Nikola Tesla was asked what would an engineer have to do to the wireless systems of today in order to produce very little radiation of electromagnetic waves and produce a large amount of earth currents? What changes would he have to make in the system?
“He would have to construct and operate the apparatus described in my patents and in my lectures.
“It is just like this: In an enterprise of this kind, you have to start with certain fundamental propositions. If you are to build a commercial plant, the question comes up how much money is it to cost. Now, you go to specify before your capitalists the various parts of the plant, and you will find that your machinery and the aerial structure will cost so much. If your capitalists are willing to go deep into their pockets, you can put up a tremendous antenna because, as you know, as I pointed out in 1893, that the effects will be proportionate to the capital invested in that part; but you will find great limits there.
“I designed a plant [Wardenclyffe, referring to Fig. 1 & Fig. 2] years ago with a large capacity and put it before certain architects. They figured that the antenna would cost $450,000 and I had to modify my plans. As you see, you are limited by cost as to the size of the antenna; that is, you are limited as to the capacity and, furthermore, you have selected the frequency. In order to lower the frequency so that there would be no wasteful radiation of energy, you have to employ a large inductance. You have to employ a capacity as large as permissible, and you must use a large inductance in order that you may reach the low frequency which is economical.
[Fig. 1]. Wardenclyffe Tower
[Fig. 2]. Improved transmitter described in U.S. Patent No. 1,119,732 of December 1, 1914. Application filed January 18, 1902.
“In a patent which appeared in April 1905, the application of which was filed on May 15, 1900 [Fig. 3], I have enunciated the law of propagation, which I have explained, and have stated that the frequencies should not be more than 30,000 or 35,000 cycles at most, in order to operate economically.
[Fig. 3]. Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Medium. Patent No. 787,412, dated April 18, 1905.
“The currents are proportionate to the potentials which are developed under otherwise equal conditions. If you have an antenna of a certain capacity charged to 100,000 volts, you will get a certain current; charged to 200,000 volts, twice the current. When I spoke of these enormous potentials, I was describing an industrial plant on a large scale because that was the most important application of these principles, but I have also pointed out in my patents that the same principles can be applied to telegraphy and other purposes. That is simply a question of how much power you want to transmit.
“In Colorado I used the so-called Tesla transformer [Fig. 4]. I did not have the high frequency machine with me which I could develop as much energy for the experiments, but with my transformer I could get any amount of energy I needed. That is why I used the transformer.
[Fig. 4]. Tesla Patent 593,138 Electrical Transformer.
"The D P [in Fig. 2] is a curved plate. The plate has a large radius of curvature. You see, it is to be borne in mind that, in a general way, electricity will accumulate in the same way as the curvature of the surface has a smaller radius. This is an old truth which has been recognized 200 years ago. The design contemplates an arrangement whereby nowhere is electricity accumulated in excess. I am at a substantially uniform distribution of electricity in this structure, not only in the structure, but along the whole circuit where there is a high potential. This, of course, is simply to illustrate the principles. If you design a machine like that [referring to Fig. 2], it will be very much superior to those now in existence, but I have since that time introduced refinements and can produce very much better results than it would be possible with just exactly that construction.
"I had a 550-volt current with which I charged the condensers. These condensers I discharged through a primary in the form of an arc, sometimes I also introduced in this arc a mechanical break of several thousand per second. And I obtained a perfectly continuous train of waves as has been described in my patents. The reason why I show the condenser here [Fig. 2] is that that is synonymous with undamped waves. If I had shown the whole apparatus as arranged there, then I might still have damped waves; but whether I use an alternator or some other way of getting energy to that condenser, the condenser is usually there. For instance, if I use an alternator, I shunt its terminals with a condenser in order to magnify the current in the primary. I then tune this circuit to the alternator, and magnify the current in the primary in the ratio of the inductance to the resistance. Therefore, this condenser here stands for either method, and simply means that in this system, as is obvious from the description in the patent, the waves are undamped because high rises of potential would not be obtained otherwise. Whenever I wanted to obtain a high potential, I had to observe these rules in order to force the potential up to that value.”
***In a pre-hearing interview with his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company***
“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.”Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.
***A Way to Harness Free Electric Currents Discovered by Nikola Tesla***
The World Sunday Magazine, March 8, 1896.
The World is on the eve of an astounding revelation. The conditions under which we exist will be changed. The end has come to telegraph and telephone monopolies with a crash. Incidentally, all the other monopolies that depend on power of any kind will come to a sudden stop. The earth currents of electricity are to be harnessed. Nature supplies them free of charge. The cost of power and light and heat will be practically nothing.
The scientist-electricians who have for years been trying to master the mystery of electrical earth currents with which the ground beneath your feet is filled, are on the threshold of success. The success of the experiments they have under way means much to them, but vastly more to the people. It means that if Nikola Tesla succeeds in harnessing the electrical earth currents and putting then to work for man there will be an end to oppressive, extortionate monopolies in steam, telephone, telegraphs and the other commercial uses of electricity, and that the grasping millionaires who have for two decades milked the people’s purse with electrical fingers will have to relinquish their monopoly.
