city sickness

nature.com
Collapse of Aztec society linked to catastrophic salmonella outbreak
DNA of 500-year-old bacteria is first direct evidence of an epidemic — one of humanity's deadliest — that occurred after Spanish conquest.

One of the worst epidemics in human history, a sixteenth-century pestilence that devastated Mexico’s native population, may have been caused by a deadly form of salmonella from Europe, a pair of studies suggest.

In one study, researchers say they have recovered DNA of the stomach bacterium from burials in Mexico linked to a 1540s epidemic that killed up to 80% of the country’s native inhabitants. The team reports its findings in a preprint posted on the bioRxiv server on 8 February1.

This is potentially the first genetic evidence of the pathogen that caused the massive decline in native populations after European colonization, says Hannes Schroeder, an ancient-DNA researcher at the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen who was not involved in the work. “It’s a super-cool study.”

Dead bodies and ditches

In 1519, when forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés arrived in Mexico, the native population was estimated at about 25 million. A century later, after a Spanish victory and a series of epidemics, numbers had plunged to around 1 million.

The largest of these disease outbreaks were known as cocoliztli (from the word for ‘pestilence’ in Nahuatl, the Aztec language). Two major cocoliztli, beginning in 1545 and 1576, killed an estimated 7 million to 18 million people living in Mexico’s highland regions.

“In the cities and large towns, big ditches were dug, and from morning to sunset the priests did nothing else but carry the dead bodies and throw them into the ditches,” noted a Franciscan historian who witnessed the 1576 outbreak.

There has been little consensus on the cause of cocoliztli — although measles, smallpox and typhus have all been mooted. In 2002, researchers at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City proposed that a viral haemorrhagic fever, exacerbated by a catastrophic drought, was behind the carnage2. They compared the magnitude of the 1545 outbreak to that of the Black Death in fourteenth-century Europe.

Bacterial genomics

In an attempt to settle the question, a team led by evolutionary geneticist Johannes Krause at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, extracted and sequenced DNA from the teeth of 29 people buried in the Oaxacan highlands of southern Mexico. All but five were linked to a cocoliztli that researchers think ran from 1545 to 1550.

Ancient bacterial DNA recovered from several of the people matched that of Salmonella, based on comparisons with a database of more than 2,700 modern bacterial genomes.

Further sequencing of short, damaged DNA fragments from the remains allowed the team to reconstruct two genomes of a Salmonella enterica strain known as Paratyphi C. Today, this bacterium causes enteric fever, a typhus-like illness, that occurs mostly in developing countries. If left untreated, it kills 10–15% of infected people.

It’s perfectly reasonable that the bacterium could have caused this epidemic, says Schroeder. “They make a really good case.” But María Ávila-Arcos, an evolutionary geneticist at UNAM, isn’t convinced. She notes that some people suggest that a virus caused the cocoliztli, and that wouldn’t have been picked up by the team’s method.

The question of origin

Krause and his colleagues’ proposal is helped by another study posted on bioRxiv last week, which raises the possibility that Salmonella Paratyphi C arrived in Mexico from Europe3.

A team led by Mark Achtman, a microbiologist at the University of Warwick in Coventry, UK, collected and sequenced the genome of the bacterial strain from the remains of a young woman buried around 1200 in a cemetery in Trondheim, Norway. It is the earliest evidence for the now-rare Salmonella strain, and proof that it was circulating in Europe, according to the study. (Both teams declined to comment on their research because their papers have been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.)

“Really, what we’d like to do is look at both strains together,” says Hendrik Poinar, an evolutionary biologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. And if more ancient genomes can be collected from Europe and the Americas, it should be possible to find out more conclusively whether deadly pathogens such as Salmonella arrived in the New World from Europe.

The existence of Salmonella Paratyphi C in Norway 300 years before it appeared in Mexico doesn’t prove that Europeans spread enteric fever to native Mexicans, says Schroeder, but that hypothesis is reasonable. A small percentage of people infected with Salmonella Paratyphi C carry the bacterium without falling ill, so apparently healthy Spaniards could have infected Mexicans who lacked natural resistance.

Paratyphi C is transmitted through faecal material, and a collapse of social order during the Spanish conquest might have led to the poor sanitary conditions that are ripe for Salmonella spread, Krause and his team note in the paper.

Krause’s study offers a blueprint for identifying the pathogens behind ancient outbreaks, says Schroeder. His own team plans to look for ancient pathogens in Caribbean burial sites that seem to be linked to catastrophic outbreaks, and that were established after the Europeans arrived. “The idea that some of them might have been caused by Salmonella is now a distinct possibility,” he says.

