatives, and get involved with organizations like moveleft, Indivisible, and Justice Democrats that push for real and radical improvements to our country.

16. Don’t let cynicism and pessimism cloud your judgement.

If you’re reading this right now and thinking; “okay but nahhhhhhh, none of this can happen in America”, your brain is tricking you. Human evolutionary psychology makes it hard for people to envision a future that is radically different from the past or present, but change can happen fast and is often more radical than you expect. Don’t sit on the sidelines and let the future be decided by the likes of Trump, Bannon, and oil companies. speak up. ACT.

and most importantly,

Donald Trump accused of obstructing satellite research into climate change
Republican-controlled Congress ordered destruction of vital sea-ice probe
By Robin McKie

President Trump has been accused of deliberately obstructing research on global warming after it emerged that a critically important technique for investigating sea-ice cover at the poles faces being blocked.

The row has erupted after a key polar satellite broke down a few days ago, leaving the US with only three ageing ones, each operating long past their shelf lives, to measure the Arctic’s dwindling ice cap. Scientists say there is no chance a new one can now be launched until 2023 or later. None of the current satellites will still be in operation then.

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Hello Tumblr!

We are a new Keith Zine on tumblr & twitter with the single goal of celebrating both the beauty of nature and our favorite red paladin! All profits will go towards climate change research and prevention.

We’re currently going through a bit of a face lift. In the mean time, please hit that follow and get notification button to stay up to date as we move forward hammering out details!

Working Timeline:

Application: August 15 to September 5th
Application Processing: September 6th to September 14th*
Participants Announcements: September 15th
Participants List (with parings): September 20th
Check in #1: October 1st - Idea submission
Rough Draft #1: November 1st
Check in #2: November 15th
Rough Draft #2: December 10th
Check in #3: January 1st
Final Due: January 15th
Pre-orders start: February 1st?

*Participants must accept within 48hrs of receiving acceptance or will be dropped. 

a little about us! We are a collab zine. This means we will be pairing artists and writers together to create beautiful illustrated short stories. Minimal requirements will be announced soon! In the mean time, feel free to check out our links below or shoot us an ask!

+ About Page [Under Construction]
+ FAQ Tag

With Love,
Your Wild Mods

anonymous asked:

is it too late to start trying to stop the effects of climate change? what can i do to help? what is the biggest issue that is leading to global warming? would using renewable energy make a difference? and what are countries around the world doing to help?? i'm sorry to ask so much, but climate change and the earth are important issues for me!! thank you for this opportunity!

Published scientific research shows that carbon pollution from cars, power plants, deforestation, and other human activities cause climate change. Research and practice also shows that existing behaviors and technology can reduce climate change and limit the damage to nature and human well-being. The countries of the world agreed in 1997 to reduce the carbon pollution from cars, power plants, deforestation, and other human activities that causes climate change. Solar, wind, and other types of renewable energy use the natural energy of the sun and wind and produce almost no pollution. In California, USA, renewable energy now provides one-fifth of all electricity. In 2016, the amount of renewable energy capacity added around the world could replace the equivalent of 640 coal-fired power plants. You can do your part by walking, biking, taking public transit, recycling, and anything else that can reduce waste and improve energy efficiency.


This is a climate change/permafrost/disease story. Take a trip to one of the northernmost settlements in the world, Longyearbyen in Svalbard, Norway. They walk you through why it seems to be forbidden to be buried in this area because of the (now starting to melt) permafrost. The scientists interviewed up here discuss how during the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic seven minors were buried atop the permafrost and their bodies likely have preserved the flu virus that triggered that epidemic.

Turning Poop into Fuel

UCLA alum David Wernick is essentially trying to solve two problems at once. One is that he’s trying to find a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. The second problem is the 1 billion tons of manure that the U.S. produces each year alone.

That mountain of excrement not only poses a disposal problem, it also creates a potent source of methane emissions and nitrous oxides — greenhouse gases that are more potent than CO2.

But to Wernick and his colleagues at UCLA, it’s not just a big pile of poop: it’s a really big – and renewable – source of biofuel. What’s the big deal about poop? It’s the protein.

Typically, bacteria look for protein in the environment and then use that to grow.

But Wernick engineers the metabolism of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) so that instead of just growing on the protein, it takes a portion of it and uses it to produce biofuels.

Poop in; fuel out.

Manure isn’t the only material that can be used in this process. Protein-rich byproducts like wastewater algae and fermentation leftovers from wine and beer production could also work.

Learn more about how they’re turning poop into fuel in the video below:


Geodesy - the science of “measuring the shape and gravity of Earth (often now from space), is a really useful tool for seeing what is happening beneath the planet’s surface. You can look at how ice caps are shrinking, how volcanoes are behaving, and a bunch more. This video introduces you to geodesy and all sorts of uses for it.

