civilian gas masks

TURKEY. Istanbul province. Istanbul. March 5, 2016. Journalists carry an injured woman after Turkish riot police forcefully dispersed supporters outside the headquarters of the Zaman newspaper, a then leading Turkish media outlet opposed to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and closed down by authorities. It had an estimated circulation of 650,000.

In its last edition, on March 4, 2016, it defiantly warned of the “darkest days” in the history of the press and its front page read “The Constitution is suspended.”

Photograph: Ozan Kose/AFP

SAUDI ARABIA. East of the country. January 18, 1991. Soldiers, hotel workers and others, some wearing gas masks, kneel for morning prayers in a basement used as a bomb shelter at a hotel. A Scud missile fired by Iraq had reportedly been intercepted and destroyed by a Patriot missile earlier in the day.

Photograph: J. Scott Applewhite/AP

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UKRAINE. Kiev. February 2016. Pro-EU protesters during the Euromaidan Revolution. [Part 1]

The Ukrainian Revolution took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych.

Protests originally erupted in November 2013 after Yanukovych refused to sign a political association and free trade agreement with the European Union, choosing closer ties with Russia instead. The rallies were initially peaceful but became violent in January 2014 after the Parliament, dominated by Yanukovych’s supporters, passed laws intended to repress the protests. 

Thus, this period of relative calm in the anti-government demonstrations in Kiev ended abruptly on 18 February 2014, when protesters and police began to clash. Some 20,000 Euromaidan protesters advanced on Ukraine’s parliament in support of restoring the Constitution of Ukraine to its 2004 form, which had been repealed by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine shortly after Yanukovych was elected president in 2010. The police blocked their path. The confrontation turned violent; the BBC reported that each side blamed the other. The police fired guns with both rubber bullets and, later, live ammunition (including automatic weapons and sniper rifles), while also using tear gas and flash grenades in an attempt to repel thousands of demonstrators. The protesters fought back with crude weapons, firearms, and improvised explosives. At least 82 people were killed over the next few days and more than 1,100 people were injured.

On 20 February, Internal Affairs Minister Vitaliy Zakharchenko announced that he had signed a decree authorising the use of live ammunition against protesters. Central Kiev saw the worst violence yet, and the death toll in 48 hours of clashes rose to at least 77. In response, the chairman of the Ukrainian parliament, Volodymyr Rybak, announced the next day that he had signed a parliamentary decree condemning the use of force and urging all institutions (the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Cabinet of Ministers, etc.) to cease immediately all military actions against protesters. Parliament also suspended Zakharchenko from his duties. 

On 22 February, the protesters were reported to be in control of Kiev, and Yanukovych was said to have fled the capital for eastern Ukraine. The parliament voted 328–0 in favour of impeaching Yanukovych and scheduled new presidential elections for 25 May.

On 23 February, Parliament deputy Oleh Lyashko claimed that Yanukovych had been seen at the Russian naval base in Sevastopol, preparing to flee the country on board a Russian military vessel.

On 24 February, acting Interior Minister Avakov announced that Yanukovych had been placed on the country’s most wanted list and that “a criminal case on mass killings of civilians has been opened” for him and other officials.

On 25 February, Parliament asked the International Criminal Court to “establish and bring to justice” senior Ukrainian officials, including Yanukovych, for crimes against humanity committed during “peaceful protests of citizens” from 21 November 2013 to 22 February 2014. On the same day, Yanukovych and Zakharchenko were declared internationally wanted. Criminal proceedings were launched in the 20 February killings of Euromaidan demonstrators.

Following the Ukrainian revolution, a secession crisis began in the Russian-leaning Crimean Peninsula. On 1 March 2014, Yanukovych put into writing his request that President Putin of Russia send military forces “to establish legitimacy, peace, law and order, stability and defending the people of Ukraine”. On the same day, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy troops to Ukraine in response to the crisis. Russian troops accordingly mobilized throughout Crimea and the southeast of Ukraine. By 2 March, Russian troops had complete control over Crimea. The territory was annexed by the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014. The crisis is still ongoing.

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Aight, Metro 2033 masks, round one.  Sadly, redux isn’t as varied as the original, and I noticed some were missing. Gonna sweep back through the original and grab those later.

Top row: Spartan gas mask and Czech M10

2nd row: PC gas mask, comparable to the Russian PPM88 “engineer’s” or Finnish M/65 Civilian gas masks. I honestly favor the M/65 because of the crimped edging. Open to interpretation. Photo from @vanderhuze, used with permission.

3rd: Shenanigans. Canteens that look like EO-18 filters, X-files referential M40-esque mask, and that weird leather half mask that has no confirmable parallel.

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UKRAINE. Kiev. February 2016. Pro-EU and pro-Ukraine protesters during the Euromaidan Revolution. [Part 6]

The Ukrainian revolution took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of pro-Russia Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, in favour of the EU.

Protests originally erupted in November 2013 after Yanukovych refused to sign a political association and free trade agreement with the European Union, choosing closer ties with Russia instead. The rallies were initially peaceful but became violent in January 2014 after the Parliament, dominated by Yanukovych’s supporters, passed laws intended to repress the protests.

Thus, this period of relative calm in the anti-government demonstrations in Kiev ended abruptly on 18 February 2014, when protesters and police began to clash. Some 20,000 Euromaidan protesters advanced on Ukraine’s parliament in support of restoring the Constitution of Ukraine to its 2004 form, which had been repealed by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine shortly after Yanukovych was elected president in 2010. The police blocked their path. The confrontation turned violent; the BBC reported that each side blamed the other. The police fired guns with both rubber bullets and, later, live ammunition (including automatic weapons and sniper rifles), while also using tear gas and flash grenades in an attempt to repel thousands of demonstrators. The protesters fought back with crude weapons, firearms, and improvised explosives. At least 82 people were killed over the next few days and more than 1,100 people were injured.

