classification scheme

Hubble Sees the Beautiful Side of Galaxy IC 335: This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the galaxy IC 335 in front of a backdrop of distant galaxies. IC 335 is part of a galaxy group containing three other galaxies, and located in the Fornax Galaxy Cluster 60 million light-years away.

As seen in this image, the disk of IC 335 appears edge-on from the vantage point of Earth. This makes it harder for astronomers to classify it, as most of the characteristics of a galaxys morphology the arms of a spiral or the bar across the center are only visible on its face. Still, the 45000 light-year-long galaxy could be classified as an S0 type.

These lenticular galaxies are an intermediate state in galaxy morphological classification schemes between true spiral and elliptical galaxies. They have a thin stellar disk and a bulge, like spiral galaxies, but in contrast to typical spiral galaxies they have used up most of the interstellar medium. Only a few new stars can be created out of the material that is left and the star formation rate is very low. Hence, the population of stars in S0 galaxies consists mainly of aging stars, very similar to the star population in elliptical galaxies.

As S0 galaxies have only ill-defined spiral arms they are easily mistaken for elliptical galaxies if they are seen inclined face-on or edge-on as IC 335 here. And indeed, despite the morphological differences between S0 and elliptical class galaxies, they share some common characteristics, like typical sizes and spectral features.

Both classes are also deemed early-type galaxies, because they are evolving passively. However, while elliptical galaxies may be passively evolving when we observe them, they have usually had violent interactions with other galaxies in their past. In contrast, S0 galaxies are either aging and fading spiral galaxies, which never had any interactions with other galaxies, or they are the aging result of a single merger between two spiral galaxies in the past. The exact nature of these galaxies is still a matter of debate.

European Space Agency
Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA

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Climate change for aliens

In February NASA astronomers discovered seven Earth-like planets, potentially harboring life, orbiting the star TRAPPIST-1, not too far from Earth.

Scientists have yet to discover life, or evidence of civilizations, on these or other planets. But in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, they often categorize hypothetical worlds according to the amount of energy their inhabitants could potentially harness.

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Types of Pathogenic Microorganisms


The average human body contains about 10 trillion cells. Imagine how much that is! If our population was 1400 times greater in the entire world, then we still would not be more than the number of cells in the entire body. Amazing isn’t it? 

But what if I tell you the gut alone, contains 100 trillion microorganisms living within it this very minute? And hence the picture above, our world is really a microorganism’s world, we are simply the ones large enough to be seen. 

And thus we see the importance of microbiology, how exactly are these microorganisms affecting our lives? 

Most of these microorganisms are actually beneficial to our body, for example, by aiding in the process of digestion, however, there are microorganisms that are damaging to their host, either by the production of toxic products, or direct infection, and these microorganisms are termed pathogenic. 

To have an idea of this, let us talk about the types of microorganisms, and the pathogenic ones in each type, that is, the one that can give us a disease. 

Microbes that Cause Diseases

Microbes that cause diseases can be divided into 5 groups of organisms:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Fungi
  3. Protozoa
  4. Helminths and Rotifiers
  5. Viruses

There is also a recently discovered type of microbe that can cause a disease, known as a prion. 

Of these microbes, we can classify them in several different ways. 

Classification of Microbes:

Firstly, it is important to consider the status of prions and viruses. Technically, these “microbes” are not living. Prions are simply misfolded proteins, and viruses are only “alive” when they infect an organism. Thus, both prions and viruses have their own classifications. 

As for the other organisms, we can classify them in several ways:

  • Eukaryote vs Prokaryote
    • In this classification scheme, all bacteria are prokaryotes, and fungi, protozoa, helminths and rotifers are eukaryotes. 
      • The prokaryotes are further subdivided into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Eubacteria are the medically important bacteria, while archaebacteria are a group of evolutionarily distinct bacteria. 

Differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes:

  • General Size
    • Eukaryotes are much larger than Prokaryotes, being about 10-100mm in diameter. 
    • Prokaryotes are much smaller, being about only 0.2-2mm in diameter. 
  • Nucleus vs Nucleoid: 
    • Eukaryotic cells contain a true nucleus, with multiple chromosomes, linear DNA, and a nuclear membrane, using mitotic apparatus to ensure chromosomes are equally distributed to the daughter cells. 
    • Prokaryotic cells contain a nucleoid, which is an area of loosely organized, circular supercondensed DNA, lacking nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus.