Nikola Tesla has discovered the secret of the electric earth currents of nature, and they will be adapted to the use of man. He has succeeded in transmitting sound by the currents that make an electric riot of the earth. The transmission of power will follow. His experiments reduced to commercially practicable uses will be able to tap the electric currents of the earth and make them serve the purposes of industry and of trade just as a well digger over on Long Island taps water or a Pennsylvania miner opens a vein of coal. The mighty electrical energy that has been stored up in the earth for ages will be harnessed and made to move the machinery of men.
Electricity will be as free as the air. For the privilege of its use legislatures will not have to be bribed or men corrupted at the polls, and public boards will not have to be “seen” to bestow exclusive franchises upon corporations organized to use public property for purposes of private gain, and make the people pay the original cost of their investment and excessive charges for service in order to squeeze dividends out of copiously watered shares.
Monopolies for purveying steams power too will be forced to capitulate to free electricity, for with the latter manufactures will only have to connect their dynamos with the earth currents to set their machinery in motion. The successful adaptation of Tesla’s discovery will administer a death-blow to the most galling slavery that has ever yoked the activities of men to the treadmill of monopoly. Tesla is the wizard who is going to emancipate modern industries from the shackles of corrupting, dividend-grabbing, monopolistic corporations.
Sound travels with amazing speed, but electrical vibrations travel so swiftly that it is difficult to conjure up a figure which will graphically illustrate their speed. Here is one that will perhaps convey a vivid and lucid impression. In fancy place yourself at a table with a revolver in one hand and a finger of the other hand on the key of a telegraph instrument connected with a wire that girdles the globe seven times and laps over on the eighth turn a distance equal to 11,000 miles. Pull the trigger of the pistol and simultaneously press the telegraph key. While the sound of the report of the revolver is traveling 1,100 feet the electrical impulse imparted by the pressure on the key will pass seven and a half times around the world through the wire with which the key is connected.
Sound travels 1,250 feet a second and electrical impulse 186,000 miles a second. If the electrical currents with which the earth is filled can be harnessed and put to work a new era in electricity will have dawned. It is to the mastering of the mystery of these earth currents and their adaptation that scientist like Tesla have been striving.
In the course of Tesla’s experiments it is reported he found that in the vicinity of large cities there were so many conflicting earth currents that satisfactory results could not be obtained. So he went out to Denver and near there found a better field for experimenting. There he met a friend interested in electrical research. They went to Pike’s Peak. Conspicuous among their baggage were two autoharps.
Tesla and his friend scaled the rugged sides of the peak. At an elevation agreed upon they separated. Tesla skirted the peak and on reaching a point precisely opposite the place at which he left his friend he stopped. The two experimenters, on a line drawn straight through the peak, were thus separated by four miles of stratified rock. The two autoharps had been very delicately attuned before the scientists parted, and a time fixed for Mr. Tesla’s comrade to play an air (also agreed upon) on the autoharp.
Tesla waited patiently the arrival of the appointed time. Then he connected his harp with the ground in such a way as to secure harmonic resonance with the earth current. The manner and medium of this connection are secrets. The receiving autoharp was equipped with a microphone. As the time approached for his friend on the other side of the peak to strum the appointed tune Tesla listened with rapt attention.
At last, as a tuning-fork responds to its harmonic note sounded on the strings of a piano, the autoharp in Mr. Tesla’s hands gave out the harmonic tunes of “Ben Bolt” which his companion at his station four miles away straight through the peak was plucking from the tense wires of his instrument. The experiment was a success. After many tunes had been played Tesla and his companion descended the peak. A statement of the facts and results of the experiment was written and attested before a notary public as a matter of scientific record.
The electric currents are in the earth. Their strength is great enough to furnish all the power and light man needs. Mr. Tesla has overcome the initial difficulty, and has located and tapped the earth’s currents. The rest will follow, as followed the telephone, Prof. Bell’s discovery of how to transmit speech over a wire.
Renewable sources of energy have generated more electricity than coal and gas in the UK for the first time.
National Grid reported that, on Wednesday lunchtime, power from wind, solar, hydro and wood pellet burning supplied 50.7% of UK energy.
Add in nuclear. and by 2pm low carbon sources were producing 72.1% of electricity in the UK.
Wednesday lunchtime was perfect for renewables - sunny and windy at the same time.
Records for wind power are being set across Northern Europe.
The National Grid, the body that owns and manages the power supply around the UK, said in a tweet: “For the first time ever this lunchtime wind, nuclear and solar were all generating more than both gas and coal combined.”
Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States… have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy…
It is well known that certain radiations–such as those of ultra-violet light, cathodic, Roentgen rays, or the like–possess the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. These radiations are generally considered to be ether vibrations of extremely small wave lengths, and in explanation of the phenomena noted it has been assumed by some authorities that they ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.
My present application is based upon a discovery which I have made that when rays, or, radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting-body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.
Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general arrangement of apparatus as usually employed.
Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more in detail typical forms of the devices or elements used in practice.
Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatical representations of modified arrangements suitable for special purposes.
…It will be found that when the radiations of the sun or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. This phenomenon, I believe, is best explained as follows: The sun, as well as other sources of radiant energy, throws off minute particles of matter positively electrified, which, impinging upon the plate P, communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. The opposite terminal of the condenser being connected to the ground, which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity, a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser, and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconceivably small radius or curvature, and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential, this charging of the condenser may continue, as I have actually observed, almost indefinitely, even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. If the device d be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit in which it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude, the accumulated charge will pass through the circuit, which also includes the receiver R, and operate the latter…
President Trump is trying to start making good on his promises to coal workers. "He made a pledge to the coal industry, and he’s going to do whatever he can to help those workers,“ a senior administrative official said Monday ahead of the executive order’s signing.
But there are problems with both Trump’s nostalgic Make America Great Again coal promises and Obama’s radical vision for a reshaped economy. Trump’s ignores the reality of a changing energy industry. Solar jobs, for example, have taken off over the past decade. They now account for some 260,000 energy jobs in the country, the majority of those are held by installers. That’s almost four times the number of coal industry jobs, about 70,000, as of May 2015, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Clean Energy Created By Nikola Tesla Sent Through Conducting Earth
In the photo above, Tesla is showing a transmitting circuit connected to earth and to an antenna. He shows how the transmitter produces two effects; Hertz waves, which pass through the air, and a current wave, which traverses the earth. The Hertz waves, which we use in radio and wireless technology today, propagate with the speed of light, and their energy is unrecoverable in the circuit because they eventually disperse and diminish with distance. The current wave on the other hand, proceeds through earth, first at infinite velocity, then gradually diminishing velocity until at a distance of about 6,000 miles (near a quarter of earth’s circumference, which is 24,900 miles) back down to the speed of light. From there on it will proceed with increasing velocity, reaching infinite value at the opposite point of the globe. Tesla established in numerous observations, experiments and measurements, both qualitative and quantitative, that these currents from his transmitter traveled around earth and back to his receiver at a mean velocity of 471,240 kilometers per second, or *292,814.96 miles per second*. That’s over 106,500 mph faster than light. In properly attuned receivers the energy of this current is recoverable in its entirety.
The Hertzian waves we use in today’s technology are 90% radiation and 10% current, while Tesla flips it and gets 95% current and only 5% radiation. This is clean, renewable energy at its finest. All Tesla needed was the hydro power coming from Niagara Falls to run this transmitter to bring cheap, wireless power to the world.
The terms “climate change” and “feel-good” don’t often go hand in hand, but I can’t deny I felt pretty uplifted after catching the second half of Happening: A Clean Energy Revolution on HBO tonight. Granted, it’s focus is on clean energy rather than the climate crisis, but the two are joined at the hip. And seeing in this film how ordinary people across this country are working at the grassroots level to get us off fossil fuels, it really gives me hope. Small, individual actions, like those of the people in Nevada who successfully fought to revive solar net metering, really do make a difference. Staying optimistic is challenging in Trump’s America. But there are signs of hope all around us. Do check this one out - you’ll feel empowered and ready to keep resisting in 2018.
The Trump administration announced today that it will take steps to repeal a federal policy that would have pushed states to abandon coal and switch to renewable energy. The move was long expected, and it’s likely to be fought in the courts by environmental groups and attorneys general from several states.
The announcement targets the Clean Power Plan (CPP), a core climate change policy passed under President Barack Obama that aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. “The war on coal is over,” said Environmental Protection Agency head Scott Pruitt at an event in Kentucky. “Tomorrow in Washington, DC, I will be signing a proposed rule to roll back the Clean Power Plan. No better place to make that announcement than Hazard, Kentucky.”
President Donald Trump had signed an executive order in March directing Pruitt to repeal the CPP, which the administration sees as an overreach in presidential power that kills jobs. In reality, the CPP was Obama’s attempt at tackling climate change by ordering fossil fuel-fired power plants — which are the largest concentrated source of CO2 emissions in the US — to cut carbon pollution by about 30 percent by 2030. Reducing carbon pollution has health benefits — including fewer asthma attacks in children. The regulations would also lead to an estimated $55 billion to $93 billion per year in 2030 in climate and health benefits, Obama’s EPA said. Read More
I am at a lose of words for climate change deniers. Whether Trump ‘believes’ in it or not, he clearly does not recognize the danger he’s putting our planet by supporting the mining, drilling and coal- and gas-burning industry.