city agriculture



She was fierce and brave in battle; however, she only took part in wars that defended the state and home from outside enemies. She was the patron of the city, handcraft, and agriculture. She invented the bridle, which permitted man to tame horses, the trumpet, the flute, the pot, the rake, the plow, the yoke, the ship, and the chariot. She was the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity. She was Zeus’ favourite child and was allowed to use his weapons including his thunderbolt. Her holy tree was the olive tree and she was often symbolised as an owl.


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Children Of The Greek Gods! AU

Athena! Rap Monster

Athena is the daughter of Zeus. She sprang full grown in armour from his forehead, thus has no mother. She is fierce and brave in battle but, only wars to defend the state and home from outside enemies. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture.

“Beauty may be dangerous but intelligence is lethal”

Jin / Suga / J-Hope / Jimin / V / Jungkook

- Admin Kath


                            Nature At Its Finest (Palmeral Of Elche)

“In the Municipal District of Elche there is the greatest concentration of palm trees in all of Europe: according to estimations, there are between 200,000 and 300,000 specimens.It is fairly unanimous that the origin of this palm tree is Phoenician, which brings us to the conclusion that the existence of the date palm tree dates back about 2,000/5,000 years.Also, the division and sorting of land, irrigation and cultivation of the palm tree, dates back to the times of Arabic reign.The agricultural city that once was Elche in the previous centuries to its current industrial activity included the cultivation of dates and palm trees along with horticultural products for local consumption.There are palm trees scattered all over the landscape. The peculiarity and beauty of the palm tree landscape in Elche was made into a one of a kind natural park in the European continent, which made it a deserved winner in November 2000 of the distinction of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.”


So regarding this post… there’s two problems with this whole “humans are EITHER naturally good and cooperative and social animals who want to help each other but are corrupted by unnatural capitalism OR they’re naturally nasty dominance-based hierarchical brutes who beat each other down, nature is red in tooth and claw!!!” thing.

The first problem: 

Just because something is ‘natural’ does not mean it is good or right or the proper way to do things. To put it bluntly: arsenic is natural. Cyanide is natural. Dysentery, pneumonia, cancer, and necrosis are all natural. There are plenty of things in nature that are bad and toxic and poisonous; we plan around them, find technology of one form or another to keep these things in check, and move on. 

If your argument revolves around “this is the way things naturally are!”, it’s probably a bad argument. If your worldview requires nature to be superior to the unnatural, it’s a bad worldview. If your master plan requires humans to naturally be good, you’re not putting the infrastructure in place to deal with humans who- for whatever reason!- aren’t.  

More to the point, this is a false dichotomy. It’s taking a really simplistic either-or view of a really complicated, nuanced problem.   

Human beings are primates. Humans are pack hunter/gatherers optimized to live in tribes of maybe 15-150 people. Any human organization bigger, more complicated, or more diverse than this is ‘unnatural’, in the same way that air conditioning and the internet are unnatural. They’re forms of technology humans created in order to make life better. 

If you want to see ‘natural’ human behaviour, there’s one of two tacks you can take- you can study humans from traditional societies that don’t interact with the outside world, or you can study humans’ closest relatives (chimps, bonobos, and so on). 

There are lots of ethical issues with the first option and lots of procedural issues with the second. (An example of #1- Is it worth exposing people from these societies to the outside world if they don’t want to be exposed? Are you going to fundamentally change their culture by observing it, and is that worth the knowledge you’ll gain? An example of #2- bonobos settle most disputes by having sex with each other, but humans do not respond well to being nonconsensually groped while they’re angry. You can’t always translate non-human-primate social structures to humans.) 

But, we have enough data from both of these sources to be able to get an idea of what human behaviour in its ‘natural’ state looks like. And - well, as far as I know, the answer isn’t as simple as ‘humans are naturally cooperative!’ or ‘humans are naturally competitive!’ Humans are naturally tribal. 

What this means is that humans naturally form small or medium-sized communities, which share common interests and usually see themselves as being ‘like a family’ or ‘all friends here’. And naturally- without any social norms that incentivize doing otherwise-  humans are kind and cooperative among members of their own community, and are wary around members of other communities, but not necessarily hostile.  

The social norms that incentivize hostility (or a lack thereof) are tied to resources. If resources in an area are scarce, different tribes generally don’t fight, and in fact often cooperate. It’s hard enough to survive; fighting is a waste of resources you could use for other things. Similarly, if resources are plentiful and everyone has enough of what they need, tribes don’t often fight, because everyone has what they need; why would you fight? 