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From a Facebook conversation about gender abolition and trans people:

I would draw a distinction between gender as a classification scheme and the various connotations and roles that people attach to those categories. We can imagine a system where we continue to categorize people as men and women, use gendered pronouns, etc., but don’t make any assumptions about how people should or do act based on that categorization. Or we can imagine getting rid of the classification entirely, so “men” and “women” are no longer categories people think about.

If the classification still exists but doesn’t have the same connotations attached to it, I’m pretty sure I would still care about being classified as a woman. In the world that we have, there are a lot of things associated with the female gender role that don’t fit me very well, and the things that do fit me don’t feel really central to my identity.

So what does identification “mean” then, if it’s not in reference to gender roles? To me it seems likely that classifying people by gender is to some degree hardwired by instinct, and that a lot of people have instincts telling them which box they should be in (or that they should be outside the categorization altogether, or whatever).

Some people probably don’t have any instincts about their own categorization. Those people would probably, for the most part, end up as “cisgender by default”. Other people do have those instincts, but never have cause to notice them because they don’t conflict with how other people categorize them. Even for trans people, it can take years of introspection to realize one’s identity; many cis people just don’t have cause to perform the same degree of introspection.

If I’m wrong, and there don’t exist any hardwired instincts about gender categorization, then we would expect gender abolition to abolish not just gender roles but the categories altogether. In this case, there are certain senses in which trans people wouldn’t exist under such a system: Trans women wouldn’t exist because women wouldn’t exist. It would be impossible for someone’s gender to be different from their assigned sex because their gender wouldn’t exist (and maybe they wouldn’t have a sex assigned at birth either, I don’t know). Though physical dysphoria would probably still exist, and some people would make use of various medical interventions to treat it.

But even if trans people’s existence is in some sense contingent, we still exist. If, under different circumstances, I wouldn’t have been a trans woman, that doesn’t change the fact that I’m a trans woman in this world. My identity does not have to be independent of my environment for it to be real and worthy of respect.

The diagnostic criteria for rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder result in a classification scheme that is mutually exclusive, so that during a single episode, only one of these diagnoses can be assigned. The rationale for this approach is that, despite a number of common psychological and behavioral features, the disorders differ substantially in clinical course, outcome, and treatment needs. A diagnosis of pica, however, may be assigned in the presence of any other feeding and eating disorder.
—  Part of the introductory paragraph for the “Feeding and Eating Disorders” section in the DSM-V

The Harvard Computers (Hint: They were women, not machines!)

Today is the birthday of Annie Jump Cannon, born December 11, 1863, known as one of ‘Harvard’s Computers’. She is credited along with Edward Pickering as the creator of the Harvard Classification Scheme which remains the foundation of today’s stellar classification system.

One of a dozen women hired by Pickering to do the hard work of identifying, classifying and cataloging hundreds of stellar objects, Cannon distinguished herself as the brightest of the bright and rose finally to a full professorship before her death in 1941. Pickering hired the first of his ‘computers’ in a pique of frustration, noting that his maid could probably do better work than he was getting from his students.  Indeed, he hired his maid, Williamina Fleming, who became the first of his ‘computers’ and quickly distinguished herself. Pickering was pleased enough with her work (and lower wages) that he soon built a team comprised entirely of women to compose the catalog. Cannon was hired a little later to oversee a catalog of the southern skies.  While no eponym celebrates her name, her contribution (along with the remaining group at Harvard) as well as the countless women throughout history to impact science, math, politics and all human endeavor, today we remember and say Happy Birthday. A true gifted scientist and true pioneer, gone but not forgotten. As in most human endeavors, nameless and tireless women support the work of more celebrated men with little or no credit.  Newton said of his work:  ’If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.’  Today we acknowledge that many of those giants were and are women.

Image currently in the public domain courtesy New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper.

Today’s post is for hb-she does twice the work and asks for half the credit.  Our boys are who they are because of her.

EARTH AS HYBRID PLANET: NEW CLASSIFICATION SCHEME PLACES ANTHROPOCENE ERA IN ASTROBIOLOGICAL CONTEXT

For decades, as astronomers have imagined advanced extraterrestrial civilizations, they categorized such worlds by the amount of energy their inhabitants might conceivably be able to harness and use.