I know a lot of my followers are American and maybe don’t know what’s going on with Scotland/Brexit/independence referendums, and I’m really fucking mad about it, so I wanted to make this post.

Theresa May, the UK Prime Minister, has told us we aren’t allowed to have another Independence Referendum before 2019. Scotland’s first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, had been meeting with the PM to try and negotiate a suitable time for us to take another vote on Independence, and she (along with most Scots I would think, I know I am) is shocked that the PM has turned around and said no to a vote before 2019.

Why do Scotland want another Independence Referendum? We want one because Scotland voted to REMAIN in the EU. We don’t want to leave, and if we stay a part of the UK we will be forced to leave the EU. We don’t want this to happen, we’d rather be a part of the EU than be joined with England any longer. That’s the shortest way to say it, EU > UK.

Why 2019? Nicola Sturgeon and other members of the SNP (Scottish National Party, the party that holds the most chairs in Scotland) have been thinking about making autumn 2019 a good time to hold another referendum. This means, if we chose to leave the UK, Brexit wouldn’t be in full effect yet and we could happily stay in the EU. It’s also far enough away to give everyone a good amount of time to campaign, and think about how they want to vote.

Why has Theresa May said no to 2019? May has said no because she wants to give Scotland an ultimatum. Basically by saying no to 2019 she’s telling us, sure, you can have another vote after that time all you want, but you can’t have it before the whole UK is already out of Brexit. She’s done this because she thinks that us Scots should give Brexit a chance and see what it’s like before we go leaving the UK. It also means Scotland would have to go through the hassle of joining the EU again, and she thinks this will deter us from voting for Independence.

Why is all of this a problem, and y u so mad about it Moody? Well, friends, lemme tell you a thing. First of all Theresa May is the leader of the Conservative Party, a party which out of 59 available House of Commons seats in Scotland, only hold 1. They hold 1 seat. And they’re dictating to us when we can and cannot hold a vote. Forget that she’s the PM for a second. Think about that. 1 out of 59 seats in Scotland, and she’s telling us how to run our country and thinks she understands what the Scottish people want? No.

Secondly, she’s made this decision before she even hears what the SNP have to say on the matter. The SNP are holding a meeting on Wednesday (from me posting this, next week) to talk about another referendum. May doesn’t even know what the SNP fully want to do yet because they haven’t had their meeting yet, and without hearing the SNPs general opinion post-meeting, she has said no. Jumping the gun a bit, huh?

Thirdly, it’s not up to her, it’s up to the Scottish people. I mean sure, she’s the PM, she’s said no to 2019, that was her decision. But what exactly is that achieving? Other than making it harder for Scotland to join back with the EU after we leave the UK. Nothing. She just doesn’t want to deal with Brexit and Scotland leaving the UK at the same time. Learn to multitask, PM, or hand your job over to someone who can.

Scotland want independence because we are sick and tired of having to follow everything England does. The entirety of Scotland voting one way could be overruled by the entirety of London. Just London, one city. We have less say than one English city. We’re sick of this bullshit. Did you know that England’s nuclear weapons program, Trident, is located in Scotland? That’s right, just in case someone decides to bomb us to get rid of our weapons, they put them in Scotland so they’d bomb us instead of England. Tough shit on you if we get our independence, looks like you’ll be having to deal with your own nuclear weapons from now on. Get that shit away from us.

I am angry because my country doesn’t have a say in its own future, I am angry because the English government that rules over us doesn’t give a crap about us, I am angry because we are treated as worthless ‘lesser Englishmen’, when our culture and people are entirely different to England’s. I am angry because I’m tired of the English government shitting all over my country. Fuck you, we want Independence, and delaying it won’t stop it from happening.

7

“Someone come and, someone come and save my life
Maybe I’ll sleep when I am dead
But now it’s like the night is taking sides
With all the worries that occupy the back of my mind
Could it be this misery will suffice?“
     - “Sleeping Sickness”, City and Colour

I drew this comic for my dear @mondfuchs birthday!! I couldn’t resist drawing her some royai angst with Roy being a mess, considering all those amazing discussions we’ve had!!

You know I’ve already expressed how much you mean to me on several occasions, but I want to say: thank you so, so much for coming into my life, Anna. You’ve made my days a whole lot brighter ever since you came along. I couldn’t be more grateful for having met you, and I feel so, so honored and happy to be able to call you a close friend. <3 I love you lots, friend!!!