Generally, tribes become hostile towards each other when there’s a shortage of something, be it food, water, territory, or women (I did say things that are natural are worse).  Nature being nature, there’s nearly always a shortage of something. Tribal hostilities tend to be small-scale skirmishes- the point isn’t to KILL THE OTHER GUYS DEAD FOREVER (even if that’s what you tell each other when you go out to fight), the point is to get what you need and come back with it in one piece. 

I reiterate: human society as we know it is an outgrowth of all of this. It’s not completely disconnected from humanity’s ‘natural’ state- humans haven’t evolved much physically since the end of the Ice Age, and it’s safe to say that physically and mentally we have a lot in common with our ancestors. But it’s not that natural state. 

 So what changed that natural state? What took humans from “small-scale skirmishes for resources” to “large-scale bloody wars that raze cities or destroy civilizations”? The Answer May Shock You.

Spoilers: it’s not capitalism, it’s agriculture and city-building. There’s lots of different reasons why this happens, and going into them all would mean this post will stretch your dash even farther, but the short version goes something like this:

  • Agriculture means you’re stuck in one place and can’t leave. If resources get scarce in your part of the river valley, you can’t just set up a new camp a hundred miles away; you have to stick with your crops. And if things go wrong for you, but they went right for the guys twenty miles downstream, it starts to look damn tempting to raid them and steal all their stuff. 
  • Agriculture and city-building also go hand in hand with the emergence of strong, top-down leadership; if you get a group of more than a couple hundred people, you need someone (or a group of someones) to coordinate what y’all are doing, or everything falls apart.  

You get one leader- one chief or king or patriarch- who’s a little greedier than his neighbours, he realizes, “hey, instead of just taking what we need, what if we took…….. all their stuff…..”, and Hijinks Ensue. And by hijinks, I mean the start of an endless bloody cycle of conflict that we’re still trying to end today. 

Capitalism didn’t have anything to do with it; that came a lot later. You can definitely make a case for capitalism exacerbating the stuff that makes people fight each other- as an example, forced scarcity trips the ‘we’re all out of resources, time to Fight’ switch in our brains, whether or not we’ve actually got enough resources to work with. 

But TLDR: humanity is six billion monkeys on six billion typewriters, living in a society designed by countless typewriter-monkeys that came before us; this society is profoundly “unnatural” but that’s a good thing; you can’t say humanity is naturally ‘good’ or ‘bad’ because humans are complicated’; war sucks; capitalism has some major problems but you can’t foist all humanity’s flaws off on it.

[I can’t properly source all of this right now because it’s wayyyy past my bedtime, but off the top of my head, this post owes a lot to E.O. Wilson, a biologist whose work focused on integrating biology and sociology.] 

A patchwork quilt

These towns and fields set below a winding river valley in Ethiopia resemble a psychedelic quilt from the 1970’s, while revealing some of the constraints geology and physical geography put on human landscapes. The towns are set in the river valleys, where water is easy to obtain and they won’t encroach upon increasingly valuable agricultural land, while the multicoloured fields are in the surrounding highlands.


Image credit: Digital Globe

Americans at Work:  Urban Farming in West Oakland

This Americans at Work essay focuses on inner-city agriculture programs by photographer Preston Gannaway

Malik Hopkins, 14, harvests at WOW Flower Farm in Oakland, California, on Tuesday, October 18, 2016. Malik uses his paycheck to take his mother grocery shopping and his sister to eat at Panda Express. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Azariah Waller, 3, helps her mother remove dead leaves from their community garden plot at City Slicker Farm Park in West Oakland, California, on Saturday, October 29, 2016. Gardening is spiritual, her mother Natacha Jeanty said: “Sometimes you gotta pull it out to make more grow." (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Jon Price (right), the WOW Produce Farm Manager, explains composting to the student workers including (from left) Erin Ahlich, 15, Andranee Lyons, 18, and Izabella Scaparro, 17, in Oakland, California, on Wednesday, October 5, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Mekhi Brown, 15, trims the roots off greens at WOW produce farm in West Oakland, California, on Wednesday, October 20, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Jakari Hill, a 17-year-old WOW intern, arranges a bouquet at the farm in Oakland, California, on Saturday, October 1, 2016. The bouquets are sold to restaurants and individuals. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Teenage interns work at the WOW Produce Farm in Oakland, California, on Saturday, October 1, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Justin Vandenbroeck, the co-founder of Fleet Farming Oakland, rides his bike to a farmlette in West Oakland, California, on Tuesday, October 18, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Interns and volunteers prep dirt for flower beds at WOW Farm in Oakland, California, on Tuesday, October 4, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Izabella Scaparro, 17, works at the WOW farm in West Oakland, California, on Wednesday, November 16, 2016. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Ketwan Raynor, 16, works at the WOW Produce Farm in West Oakland, California, on Wednesday, October 20, 2016. High-school students apply for a three-month internship and gain skills as well as a paycheck. (Preston Gannaway / GRAIN)