They sorted the hypothetical worlds into three types according to a scheme named in 1964 for Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. A Type 1 civilization could manipulate all the energy resources of its home planet (a distant goal yet for Earth) and Type 2 all the energy in its star/planetary system.

A super-advanced Type 3 civilization would command the energy of its whole home galaxy. The Kardashev Scale has since become a sort of gold standard for dreaming about possible civilizations beyond Earth.

Now, a team of researchers including Marina Alberti of the University of Washington has devised a new classification scheme for the evolutionary stages of worlds based on “non-equilibrium thermodynamics” — a planet’s energy flow being out of synch, as the presence of life could cause.

The categories range from imagined planets with no atmosphere whatsoever to those with an “agency-dominated biosphere” or even a “technosphere,” reflecting the achievements of a vastly advanced, “energy-intensive technological species.”

Their paper, “Earth as a Hybrid Planet: The Anthropocene in an Evolutionary Astrobiological Context,” was published Sept. 6 in the journal Anthropocene. Lead author is Adam Frank, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Rochester. Alberti is a professor of urban design and planning in the UW College of Built Environments, and director of the college’s Urban Ecology Research Lab.

The new classification system, the researchers say, is a way of thinking about sustainability on a planetary scale in what is being recognized as the Anthropocene epoch — the geological period of humanity’s significant impact on Earth and its ecosystems. Alberti contends in her research that humans and the urban areas we create are having a strong, planetwide effect on evolution.

“Our premise is that Earth’s entry into the Anthropocene represents what might, from an astrobiological perspective, be a predictable planetary transition,” they write. “We explore this problem from the perspective of our own solar system and exoplanet studies.

"In our perspective, the beginning of the Anthropocene can be seen as the onset of the hybridization of the planet — a transitional stage from one class of planetary systems to another.”

That would be, in their scheme, Earth’s possible transition from Class IV — marked by a thick biosphere and life having some effect on the planet — to the final Class V, where a planet is profoundly affected by the activity of an advanced, energy-intensive species.

The classification scheme, the researchers write, is based on “the magnitude by which different planetary processes — abiotic, biotic and technologic — generate free energy, i.e. energy that can perform work within the system.”

Class I represents worlds with no atmosphere at all, such as the planet Mercury and the Earth’s moon.

Class II planets have a thin atmosphere containing greenhouse gases, but no current life, such as the current states of planets Mars and Venus.

Class III planets have perhaps a thin biosphere and some biotic activity, but much too little to “affect planetary drivers and alter the evolutionary state of the planet as a whole.” No current examples exist in the solar system, but early Earth may have represented such a world — and possibly early Mars, if life ever flickered there in the distant past.

Class IV planets have a thick biosphere sustained by photosynthetic activity and life has begun strongly affecting the planetary energy flow.

Alberti said, “The discovery of seven new exoplanets orbiting the relatively close star TRAPPIST-1 forces us to rethink life on Earth. It opens the possibility to broaden our understanding of coupled system dynamics and lay the foundations to explore a path to long-term sustainability by entering into a cooperative ecological-evolutionary dynamic with the coupled planetary systems.”

The researchers write, “Our thesis is that the development of long-term sustainable, versions of an energy-intensive civilization must be seen on a continuum of interactions between life and its host planet.”
The classifications lay the groundwork, they say, for future research on the “co-evolution” of planets along that continuum.

“Any world hosting a long-lived energy-intensive civilization must share at least some similarities in terms of the thermodynamic properties of the planetary system,” they write. “Understanding these properties, even in the broadest outlines, can help us understand which direction we must aim our efforts in developing a sustainable human civilization.”
In other words, they added, “If one does not know where one is going, it’s hard to get there.”

Co-author on the paper is Axel Kleidon of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.

athenaworshippingatheist  asked:

I used to get upset at 'Viva La Pluto' people because they are wrong. Now I'm upset because there is nothing wrong with being a dwarf planet. Dwarf planets are awesome.

Exactly! Dwarf planets are interesting because they’re different. How were they formed? Did they get ejected during early formation stages? Did we capture a free floating rock? They fall outside of the normal, the model of solar system formation. Dwarf planets are different, they’re weird, they’re cool.