6

AU - Last Tango in Holby City - Continued 
Everyone has gotten over their sapphic angst -everyone except Kate, she was fine from the start. Now, after finally finding a gap in all the schedules, a double-date has been planned. The double-date was obviously Kate’s idea, but Bernie was secretly very involved as well- not that she’d every admit that to Serena. During the planning of the infamous double-date, Bernie has been going on about how nice it would be to have a week-end of together with Serena, as they’re always busy. Kate, with the assistance of Caroline, has planned a week-end for them as an anniversary gift -allowing Caroline to find out what Kate would like. Serena tries saving her blushes by complaining about how she was planning to relax in the bath all week-end and “guzzle Shiraz until I can’t find the bottle anymore” ; not that anyone is falling for it. Caroline even threatens to buy up all the Shiraz in town if she refuses, which Kate thinks is a marvellous idea and gives Bernie a good giggle. They end up discussing their respective ex-husbands. John is a major source of entertainment of course, with Bernie threatening to set Serena on her husband being a close second. Caroline dryly comments that Marcus had much more success setting Serena on Bernie, as Bernie turns bright red Kate adds “not so macho now”.

References to serial killers in Marilyn Manson songs
  • “Sam, Son of Man”, early Spooky Kids song references David Berkowitz.
  • Band slogan and lyric from “Cake and Sodomy”, “I am the God of Fuck”, is a direct quote from Charles Manson.
  • Lyrics of the song “Little Horn” are adapted from Revelation 9 of the Bible, the section Charles Manson was obsessed with that eventually led to his murders.
  • “This is beyond your experience” from song “The Reflecting God” is a paraphrase of Richard Ramirez’s last words before his sentencing.
  • Sample of Richard Ramirez, “Killing is killing, whether done for duty, profit or fun”, used at the start of “Snake Eyes And Sissies”.
  • Lyrics from “My Monkey”, are either taken from or adapted from the Charles Manson song of the same name.
  • Covered a Charles Manson song, “Sick City”.
  • Past and current band members have taken their names from Charles Manson, Richard Ramirez, David Berkowitz, Ed Gein, Henry Lee Lucas, Albert Fish, John Wayne Gacy, Ted Bundy and Richard Speck.
  • Spooky Kids songs “Dune Buggy” and “Let Your Ego Die” is a reference to Charles Manson.
  • “Portrait Of An American Family” was originally going to be called “The Manson Family Album”.
  • “Portrait Of An American Family” is a reference to “Portrait Of An American Serial Killer”, a documentary about Henry Lee Lucas.
  • “No, don’t, this is gonna hurt someone” sample taken from the public suicide of Budd Dwyer and used in song “Get Your Gunn”.
  • “Why are the children doing what they’re doing? Why does a child reach up and kill his mom and dad and murder his two little sisters and then cut his throat?“ sample from Charles Manson used in “My Monkey”. Several other Charles Manson samples were used in this song, along with a sample from The Beatles’ song “Helter Skelter”.
  • Sample of Charles “Tex” Watson, Manson Family member, saying “We would swoop down on the town, and kill everyone that wasn’t beautiful.” backmasked and used in the song “The Beautiful People”.
  • “A loved one laid his head in her lap, red roses fell to the floor, and the world stood still” in song “Coma Black”, is a reference to the assassination of JFK by Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • “Last night… I think he should have suffered… longer,” sample from “The Love Song” is Lee Harvey Oswald’s mother talking about his death.
  • Song “Revelation 9″ (b-side of “Get Your Gunn”) is a reference to the Bible section Charles Manson was obsessed with. If you play this song backwards you can hear many more disturbing references to Charles Manson, and twisted interpretations of the Bible.The Beatles had a song called “Revolution 9″ also, which was one of Charles Manson’s favourites.
  • Sample of Charles Manson singing “I’m gonna kill you, I’m gonna kill you” used in the song “Dope Hat”.
  • Unreleased song “Smells Like Children” uses sample of Albert Fish saying “I like children, they are tasty”.
  • Many references to the Columbine school shooters, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, throughout the album “Holy Wood”, most notably on “Disposable Teens” and “The Nobodies” .
  • The album “Holy Wood” is named after a message painted on the side of a school bus used by the Manson Family in their early years.
  • The song “Evidence” from album “Eat Me, Drink Me” is partly about German cannibal Armen Meiwes, who devoured a man who answered an internet request he sent on the now closed site, cannibalsanonymous.com.
  • The songs “President Dead” and “King Kill 33″ reference the Kennedy assassinations and a document attempting to expose Freemasonry in the US government.
  • “Today I am dirty, but tomorrow I’ll be just dirt”, lyric from the song “The Nobodies”, is a direct quote from Carl Panzram, who confessed to raping over 1,000 boys.

If I missed anything tell me, and I’ll edit it.