Exo as the Greek Olympians

(Author’s Note: I’m supposed to be writing a smut right now, but oh well. This seemed a lot more fun to do. Some of them are put based on their abilities and some are a little random. I’d be lying if I said that I’m not fascinated with Greek Mythology. Not to mention, there’s a series that goes with this. You can check it out if you want. It’s based off this drabble thingy. (X))

My asks are always open. Come request. I’ll be waiting. ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) If you want to see my masterlist or any info on request submission, you can click on this link: (X)

(Rub the lamp and be granted a wish.)

seventeen version, blackpink versionbts version


Athena (hey that’s my name, aaahh)  She is fierce and brave in battle but only fights to protect the state and home from outside enemies. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture. 

Originally posted by xiu-angel


Hera. She is the protector of marriage and takes special care of married women. 

Originally posted by dawnlus


She is the lady of the wild things. She is the huntsman of the gods. She is the protector of the young. The goddess of the Hunt, Artemis

Originally posted by oppa-smiles


Poseidon. He already controls the waters. Being the god of that is just a slight upgrade. He’s practically already a king, might as well make him an Olympian.

Originally posted by parkchny


Aphrodite, is the goddess of love, desire and beauty. In addition to her natural gifts she has a magical girdle that compels anyone she wishes to desire her.

Originally posted by yixingofficial


Apollo, the god of music, playing a golden lyre, of light and truth, who can not tell a lie. One of Apollo’s more important daily tasks is to harness his chariot with four horses and drive the sun across the sky.

Originally posted by parkchny


as the one who possesses the power of lightning, I feel like it wouldn’t be right if he weren’t given the status of Zeus. Have you seen the amount of attitude he’d be able to deliver? I mean, I haven’t, but I know it’s there somewhere.

Originally posted by exoxoolf


Hephaestus. He is the god of fire and the forge. He is the smith and armourer of the gods. He uses a volcano as his forge. He is the patron god of both smiths and weavers. He is kind and peace loving.

Originally posted by daenso


Hades, god of the dead and Underworld. He had the worst draw and was made lord of the underworld, ruling over the dead.  He is the King of the dead, one to control when someone’s soul may be able to pass with peace.

Originally posted by kaisooshipper


Hestia, for some reason, the Goddess of the Hearth, the symbol of the house around which a newborn child is carried before it is received into the family. Tao can be a sexy and irresistible beast at times, like all of them, but he’s just too precious for something of destruction. I feel like he’d be one to give and care than to give and fight.

the gif literally is the opposite of what I just explained, but he’s just too beautiful so it’s cool

Originally posted by lil-duckling


Hermes. He is Zeus’s messenger. He is the fastest of the gods. I mean, he got those dance moves, so this should be no problem. He is the god of thieves and commerce. He is the guide for the dead to go to the underworld. 

Originally posted by ionqins


Ares, the god of war and is considered murderous and bloodstained but, also one with a pure heart. 

Originally posted by damnitsehun



Mexico’s Campesinos March for Land Rights, Against Fracking

An estimated 50,000 campesinos and supporters turned out to march in Mexico City on Wednesday. Agricultural organizations from throughout Mexico attended.

Under the banner “The Countryside Is for All,” attendees marched in support of farmers, food sovereignty, Indigenous land rights, and against recent energy reforms that would allow for fracking and appropriation of farm lands.

Organizers were able to obtain a meeting with Interior Secretary Osorio Chong to discuss concerns.

Images via Aristegui Noticias, El Barzón

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dairy cows after being milked, none are in pain, and they are all happy eating their food. a cows ration is a carefully mixed blend of everything that she needs to maintain her body and produce the highest quality milk, the main ingredients are corn silage, haylage, straw (for fiber) and premixes (bagged feed that is made in the factory, very rich in vitamins and minerals). corn silage and haylage is corn and hay that was harvested and chopped in the summer and fall, and put in either an airtight silo or a bunk, where the feed ferments and breaks down. the feed is packed into the silo as tightly as possible, because air can cause spoiling.