I don’t like the notion that calling Pluto a dwarf planet is disowning it. Pluto created a new class of solar system objects. It’s a weird object, we want to understand it better.

The classification scheme extends further than planet and dwarf planet too! There are lots of different kinds of objects in the solar system, and creating a common classification system can help scientists try to figure out the history of the solar system.

Syracuse physicists confirm existence of rare pentaquarks discovery

Physicists in Syracuse University’s College of Arts and Sciences have confirmed the existence of two rare pentaquark states. Their discovery, which has taken place at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland, is said to have major implications for the study of the structure of matter.

It also puts to rest a 51-year-old mystery, in which American physicist Murray Gell-Mann famously posited the existence of fundamental subatomic constituents called quarks, which form particles such as protons. In 1964, he said that, in addition to a constituent with three quarks, there could be one with four quarks and an anti-quark, known as a “pentaquark.” Until now, the search for pentaquarks has been fruitless.

“The statistical evidence of these new pentatquark states is beyond question,” says Sheldon Stone, Distinguished Professor of Physics, who helped engineer the discovery. “Although some positive evidence was reported around 10 years ago, those results have been thoroughly debunked. Since then, the LHCb [Large Hadron Collider beauty] collaboration has been particularly deliberate in its study.”

In addition to Stone, the research team includes other physicists with ties to Syracuse: Tomasz Skwarnicki, professor of physics; Nathan Jurik G'16, a Ph.D. student; and Liming Zhang, a former University research associate who is now an associate professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China.

Liming, in fact, is presenting the findings at a LHCb workshop on Wednesday, July 22, at CERN.

Stone credits Gell-Mann, a Nobel Prize-winning scientist who spent much of his career at Caltech, for postulating the existence of quarks, which are fractionally charged objects that make up matter. “He predicted that strongly interacting particles [hadrons] are formed from quark-antiquark pairs [mesons] or from three quarks [baryons],” Stone says. “This classification scheme, which has grown to encompass hadrons with four and five quarks, underscores the Standard Model, which explains the physical make-up of the Universe.”

Stone says that, while his team’s discovery is remarkable, it still begs many questions. One of them is the issue of how quarks bind together. The traditional answer has been a residual nuclear force, approximately 10 million times stronger than the chemical binding in atoms.

But not all bindings are created equal, Skwarnicki says. “Quarks may be tightly bound or loosely bound in a meson-baryon molecule,” he explains. “The color-neutral meson and baryon feel a residual strong force [that is] similar to the one binding nucleons to form nuclei.”

Adds Stone: “The theory of strong interactions is the only strongly coupled theory we have. It is particularly important for us to understand, as it not only describes normal matter, but also serves as a precursor for future theories.”

The discovery is the latest in a string of successes for Syracuse’s Department of Physics, which made international headlines last year, when Skwarnicki helped prove the existence of a meson named Z(4430), with two quarks and two antiquarks.

Much of this cutting-edge work occurs at CERN, where Stone oversees more than a dozen Syracuse researchers. CERN houses four multinational experiments, each with its own detector for collecting data from the LHC particle accelerator.

IMAGE….Syracuse University Professors Sheldon Stone and Tomasz Skwarnicki, doctoral student Nathan Jurik and former University research associate Liming Zhang are on the team that has confirmed the existence of two rare pentaquark states Credit Courtesy of CERN

For our rogues gallery.

I keep seeing a post going around about different types of SW fans on Tumblr. It has an unfortunate lack of all the Sith and Empire fans. So I’m making an alternate list. Feel free to add to this, but without further ado, a general classification scheme for SW dark siders on Tumblr.

1.Jackbooted aesthetic of reblog all the evil style

2. Living embodiments of why the villain fan page on TV tropes is titled Rooting for the Empire

3. Dark with dark shippers: Palpakin, Kyloke, Phux, Grievous/Ventress, etc.

4. Fans who left the movies with a deep and abiding desire to become Sith Lords

5. The crew that is 100% here for the PIRATES AND BOUNTY HUNTERS

6. Proudly fanatical Vader loyalists

7. Your High Ground is Unsubstantiated and The Dark Side is Life (meta-generators)

8. Fans who get really attached to minor antagonists the story doesn’t focus on and convince others to appreciate them more

9. Shippers who care less about who’s “right” than they do about rebuilding burned bridges, and expressing that even prickly, formidable villains are not necessarily beyond help.