The whole syscourse kind of reminds me of climate change deniers.

Scientists do research into a thing (climate change, DID). They discover X about it (it exists/is caused by humans/is dangerous, it comes from childhood trauma). Almost unanimously this is agreed. There is only evidence to point to X being true, and evidence to the contrary is nonexistant or fudged. With a little research, this could be easily proven to any old Joe (if you disagree, please, please just spend some time on Google and open your mind to beung wrong). Yet, people disagree. Some for their own selfish purposes- (big companies and some endos) and most because they are simply mislead (majority of endos). They see only the very basics (planet is warming, alters caused by trauma) and forget the nuance (the weather is drastically changing and the climate is being ruined and this has disastrous effects; it requires a large stress for a conciousness to split, which is often repressed and sometimes not ‘that bad’ and not seen as trauma).

The majority of people who deny a fact and its proof are not malignant. They are misinformed.

In the same way most climate change deniers deny it because it’s what their parents taught them or because they’re a conspiracy type or because they don’t want to, if a young system goes on Tumblr and doesn’t remember their trauma or thinks it wasn’t 'bad enough’, and hear that trauma is needed for DID, they assume they don’t have DID and their system is natural, when really anything that hurts you bad enough can cause DID and you probably don’t remember it even occured.

This is why I don’t engage in arguments with endogenics and encourage my alters not to either. The majority have just been fed a lie to compelling and easy to disbelieve, so they believe it. And it’s not their fault. We should be kind and encourage them towards accepting what they are and how they came to be. Maybe some are singlets, and that’s okay too. We’ve thought we were bipolar or borderline in the past and been wrong, it’s okay for you to be wrong about having DID.

The only endogenic systems I have any anger for are the ones who KNOW they are faking, who KNOW their alters are made up- like those that create “tulpas” (real tulpas are a Buddhist concept I’m not sure they fully understand), and claim us to be oppressive or abusive for our mental illness.

That is all.


The most recent report from the United Nations sponsored gathering of scientists known as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was released on the 27th of September 2013. Over 800 reviewers participated in its publication. Here’s a short summary of its major conclusions: Humans are responsible:

This won’t come as a shock to most people, but the IPCC have increased their level of certainty that the rise in global temperatures during the last half century is the result of anthropogenic processes. The confidence level has risen from 90% in 2007, to 95% now.

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A bit of coral science happening at the Aquarium

bereftandbreathless  asked:

Bri, do you have any headcanons about little things Bucky does that make Steve stop and think, "God, I love you so much! I can't believe I'm yours" and vice versa? ^-^

Things Bucky does that gets this reaction from Steve:
- He sets an alarm for 8.30am every morning, and every morning he pulls Steve closer to him and hides his face in Steve’s shoulder and asks Steve to turn the damn thing off before pressing a kiss to Steve’s neck and going back to sleep until 10am.
- He watches the science channel a lot, and then he gets really excited about topics on there like space travel and discoveries of new species and the dangers of climate change and he researches them and every so often he’ll just drop a random fact like “Hey Steve, did you know that 20% of the earths animals are ants? Do you think Scott knows? We should tell Scott.”
- He loves to bake and Steve loves watching him bake because he gets flour everywhere, in his hair, smudged on his face, all over his apron, and he’s just carefree and happy. Also he always brings the cakes over to Steve with a piping bag of icing and a smile so that Steve can decorate them.
- Sometimes Steve’ll come home to Bucky napping on the couch in one of Steve’s jumpers with their golden retriever puppy Apollo napping on Bucky’s chest, and Steve basically melts he’s so fond

Things Steve does that gets this reaction from Bucky:
- He’s not a great cook but he tries to cook them dinner at least once every week bc Bucky cooks pretty much every other night of the week and Steve insists on it bc “it’s romantic or some shit buck, now shut up and let me cook…whatever this was supposed to be”
- He draws Bucky all the time but tries not to be obvious about it, but it’s pretty obvious when he keeps looking up at him every two minutes but Bucky loves it
- He bites his bottom lip and frowns a little bit when he’s concentrating hard on something, which Bucky thinks is adorable in itself, but what he loves more is watching how Steve’s face softens when he looks up/over and see’s Bucky
- He never goes to bed without telling Bucky he loves him, even if he’s away on a mission, he’ll text it, if he’s been gone all day and Bucky’s in bed when he gets home, he kisses Bucky’s temple and tells him anyway.
- He’s always surprised when kids recognise him or call him a hero and there’s a moment of hesitation before he reacts and smiles really big, and Bucky loves that moment where Steve realised he had an impact on this kids life and can’t quite believe it

Because overanalysis is what you follow me for, I’d like to call attention to this exchange from “The Robomechabotatron”:

Wander: Whoa whoa WHOA!!! I didn’t know we were gonna be fighting with this doodad!
Peepers: Hh–what else do you do with a supercharged attack suit?
Wander: This whosamawhatsits could be doin’ so much more good than harm! Fixin’ roads, transporting supplies, giving out giant hugs–

In context, this is obviously a conversation about the mech. On a deeper level I think it’s about Hater himself.

