Malcolm X photographed by Gordon Parks for
LIFE magazine promoting the Muhammad Speaks newspaper, 1962.
On the night of April 27, 1962, scores of policemen ransacked the Nation of Islam Mosque in Los Angeles and wounded seven unarmed Muslims, leaving Ronald Stokes dead and William Rogers who is seen in the wheelchair above paralyzed.
With the controversy over President Trump’s immigration ban, I’ve noticed that a lot of people are arguing over whether undocumented immigrants have constitutional rights. Tomi Lahren tweeted the other day that the “hard left” lives in “a lala land where illegals have constitutional rights.” Glenn Beck has gone a little bit more extreme, saying that undocumented immigrants “do not have legal rights.” And the same point is all over Twitter.
It sounds like it makes sense. Why would the Constitution protect people who aren’t even part of the country or respecting its laws? That’d be wacky, like trusting the people to govern themselves or guaranteeing the right to say whatever you want! The problem, as you probably guessed from the sarcasm, is that undocumented immigrants do have constitutional rights. Lots of them! And this isn’t a controversial opinion, or something “the hard left” invented recently. The Supreme Court of the United States has made this point over and over again in cases like Yick Wo v. Hopkins, Wong Wing v. U.S., Plyer v. Doe and most recently in Zadvydas v. Davis. In Wong Wing, Justice Field even wrote this in his decision:
The term “person,” used in the Fifth Amendment, is broad enough to include any and every human being within the jurisdiction of the republic … This has been decided so often that the point does not require argument. [Emphasis mine]
That was in 1896. This argument was boring people 130 freaking years ago.
Emory Douglas joined the BPP in 1967 and served as Minister of Culture, designing artwork that became potent symbols of the movement. Douglas originally helped with the layout of the Black Panthers’ newspaper, and realised that art could enhance their campaigns and reach the masses.