10. Outspoken people in any of the groups canon has stereotyped as Irredeemable or Always Chaotic Evil

11. Fans observing that SW has a terminal case of stupid, and responding by pointing, laughing, and/or pitching it to try and fix it (salties … bless you guys)

12. Muns with shady-as-fuck muses who they love and voice regularly

13. ???

oakttree  asked:

please tell me about dewey and his decimal system! why is it racist? (i know i could google this but if you have time i'd rather hear about it from someone i know, who's in the field)

OK, so. First off, Melville Dewey was a sexist, racist, anti-semitic creeper. He was an advocate for women getting into libraries, and helped found one of the first library schools at Columbia. This was mostly because he felt women were suited for the “repetitive nature” of library work at the time. He also thought they were more easily controlled and “didn’t cause trouble”. So, ew. 

It is not possible to represent the full spectrum of human knowledge, we know that now, but you can tell a lot about what people find important by what they choose to privilege within the types of classification schemes they create. For example, Ranganathan was remarkably abstract, using things like personality, matter, energy, space, and time as sorting facets for his Colon Classification schema.

The Dewey Decimal System (DDC) is much more concrete, but in ways that give short shrift to an awful lot of the world. Everything about the DDC is appallingly Anglocentric. If you take a look at the 200s, where religion is classified, you will note how many subclasses are devoted to Christianity. Every single other religion in the world gets relegated to the 290s. And language and linguistics! Everything non-Western gets relegated to the 490s. The 800s are devoted to literature. One guess what happens there. 

Given that DDC is used mostly in public, school, and smaller libraries that don’t have enough books to warrant a classification system as complex as Library of Congress, one wonders what sorts of values are being imparted by the emphasis on Anglo/Eurocentric everything. Obviously these things can be overcome, and nobody would ever accuse the DDC of causing the devaluation of non-western ideas or thought, but it’s just one more subtle structural fuck you.

[eta 3/19/2015] Which is not to imply that LC doesn’t also have biases. Please see the middle of this talk by Chris Bourg, director of libraries at MIT, for examples. These are manifestations of biased systems in general, not just classification schemes. [/eta]

To be honest, it’s mostly institutional entrenchment that hasn’t lead to any sort of reform. (Insert rant on how you can put ten catalogers in a room and come out with twelve opinions.) Librarians are well aware of its flaws, but it would be a tremendous effort to overhaul the DDC. And asking people to implement those changes, in an age of declining appreciation for libraries and thus staffing levels, would probably not be the best use of those limited resources.

There are alternative classification schemes formed in opposition to DDC for various reasons, including the lack of inclusivity, the most notable being BISAC, which is based upon subject headings used by booksellers. The problem is these systems have not been evaluated particularly thoroughly, even by the institutions that use them. And they are not suitable at all for libraries with large collections (but most of those use LC, which is its own can of worms). 

That was probably more than you wanted to know. :D

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How Do We Classify The Stars In The Universe?

“Cannon herself was responsible for classifying, by hand, more stars in a lifetime than anyone else: around 350,000. She could classify a single star, fully, in approximately 20 seconds, and used a magnifying glass for the majority of the (faint) stars. Her legacy is now nearly 100 years old: on May 9, 1922, the International Astronomical Union formally adopted Annie Jump Cannon’s stellar classification system. With only minor changes having been made in the 94 years since, it is still the primary system in use today.”

A look up at the stars in the night sky shows a clear distinction: some are fainter while others are brighter, some are redder while others are bluer, some are closer while others are much farther away. But what accounts for the differences – some real and some only apparent – between these stars? For most of human history, not only didn’t we know, but any distinction or classification scheme seemed arbitrary. In the 1800s, a new tool, stellar spectroscopy, enabled us to break up the light from stars into its individual wavelengths. By observing a number of “dark” features in these spectra, corresponding to atoms, ions and their absorption lines, we could finally start to make sense of it, and a more objective system.

The person who piece it all together was Annie Jump Cannon, and her 1901 system is still in use today!

