clifford berryman

Only Two Terms for President

Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to seriously challenge the two-term limit precedent set by George Washington. When he was criticized for running a third time in 1912, he asserted that technically the 1904 campaign was his first true run for the Presidency. He originally took office in 1901 after President William McKinley was assassinated. Ultimately Roosevelt lost the election.

How may our history be different if Roosevelt did not lose the election?

Untitled. [Anti-Third Term Principle], cartoon by Clifford Berryman, October 1, 1912, Records of the U.S. Senate Collection.  

Learn more about the “Amending America” exhibit

Empty Seats

The Founders intended for the Senate to represent the states, therefore the Constitution directed that state legislatures would elect Senators. But when both houses of a state legislature didn’t agree on a candidate, the election deadlocked, and the Senate seat remained empty. This cartoon illustrated how common such deadlocks had become when Congress finally addressed this problem by proposing the 17th Amendment.

“Just the usual crop of senatorial deadlocks" by Clifford Berryman, February 4, 1911. 

Learn more about the “Amending America” exhibit

Cartoonist Clifford Berryman reminds his readers on Christmas of the vast difference between the prosperity in America and the devastation in Europe as a result of the on-going war, 1915.

From: The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library

DC Voting Rights Amendment Fail

Item from: Berryman Political Cartoon Collection, 1896 - 1949

“No Taxation without representation!” cried many colonists in response to the 1765 Stamp Act. The cartoon above was created by Clifford Berryman on November 20, 1920. It shows that many DC residents have felt a kinship with the early American revolutionaries.  

The DC Voting Rights Amendment proposed in 1978 would have given the District full participation in the United States Congress, the Electoral College system, and the process by which the Constitution is amended. It expired in 1985 with fewer than half of the necessary ratifications. 

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