circuits test

Switching off the brain

Switching off specific brain regions in a laboratory animal is an important type of experiment used to better understand how the brain works. A study published in Nature Methods by Singapore-based researchers identified effective inhibitors of brain activity in the important animal model Drosophila melanogaster, the common vinegar fly. These new tools are enabling researchers to better understand the relationship between neural circuits and behaviour, expanding our knowledge of the brain.

Neurons (brain cells) process information and control behaviour by sending signals to other neurons, hormone-releasing cells and muscles. A fuller understanding of the neuronal control of behaviour would accelerate the development of therapies for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

One of the ways researchers have tried to understand the neuronal control of behaviour is with optogenetics, a technique that uses light-sensitive proteins to control neuronal activity in living tissue. In optogenetics, neurons are genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels (proteins that conduct electricity), such that light exposure may be used to activate or inhibit electrical activity.

“There are many useful optogenetic tools to stimulate neural activity but not as many effective inhibitors,” explained Assistant Professor Adam Claridge-Chang, who led the research at Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS) and A*STAR’s Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB).

Being able to inhibit neural circuits provides researchers the ability to determine the importance of a particular circuit in defining behaviour. In view of that, Asst Prof Claridge-Chang with Dr Farhan Mohammad and other colleagues explored the use of anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from an alga species (Guillardia theta) to inhibit neural activity.

In reading the paper that first described the ACRs, Dr Mohammad realized that ACRs conducted more current compared to other tools. “They are rapidly responsive, require low light intensities for actuation, so they seemed ideal for inhibiting brain activity in fly behaviour experiments,” said Dr Mohammad, a Research Fellow in the Claridge-Chang group.

The group genetically modified flies to express ACRs, and exposed these animals to light of different colours and intensities. In one of the experiments, ACR actuation paralysed climbing flies, causing them to fall abruptly. In another, illumination of ACRs in the animals’ sweet-sensing cells resulted in flies that avoided green light, as though they were avoiding the silencing of a sweet taste. At the cellular level, light actuation of ACRs produced dramatic reductions in electrical activity.

The work done at Duke-NUS and A*STAR’s IMCB indicated that ACRs are highly effective optogenetic tools for the inhibition of behavioural circuits.

“Since they are as powerful as existing methods, but much faster and easier to use, there has been huge interest from the Drosophila research community in adopting these tools,” reported Asst Prof Claridge-Chang, from the Duke-NUS Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders Programme. “They make testing which circuits are necessary for a particular behaviour as convenient as testing for sufficiency.”

“Understanding any system is greatly aided by being able to remove components from that system and examine the resulting behaviour,” explained Asst Prof Claridge-Chang. “The ACRs are the seventh generation of optogenetic inhibitors, but the first that robustly inhibit Drosophila neuronal activity. Although our study is just newly published, this new technique is already on its way to becoming key tool for behaviour analysis.”

Wireless charging of moving electric vehicles overcomes major hurdle

If electric cars could recharge while driving down a highway, it would virtually eliminate concerns about their range and lower their cost, perhaps making electricity the standard fuel for vehicles.

Now Stanford University scientists have overcome a major hurdle to such a future by wirelessly transmitting electricity to a nearby moving object. Their results are published in the June 15 edition of Nature.

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GORILLAZ’ NOODLE MEETS PANASONIC JAGUAR RACING ENGINEER CHARANYA RAVI - TWO WOMEN, TWO JOURNEYS, ONE GOAL

Two women, two journeys, one goal. Two youngsters who grew up loving music and then, in all the best ways, were diverted on to a new path, and new, exciting futures.

One, a girl born in Chennai, India who relocated to Hartlepool, Britain aged 11 and ended up, via Imperial College London, at Jaguar Racing. The other born in… well, no one’s sure where… who joined a band before she was even a teenager and who we first met at around 10 years old; a Japanese guitar prodigy and martial arts expert who mysteriously arrived at Gorillaz’ Kong Studio in a FedEx crate…

[FULL ARTICLE UNDER THE CUT, it’s a really interesting read from both Charanya and Noodle]

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Michael Faraday used to keep a froggery, full of live frogs

How would you measure electricity before the voltammeter has been invented? Faraday, and his mentor Humphry Davy, had a solution. Borrowing from the famous experiments of Luigi Galvani, they kept a ready stock of frogs handy.

When he had a circuit that needed testing, Faraday would carefully select a frog, tenderly pick it out of the froggery, and delicately smash it’s head in.

He’d then place metal plates under the frog’s leg muscles and link to them to his circuit. If electricity was flowing, the frog legs would twitch.

For several years, this was the only reliable method of testing for electricity. Luckily, he soon invented the voltammeter in 1833, which quantified electrical charge as it passed through chemical compounds and measured the gas given off.

Watch the full animation here.

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The eye opening documentary What’s In My Baggie follows five friends as they hit the festival circuit testing the purity of concert goers drugs.  The opening sound bite says it all - “All these kids thought they were high on molly.  So, every single sample that I tested was Methylone  Unbelievable, man. Unbelievable.  100% methylone.“