Hubble Sees the Beautiful Side of Galaxy IC 335

This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the galaxy IC 335 in front of a backdrop of distant galaxies. IC 335 is part of a galaxy group containing three other galaxies, and located in the Fornax Galaxy Cluster 60 million light-years away.

As seen in this image, the disk of IC 335 appears edge-on from the vantage point of Earth. This makes it harder for astronomers to classify it, as most of the characteristics of a galaxy’s morphology — the arms of a spiral or the bar across the center — are only visible on its face. Still, the 45 000 light-year-long galaxy could be classified as an S0 type.

These lenticular galaxies are an intermediate state in galaxy morphological classification schemes between true spiral and elliptical galaxies. They have a thin stellar disk and a bulge, like spiral galaxies, but in contrast to typical spiral galaxies they have used up most of the interstellar medium. Only a few new stars can be created out of the material that is left and the star formation rate is very low. Hence, the population of stars in S0 galaxies consists mainly of aging stars, very similar to the star population in elliptical galaxies.

As S0 galaxies have only ill-defined spiral arms they are easily mistaken for elliptical galaxies if they are seen inclined face-on or edge-on as IC 335 here. And indeed, despite the morphological differences between S0 and elliptical class galaxies, they share some common characteristics, like typical sizes and spectral features.

Both classes are also deemed “early-type” galaxies, because they are evolving passively. However, while elliptical galaxies may be passively evolving when we observe them, they have usually had violent interactions with other galaxies in their past.  In contrast,  S0 galaxies are either aging and fading spiral galaxies, which never had any interactions with other galaxies, or they are the aging result of a single merger between two spiral galaxies in the past. The exact nature of these galaxies is still a matter of debate.

Image Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA

Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) was an instrumental figure in world astronomy. She is credited with the co-creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, the first serious attempt to classify and organize stars based on their temperature.

She was the valedictorian at Wellesley College, one of the top universities for women in the U.S., and graduated with a degree in Physics. She started working at the Harvard College Observatory. Throughout her career which spanned more than four decades, she helped gain the respect and acceptance of the scientific community for women involved in the field.

Galaxies

This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a whole host of colourful and differently shaped galaxies; some bright and nearby, some fuzzy, and some so far from us they appear as small specks in the background sky.

 The most prominent characters are the two galaxies on the left — 2MASX J16133219+5103436 at the bottom, and its blue-tinted companion SDSS J161330.18+510335 at the top. The latter is slightly closer to us than its partner, but the two are still near enough to one another to interact. Together, the two make up a galactic pair named Zw I 136.

 Both galaxies in this pair have disturbed shapes and extended soft halos. They don’t seem to conform to our view of a “typical” galaxy — unlike the third bright object in this frame, a side-on spiral seen towards the right of the image.

 Astronomers classify galaxies according to their appearance and their shape. The most famous classification scheme is known as the Hubble sequence, devised by its namesake Edwin Hubble. One of the great questions in galaxy evolution is how interactions between galaxies trigger waves of star formation, and why these stars then abruptly stop forming. Interacting pairs like this one present astronomers with perfect opportunities to investigate this. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

 Caption: ESA
  ESA/NASA

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Everything Explained Through Flowcharts

Everything Explained Through Flowcharts
by Doogie Horner
William Morrow Paperbacks
2010, 160 pages, 10.8 x 8.2 x 0.4 (paperback)
$12 Buy a copy on Amazon

Everything Explained takes a hilarious look at popular culture via charts. The charts consist of flowcharts and Venn diagrams, as well as tables, radar charts and other chart-like designs. The subjects vary from the surreal (types of alien sex, a wrestling championship with competing U.S. Presidents, zeppelin warfare…) to the more realistic (a taxonomy of chain restaurants, salad dressings, how to win an argument…) to pop media culture (taxonomy of superpowers, analyses of heroes and villains statistics, types of super villain schemes, classification of doomsday scenarios, names of heavy metal bands, comic books sound effects…). Clever, humorous, and entertaining, this is one of those books you can flip through over and over again.

Alessandro Nicoli de Mattos

December 29, 2014

Today on the Front Page of Google: Anna Jump Cannon’s 151st Birthday

Wikipedia: “Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 - April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organize and classify stars based on their temperatures. She was nearly deaf throughout her career.” - via Wikipedia