(Bungarus flaviceps) red-headed krait The red-headed krait is an extremely venomous snake, although bites are reported rarely. Krait venom appears to function primarily as a neurotoxin, preventing communication across neuromuscular synapses, causing paralysis and death by asphyxiation because the victims can no longer breathe on their own. When the venom from the red-headed krait takes effect, the most highly innervated muscles are the first to suffer: the muscle that elevates the upper eyelid and the ocular and ciliary muscles controlling the lens. Between 20 minutes and several hours after being bitten, the victim may have a real struggle to keep his or her eyelids open. This medical condition is known as bilateral ptosis and it is a classic, tell-tale sign of severe envenomation. Other common symptoms include diplopia, dysphagia, vomiting, headache, and hypersalivation. Sometime later the symptoms of paralysis tend to worsen, with progressive involvement of various muscles, including those of the jaws, in some cases, become locked. Respiratory distress may occur as a result of paralysis of the diaphragm, the main muscle controlling breathing. Its venom also contains a novel postsynaptic neurotoxin, termed κ-flavitoxin, which is a potent inhibitor of nicotinic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Neurotoxic symptoms may resolve naturally, or more rapidly through administration of antivenin or drugs that inactivate acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which naturally destroys the chemical messenger carrying signals from nerves to muscles at the neuromuscular synapse.
Glaucoma is when the intraocular pressure is elevated, compromising vision either partially or completely.
What causes Glaucoma to develop?
In a patient with healthy eyes the aqueous humor produced within the Ciliary body located behind the Iris flows through the Pupil and drains through a sieve structure found in the corner of the eye known as the Iridocorneal Cleft. The fluid is produced and then drained at a steady rate resulting a stable intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15-20mmHg.
In the unhealthy eye, there is inadequate outflow of aqueous humor through the Iridocorneal Cleft resulting in the build up of fluid within the eye. This causes the IOP to increase, the more this increases the more damage is done to the Optic nerve which blocks nerve impulses causes blindness.
Does it cause permanent blindness?
The longer the IOP is increased the more damage is done to the Optic nerve, once this is permanently damaged vision can not be restored. Therefore, early surgical intervention is strongly recommended.
Is there only one type of Glaucoma?
No, there are two types of Glaucoma. These are:
Primary Glaucoma - This is thought to be the inherited type and is seen mainly in purebred dogs. It is caused by either:
Open Angle Glaucoma - Where the point where the Iris meets the Corneal is open at the correct angle but the Iridocorneal Cleft becomes clogged over time resulting in a slow loss of peripheral vision until the whole eye is effected. This type of Glaucoma has little warning signs and is seen most commonly in Beagles and Norwegian Elkhounds.
Narrow Angle Glaucoma - This type of Glaucoma occurs suddenly when the Iris is pushed or pulled forward blocking the drainage angle. Commonly seen in Cocker Spaniels and is a medical emergency causing pain, redness of the eye, dilated pupils, nausea and vomiting.
Gondiodysgenesis - This is a developmental abnormality of the actual drainage angle causing decrease fluid outflow when the eye becomes inflamed. It is commonly seen in Basset Hounds.
Secondary Glaucoma - This is often the result of pre-existing ocular conditions such as Uveitis, Lens dislocation, Intraocular tumours and trauma to eye interfering the natural flow of ocular fluid.
The clinical signs of Glaucoma include:
Excessive tear production
Yellow/Green Ocular discharge
Behavioural changes due to pain and loss of vision
Enlarged Pupil that doesn’t respond to light
How is Glaucoma diagnosed?
Diagnosis is made by evaluation of clinical signs and taking a detailed history from the client. In addition to this two diagnostic techniques are used, these are:
Tonometry - The measurement of IOP with a Tonopen.
Gonioscopy - Evaluation of the drainage angle, done by placing anaesthetic drops into the eye and then installing a dome shaped lens onto the corneal surface. The front of the eye can then be examined with a slit lamp.
What treatment is available?
Glaucoma in animals is much more difficult to treat than when it is present in human eyes. Mannitol is the intravenous drug of choice used to decrease the IOP, while eye drops such as Pilocarpine are used to increase the outflow of Aqueous humor. Once the IOP is stable, surgical options become available.
If vision is present:
Laser Cyclophotocoagulation - A laser is used to burn through the white outer layer of the eye and selectively destroy small areas of the ciliary body to reduce the production of eye fluid. Occasionally more than one surgery is needed to achieve a positive outcome from this treatment.
Cyclocryothermy - A small probe is placed on the outside of the eye and small areas of ciliary body are frozen to decrease the amount of intraocular fluid being produced.
Anterior Chamber Shunts - A small valve is implanted under the white of the eye through a small incision acting as a new drainage pathway for the fluid to leave the eye.