10

“We were very lucky that we hooked up with Mott the Hoople and we were the warm up act and we went all round the U.K. with them–it worked out just perfect. And then the guys from Mott said would you like to do the same thing in America?” - Brian May

I love my city, and I’ve been sick to my stomach all day knowing that it was attacked by a ‘Muslim’. Manchester is the most multi-cultural and accepting city, and it hurts that someone would do this. And it hurts that people might think that I condone it. I work in a hospital. One of the hospitals where some of the injured are being treated, and the atmosphere is very obviously tense. Everybody, patients and staff alike are deeply aggrieved. I know they probably can’t help but associate me with it in some way, and that really affects me. I’m just sick of this. My thoughts have been with the young people and children who lost their lives way too soon. I hope their families and friends find the strength to go on. I hope our beautiful city recovers from this horrible wound.

fall playlist 2016

it’s finally october, which means the beginning of fall, aka the best time of the year 🍂 i put together a playlist of songs to listen to while the leaves change and the weather cools off ✨🍁🌙

1. all is now harmed - ben howard
2. all too well - taylor swift
3. always - panama
4. angela - the lumineers 
5. antichrist - the 1975
6. atlas - coldplay
7. autumn leaves - ed sheeran
8. better love - hozier
9. big bad world - kodaline
10. bloom - the paper kites
11. bones - ben howard
12. call me in the afternoon - half moon run
13. canyon moon - andrew mcmahon in the wilderness
14. change of heart - the 1975
15. cherry wine (mahogany sessions) - hozier
16. clocks go forward - james bay
17. coming down - halsey
18. conrad - ben howard
19. days go on - greg laswell
20. dive deep - andrew belle
21. down in the valley - the head and the heart
22. the emotion - børns 
23. everlong (acoustic) - foo fighters
24. fade away (acoustic) - rebelution
25. faded (odesza remix) - zhu
26. fire and the flood - vance joy
27. the ghost on the shore - lord huron
28. gold - imagine dragons
29. grand optimist - city and colour
30. habits of my heart - jaymes young
31. half moon - blind pilot
32. haunting - halsey
33. heartbreak warfare - john mayer
34. heartless - the fray
35. hometown - twenty one pilots
36. i found - amber run
37. i know places (taylor swift cover) - vance joy
38. i’ll be good - jaymes young 
39. if you ever want to be in love - james bay
40. jerome - zella day
41. the last time (feat. gary lightbody) - taylor swift 
42. meet me in the woods - lord huron
43. mess is mine - vance joy
44. northern wind - city and colour
45. one day - kodaline
46. peaches - in the valley below
47. rebellion (lies) - arcade fire
48. red - taylor swift
49. red eye - vance joy
50. shadow preachers - zella day
51. silver and gold - city and colour
52. sleeping sickness - city and colour
53. somebody else - the 1975
54. sparks - coldplay
55. stop this train - john mayer
56. the stranger - lord huron
57. sweet disposition - temper trap
58. to zion - trevor hall 
59. trojans - atlas genius
60. trouble (stripped audio) - halsey
61. way down we go - kaleo
62. the wolf - mumford & sons
63. the wolves (act i and ii) - bon iver
64. yellow - coldplay
65. 90210 (feat. g-eazy) - blackbear

9

ファック


@ask-nandos-tracer, I do not think we expected such an outcome…

// Feat. @ask-partycity-mercy

Sleeping Sickness
City and Colour
Sleeping Sickness

I awoke, only to find my lungs empty
And through the night, so it seems I’m not breathing
And now my dreams, are nothing like they were meant to be
And I’m breaking down, I think I’m breaking down

And I’m afraid, to sleep because of what haunts me
Such as, living with the uncertainty
That’ll never find the words to say 
Which would completely explain, just how I’m breaking down

Someone come and, someone come and save my life
Maybe I’ll sleep when I am dead but now it’s like the night is taking sides
And all the worries that occupy the back of my mind
Could it be, this misery will suffice

I’ve become, a simple souvenir of someone’s kill
Like the sea, I’m constantly changing from calm to ill
Madness fills my heart and soul as if the 
Great divide could swallow me whole, oh how I’m breaking down

Someone come and, someone come and save my life
Maybe I’ll sleep when I am dead but now it’s like the night is taking sides
And all the worries that occupy the back of my mind
Could it be, this misery will suffice

Someone come and, someone come and save my life 
Someone come and, someone come and save my life 
Someone come and, someone come and save my life 
Could it be, this misery will suffice

I’m sick of trying to pretend I can live without you. Don’t you understand that? Can’t you see it’s killing me?
—  City of Fallen Angels, Cassandra Clare