It’s interesting to me that out of all the superpowers Craig McCracken could have given his chronically immature villain, he decided on the ability to generate seemingly endless electricity.

Hater is a walking dynamo, a living, breathing power source. He’s a gigantic battery. Left to his own devices, he’s a morally neutral chaotic force, often zapping others in the heat of anger but rarely acting with any calculation. He is (see Hater = Monkeyboy theory) a literally primal creature, a vast electric id. It’s hardly surprising, then, that others have attempted to channel this strata of undirected energy into their own ideals. Peepers and Wander are both drawn to Lord Hater because they see potential in him, but they have very different ideas of how that power should be directed.

Peepers, a tiny creature who has the intelligence to conquer the galaxy but not the imposing quality needed to make it happen, has attached himself to Lord Hater, who bolsters his schemes by providing the intimidation factor he lacks. In this way, Hater serves the same purpose for Peepers that Dominator’s enormous suit of armor does for her–he is at once a powerful weapon and a front for the mind behind the mission. To Peepers, therefore, Lord Hater is almost literally a “supercharged attack suit.” Although Peepers has developed a strong emotional attachment to Hater and is genuinely invested in his success as a galactic conqueror, his feelings are inseparable from the fact that he views Hater as a weapon–whereas he wants to see Hater “fulfill his full potential,” he cannot conceive of potential for Hater outside the realm of warfare. What else do you do with a supercharged space skeleton?

Wander has a few ideas. On the subject of Wander targeting Hater for reformation, Dave Thomas wrote, “Hater was the ‘greatest in the galaxy.’ That’s why Wander chose him,” and writer Frank Angones wrote that out of every villain in the galaxy Hater “shows the most promise.” (Wander’s tendency to set his sights on particularly influential evildoers forms a pattern dating back at least to the era of Hater’s idol Major Threat–at one time “the evilest evildoer who ever do’d evil,” now a “Wanderized” force for good, establishing democracies amid populations he once conquered and turning a planet whose sun he blew up into a climate change research facility.) In an amusing moment in the episode “The Date,” in which a disguised Sylvia is forced to go on a date with Hater, Wander hands her a bulleted list of Hater’s few good points so that she can properly compliment him: “Slumped shoulders = GREAT CUDDLER.” Where Peepers sees a weapon of mass destruction, Wander sees a machine ideally suited for, well, giving out giant hugs. 

Craig McCracken has gone on record that whereas Wander is the central character, the “star of the show,” “Hater’s the protagonist”

He’s the character that has the most to learn over the course of this show and is the one who most needs to grow. And so Hater’s the character that you sympathize with the most because he’s the most flawed. Whereas Wander… He’s the guy who’s kind of got it figured out, who’s got his stuff together. I mean, Wander has some flaws. But he’s really the guy who’s guiding Hater to his future or wherever he’s going to end up.

Throughout the show, Hater is presented as an overgrown teenager, even as a child (he freely tantrums when his commander suggests calling it a night, and when his schoolboy crush on Lord Dominator threatens their safety Peepers doesn’t hesitate to send him to his room). Aggressive as he is, Hater–as you’d expect, given the evidence that he originated as a humble monkey astronaut who died in space and was Frankensteined back to life–is really an unformed thing, a sort of embryo, with only a dim idea of what he wants or who he is. 

You could argue that the entire show is about Wander and Peepers’ contrasting attempts to turn Hater into his truest self–a finished product. Whether that’s the Lord Hater Peepers claims to know–a ruthless and focused warlord–

Sir, you’re forgetting one thing: You’re Lord Hater, the most powerful, most evil villain in the entire universe! And while Wander may have beaten you a few times, the Lord Hater I know would never let some furry weirdo get in his head, he’d just keep conquering planets and doing evil! And if Wander did show up, the Lord Hater I know would just use his powers to blast him into the next dimension! (“The Brainstorm”)

or the kind, helpful friend whom Wander is constantly attempting to believe into existence–

Raaaar! I’m Lord Hater, I’m the greatest in the galaxy! But I’m way more sensitive than people realize, which is why it’s so important to me that people THINK I’m mean and scary. I don’t need planets or power to be happy, what I really need is a friend. A friend like Wander. And we’ll have brunch together, throw a raging party, play songs, sing songs, maybe do a whole musical! Or perhaps I’ll find love, and Wander will be so happy, and I’ll make him my emergency contact… (“The Whatever”)

–well, we have our suspicions, but there’s only one way to find out for sure, right?

After all, it’s hard to say where you’re going unless you know where you came from.