If vision isn’t present:
Evisceration and Implantation of Intrascleral Silicon
Prosthesis – A silicone implant is implanted within the eye. This procedure involves
shelling out the eye leaving the fibrous sclera and cornea, the shape of the eye is maintained with a sterile silicone sphere and
the eye is pain free for the patient. Complications include corneal ulceration.
Ciliary Ablation by Intravitreal Injection of Gentamycin –
Gentamycin (a antibiotic) is injected into the eye in high concentrations, the
ciliary body is killed resulting in the cessation or reduction of aqueous humor
production. A GA is needed and complications can include: shrinking of the eye,
return of glaucoma and chronic pain.
Central heterochromia is an eye condition where there are two colors in the same iris; the central (pupillary) zone of the iris is a different color than the mid-peripheral (ciliary) zone, with the true iris color being the outer color.
My mum had green eyes with CH, my dad had blue eyes without. I have blue eyes with CH and my sister has green eyes without.
Stefanie Giesinger winner of Germany’s Next Topmodel 2014.
What you see here is a picture of a 17 year old Model, it looks like her life is perfect that she has no flaws doesn’t it? That’s not true Stefanie has a disease which is incurable, I’m going to tell you more about it and show you that even Famous people have problems and if they can go through it YOU can go through your problems as well. Also here’s another proof of how bad society sucks.
Stefanie Giesinger has a life-threatening disease. Till to this day, a ten-centimeter-long scar on the abdomen reminds her everyday, that she almost died once before. In the beginning no one would believe her that she was actually sick, people literally thought she was lying.
“my whole life people in fact thought I was bulimic sick. I have a disease which first no Doctor had a clue what I had. I even got sent to a psychologist. For me it was really bad, I didn’t feel good, I kept no food with me. I had to vomit every day.” No one believed her that that she had not caused the vomiting herself.
At the age of 13 Stefanie suddenly broke down and again no Doctor could help her. “Only at that moment I was first checked thoroughly properly."The doctors diagnose the so-called Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease in which the organs are mirrored. In Stefanie’s abdomen, the appendix was below the ribs, the stomach was completely twisted, so that no food could pass through.”
“At age 13, the doctors had actually given up on me. They have operated on me eight hours and saved my life."
But Stefanie is strong and is really chill with her disease how it’s only possible for her. "I actually see it as a gift. Because of the disease I got ambitious and have experienced more than many other.”
Certain traditions believe there is a ‘step-down’ process or condensation that occurs from the Source to our physical self. As this energy condenses it becomes more differentiated and visible to the human eye as physical form. As this condensation occurs, certain traditions believe that the initial ‘step’ into the body occurs at the third eye, or the brow center.
The third ventricle, a space in the middle of the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As the energy from the Source condenses into physical form, the ‘step’ into the physical body may be into this fluid that bathes the entire inner and outer surface of the brain and spinal cord. “Fluids come together and the ‘I Am’ appears.” The CSF may be the fluid through which the ‘I Am’ appears. The CSF is a conveyor of energy. An adult produces 500ml of CSF daily. While the CSF is 99% water, the CSF is also rich in proteins, ions, lipids, hormones, cholesterol, glucose, and many other molecules. The CSF is home to many neurotransmitters and signaling molecules providing an elaborate range of biological functions. The CSF utilizes volume transmission and its components can potentially be dispersed quickly and target key brain regulatory centers simultaneously due to its fluid nature. Moreover, along the third ventricle, the pineal gland makes direct contact with the CSF, and releases information directly into the CSF for volume transmission to the rest of the brain. In addition, the CSF contains the ‘spirit molecule’ DMT that is released by the pineal gland. Therefore, the CSF may serve as a vehicle for immediate signaling to major control centers of the brain and may be significant in regulating consciousness and the sense of ‘I Am’.
NEXUS THEORY SUMMARY
Originating in the mitochondria of all cells, biophotons (endogenous light = ‘from within’) are guided by structures with fiber optic properties along pathways leading to the cerebral ventricles, which are cavities filled with clear cerebrospinal fluid and lined with beating hairlike cilia. It is proposed that the timing of ciliary beating is synchronized with neural events so that biophotons are aimed by the cilia at discrete points within the volume of the ventricles (about 150ml total maximum). Biophotons guided into those spaces interact through wave interference with other endogenous light present there simultaneously to form dynamically resonant 3D holographic structures. Those dynamic structures together form a Nexus, a type of data connector operating in synchrony with and driven by the brain’s neuroelectrical activities with feedback such that changes in the Nexus also influence the brain’s electrical events and ciliary beating. The Nexus is thus formed from endogenous light and its properties are such that certain energies may interact with it other than those originating in the brain and body.
It is proposed that the Nexus being made of light itself and having a holographic structure, is able to interact with the background energy of the universe called zero point energy, virtual energy, or energy of the vacuum among others. This vacuum energy demonstrably exists by the Casimir effect and is believed to far exceed even nuclear energies in any given volume of matter or even empty space. That vast pool of energy we are saturated in is almost completely unavailable to us however as it is somehow outside our dimensional timeline and only barely interacting with our own by popping in and out of existence very briefly. So say the physicists and if they are correct that enormous background field of energy must itself be full of wave and particle interactions in a vast kind of holographic interference system. Nexus Theory maintains that in that vast pool of virtual energy exists the source of consciousness in a higher and unitary expression than our own which many teachers and faiths have called God, with most if not all of them in one way or another referring to God as being associated with light. Just as a traditional hologram may be cut into many pieces with each piece able to regenerate a picture of the whole image originally on it, a tiny part of that larger unitary consciousness is able to interact with the Nexus to animate the brain and body with what we erroneously recognize to be our separate selves in the grand illusion that is life. Consciousness is thus derived from the same source for everyone and we are all living parallel illusions of separateness.
Hello, my favorite brainy people of the internet!
We’ll be talking about some brain tumors today.
All of the mnemonics might not work for you, so take only what you need :)
It is the most common malignant CNS tumor in adults. It has a butterfly appearance as it commonly crosses the corpus callosum. Areas of necrosis and hemorrhage are present. (This was asked as a MCQ in my exam!) GFAP positive.
Glioblastoma Multiforme mnemonic:
G for Glioblastoma, G for GFAP.
G for gangrene (Lame way to remember about the hemorrhage and necrosis!)
A whorled appearance is seen, histopathologically. It commonly presents in women and expresses estrogen receptors. It can calcify resulting in psammoma bodies.
M flipped upside down looks like a W for whorled, women.
Psammoma body mnemonic:
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Papillary renal cell carcinoma
Serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
Fired egg appearance or chicken wire capillary pattern seen on histology. It commonly involves the white matter of frontal lobe resulting in seizures.
Eggs look like O.. OligOdendrOgliOma. Fried eggs leads to a fried brain. Fried brains cause seizures.
It’s a benign tumor of astrocytes, most common tumor in children. It involves the cerebellum (below the tentorium). Rosenthal fibers are eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers found in pilocytic astrocytoma. Pilocytic astrocytomas generally form sacs of fluid (cysts).
Often localized to CN VIII, found in cerebellopontine angle, S-100 postitive. Histologically, shows cellular Antoni A area and paucicellular Antoni B area.
For Schwannomas I remember the bird, “SWAN”
Acoustic Schwannomas are common (More common than Trigeminal Schwannomas!)
ANtoni A and ANtoni B
Neurofibromatosis type 2 has bilateral Schwannomas.
It’s a prolactinoma, most often. Derived from Rathke’s pouch. Can cause bitemporal hemianopia.
Pituitary adenoma mnemonic:
P for Prolactinoma!
Is a benign childhood tumor, derived from remnants of Rathke’s pouch. It is the most common childhood supratentorial tumor (Infratentorial is pilocytic astrocytoma, remember?) Tooth enamel like calcification is seen. Can cause bitemporal hemianopia.
C for Children, Calcification.
R for Rathkes pouch!
Ependymal cell tumors most commonly found in 4th ventricle and thus can cause hydrocephalus. Characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes seen on histology. Rod-shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus.
Epic Ependymoma. (Sounds similar, yaay!)
E for ependymal cells.
P for pseudorosettes.
I for inside the cavities of the brain (How I remember involvement of the ventricles!)
C for ciliary bodies.
Most often cerebellar, associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, can produce erythropoeitin causing secondary polycythemia.
HEmangioblastoma! H for Hippel. E for EPO.
This post was requested by Kay =)
I covered most of them for you, lemme know which else do you need!
The music legend had anisocoria - an acquired condition in which a person’s pupils are unequal.
In his younger and more vulnerable years, Bowie got into a fight with a school friend and future collaborator, George Underwood, over a crush.
Underwood punched Bowie right in the eye and scratched its surface with his fingernail. This damaged the tiny muscles responsible for iris contraction (ciliary muscles) and left Bowie with a permanently-dilated left pupil.
Click here to find out more awesome biology stuff!
Doesn't being in Port Mafia pay enough for Akutagawa to finally get a round of antibiotics for that infection that he has?
Emi has learned some things and she must share them. (Disclaimer: The info I have here are from google and whatever I can remember from anatomy class)
Akutagawa coughs up blood in ch36. According to this link, bronchitis is the most common cause. Assuming he has acute bronchitis, antibiotics probably won’t work because upper respiratory tract infections are generally caused by viruses and not bacteria. In the case that he does get a bacterial infection, he would have to take all of the antibiotics as directed. Akutagawa doesn’t strike me as the type to remember to take his pills every day, and not doing so will cause the bacteria to develop resistance to the prescribed antibiotic.
That is the gist of it. There is more info under the cut… and more possibilities about his coughing…
While performing an ophthalmic exam on a dog the owner stopped me and asked what I was doing. When I explained the reason behind everything she said “oh, cool. I thought you were just poking her with your fingers.” I suppose to someone who doesn’t know, a lot of a physical exam can look just like the vet is petting or poking when in reality there is a reason behind it and lots of information is gained.
For an ophthalmic exam the first thing I do is watch the animal in the room. Is it squinting? Bumping into things? Rubbing its face? Then I put the animal up on the table and take a closer look at the face. First thing to check is facial symmetry. Are there droopy eyelids? Does one eye appear bigger or smaller than the other? Are there any masses, lumps, bumps anywhere? Then I will retropulse the eyes which means I gently push them back into the orbit (through closed lids) to see if there is a mass behind them that prevents this.
The next step is assessing menace. This is when I will make a fist and quickly but gently “knock” it toward one eye while keeping the other covered. This tests vision and also tests CN VII, the facial nerve. The signal must be picked up by the retina, travel down the optic nerve, go into the optic tracts, and then into the visual cortex of the brain. Then a signal must travel down CN VII and make the eyelid blink. So that one simple motion tests two entire pathways. Next is the palpebral response. This is when I gently tap on the eye lid and see if there is a blink response. Once again this is testing CN VII but also tests CN V, the facial nerve, which is responsible for transmitting the touch signal from the lids to the brain.
If a dog is having an eye exam because the owner thinks there is some vision loss I will do a tracking test. To do this I tear a small piece of a cotton ball, hold it above the animals head and drop it. If the animal can see they will follow it with their eyes and head as it falls.
Next the lights are dimmed and I get out the ophthalmoscope. I cover one eye and shine the light into it to see if the pupil constricts. Quickly I will look at the other eye to see if that pupil constricted as well. This is called testing the direct and indirect pupillary light response. First this tests the retina and the optic nerve (can they conduct the light signal?), it also tests CN III which is the occulomotor nerve, the ciliary ganglion, and the iris sphincter muscle. Because some of the nerve fibers cross over at the optic chiasm, shining light into one eye should cause the other pupil to constrict slightly even though it was not directly stimulated. Interestingly all of this can function completely normally and the animal can be completely blind. The signal does not have to make it into the visual cortex for the pupils to constrict, it is a separate pathway.
At the same time I am assessing PLR’s, I am using retroillumination to examine the anterior portion of the eye. This is when the light is directed into the eye and it reflects off the tapetum and back out the pupil. This should be a greenish/yellow light with no obstructions. This allows the viewer to look for cataracts, nuclear sclerosis, and masses.
The ophthalmoscope is switched from a bright spot of light to a slit beam. This means the light comes out in a straight line. This is used to examine the eyelid margins as well as the anterior chamber. This light should pass through the cornea and aqueous and shine onto the lens. If there is aqueous flare which is when the light beam can be seen as if going through fog it means there is uveitis present. This happens when inflammation is present and proteins, blood, and other foreign material can make its way into the eye and the light reflects off this. The lens is also examined at this time for any abnormalities.
Finally the last portion of the exam is looking at the fundus. This is the retina, tapetum, optic disc, and vessels at the back of the eye. The size and shape of the vessels and disc can indicate disease. Another interesting fact is that the optic disc is the only place in the body that the CNS can be seen from the outside. You are actually looking at the end of the optic nerve which connects to the brain. I also use an indirect lens which is a small glass lens that is held in front of the animal’s eye and a light source is held at the examiner’s temple. This causes the fundus to be magnified greatly and it can be examined easier. The downfall to this is that the lens flips the image upside and backwards so you have to keep it all straight in your mind.
That is a fairly brief walkthrough an eye exam. It seems fairly basic and quick when you watch it but it is amazing the amount of information you can get from it. See if you can watch your vet perform one and try to remember what each test is looking for.
Central heterochromia, or “cat eyes,” is a beautiful genetic mutation in which the inner circle of the eyes are a different color from the outer. The “true” color, or the natural inherited color, is in the outer area, or the ciliary zone. (x)
I think I finally solved which color Christoph’s eyes are!
So, there’s this thing called heterochromia, and it is, according to wikipedia: “a difference in coloration usually of the iris but also of hair or skin”
there are different kinds, but central heterochromia is: “an eye condition where there are two colors in the same iris; the central (pupillary) zone of the iris is a different color than the mid-peripheral (ciliary) zone, with the true iris color being the outer color.” and it looks like this:
now, Christoph’s eyes looks like this:
so I believe Christoph has central heterochromia, which means his eyes are neither green nor hazel, they’re both! what do you think?