On 20 February, Internal Affairs Minister Vitaliy Zakharchenko announced that he had signed a decree authorising the use of live ammunition against protesters. Central Kiev saw the worst violence yet, and the death toll in 48 hours of clashes rose to at least 77. In response, the chairman of the Ukrainian parliament, Volodymyr Rybak, announced the next day that he had signed a parliamentary decree condemning the use of force and urging all institutions (the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Cabinet of Ministers, etc.) to cease immediately all military actions against protesters. Parliament also suspended Zakharchenko from his duties.

On 22 February, the protesters were reported to be in control of Kiev, and Yanukovych was said to have fled the capital for eastern Ukraine. The parliament voted 328–0 in favour of impeaching Yanukovych and scheduled new presidential elections for 25 May.

On 23 February, Parliament deputy Oleh Lyashko claimed that Yanukovych had been seen at the Russian naval base in Sevastopol, preparing to flee the country on board a Russian military vessel.

On 24 February, acting Interior Minister Avakov announced that Yanukovych had been placed on the country’s most wanted list and that “a criminal case on mass killings of civilians has been opened” for him and other officials.

On 25 February, Parliament asked the International Criminal Court to “establish and bring to justice” senior Ukrainian officials, including Yanukovych, for crimes against humanity committed during “peaceful protests of citizens” from 21 November 2013 to 22 February 2014. On the same day, Yanukovych and Zakharchenko were declared internationally wanted. Criminal proceedings were launched in the 20 February killings of Euromaidan demonstrators.

Following the Ukrainian revolution, a secession crisis began in the Russian-leaning Crimean Peninsula. On 1 March 2014, Yanukovych put into writing his request that President Putin of Russia send military forces “to establish legitimacy, peace, law and order, stability and defending the people of Ukraine”. On the same day, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy troops to Ukraine in response to the crisis. Russian troops accordingly mobilized throughout Crimea and the southeast of Ukraine. By 2 March, Russian troops had complete control over Crimea. The territory was annexed by the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014. The crisis is still ongoing.

Gas Mask Design

More a theory post, but w/e

One thing that I’ve noticed with drawings of respirators (particularly in cyber/steam/diesel punk stuff) is an insistence that the masks, filters and etc. be as bulky as possible, for some reason. Here’s a couple notes I’d like to impart to anyone seeking more realistic designs:

Military vs. Industrial:

This is the big split between most masks, and it’s worth considering. Was this mask made for stealth, speed and efficiency? Or is it made for user comfort, adaptability and low cost of production? This divide separates many key features of gas masks, like hydration, microphone hookups, filter placement, lens style and even coloration.

Overall Design:

Air supply systems are really simpler than you think. Unless you have a full rebreather arrangement divided into components and spread all over your body, you’re really only going to have one or two air lines running to the mask. Maybe hydration and a microphone cord, if you’re into that sort of thing. 

Hoses:

Hoses SHOULD NOT flap around excessively. Think about it: It takes more material and poses a greater hazard of catching on doorhandles, trees, and similar objects.

That said, hoses SHOULD be loose enough that they don’t restrict head motion. Look up photos of firefighters in SCBAs to see what I mean. They have enough length for some play, but not enough to pose a hazard.

Filters:

Filters come in different sizes, for different contamination levels and etc. A day to day filter, say in the HL2 Mod G-String, wouldn’t need to be much larger than a standard 40mm C2 or GP-5 filter. Unless your character lives in an environment where air locks are a necessity, they’re not going to need a full on coffee can strapped to their leg.

Also, if you choose to have a chin-mounted filter, consider the actual weight of the filter. Having 5 pounds strapped to your chin tends to hurt after a while.

Military filters tend to be mounted awake from the cheek of the dominant hand of the user. This is so it does not interfere with their ability to use a rifle. Industrial masks tend towards center mount because it doesn’t particularly matter, but saves the cost of trying to make two versions of the same mask.

Lenses:

Industrial masks tend towards large, panoramic visors, while military masks have smaller lenses. However, that doesn’t mean that military masks just have small slits. There’s a fine balance and you can do whatever, but consider that all elements of a given mask have been chosen for a reason.

Coloration:

Industrial/Civilian gas masks are more likely to have bright colors. Many are black, but there isn’t so much concern about mask color. Meanwhile, military masks (post WW1) were mostly subdued colors (OD green, grey, black, some white, aqua blues, etc.) for concealment purposes. Worth considering.

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Civilian Gas Masks During World War 2 in Britain

Everyone in Britain was given a gas mask in a cardboard box, to protect them from gas bombs, which could be dropped during air raids. By September 1939 some 38 million gas masks had been given out, house to house, to families. Thankfully, they were never to be needed.

Gas had been used a great deal in the First World War and many soldiers had died or been injured in gas attacks. During World War II , there was a fear that it would be used against ordinary people at home in Britain. Citizens were advised to have their gas masks with them at all times. Air raid siren tests were frequent and citizens were required to practice wearing their gas masks.

GEORGIA. Abkhazia. November 1993. The reburial of around 120 Abkhaz soldiers who had been killed 6 months earlier in a Georgian ambush. After the takeover of Abkhazia by the Abkhaz forces, they exhumated the bodies and famillies came to indentify them.
A woman wearing a gas mask because of the smell.

Photograph: Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos