church of the land

A man seen lying and praying on top of the tomb of Jesus Christ, as thousands of Orthodox Christian worshippers take part in the Holy Fire ceremony at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, traditionally believed to be the burial site of Jesus Christ, in Jerusalem’s Old City during the Easter holiday. April 30, 2016. Photo by Hadas Parush

2

But if by chance you’re here alone, can I have a moment before I go? ‘Cause I’ve been by myself all night long, hoping you’re someone I used to know.

A Khajiit, Elf, Pixie, and Half-Orc fail to walk into a church

Context: Our 3 characters have been set on a mission to enter a church and steal the relic inside it. However…

DM: You cannot enter the church.

Nameless (our elf): We talk to the priest inside.

DM: Alright. What do you want to talk to him about.

Nameless: About why we can’t get in.

DM: “This church is protected by wards. Only people with pure hearts and no bad intentions towards the church can enter.” The priest says.

Nameless: Ok. I exit the conversation.

Trump-Tinyhands (the half-orc): So, we need a pure heart, right?

M'riqa: Holy skooma the half-orc half-understands what we need to do!

Trump-Tinyhands: Therefore I think that we should find someone with a pure heart, take their heart, and use the pure juice from it to make us seem pure to the ward!

Nameless: The guards already want us for trying to blow up this fucking church we can not risk this shit.

Ricky (pixie): Well if we get caught we’re getting sent right back to prison for life so I don’t see why we shouldn’t.

M'riqa: Fuck this plan. Ricky, take Trump-Tinyhands to the bar and keep him supervised. Nameless, give me a fucking boost up. I’m going to climb the church and enter through the chimney.

DM: Roll a dext- Actually no. Hand me that Jenga set

M'riqa OOC: Wait, what??

DM: If you can move 15 pieces then your character successfully climbs the church. If you can’t, you fall.

M'riqa OOC: Khajiit does not land butter-side down.

DM: Well then. All the more reason to not fail then!

Trump-Tinyhands: I offer encouragement.

DM: Roll charisma.

Trump-Tinyhands: *rolls a 2*

DM: You try shouting “YOU CAN DO IT!!” At M'riqa, but your booming voice sends tremors through the ground.

DM: *starts shaking the table while M'riqa is trying to do the Jenga challenge*

M'riqa OOC: THE FUCK ARE YOU DOING?!?!

DM: Blame the half-orc, not me. I’m just doing my job.

Some schoolkids might be happy if their school were knocked down.

Not in Nairobi.

On May 15, a group of primary school students sat at desks in the center of a main road to block traffic. Along with their parents, they were protesting the demolition of their school, the Kenyatta Golf Course Academy, over the weekend.

According to a BBC article, the schoolchildren chanted: “We want our school, we need to study in school.”

The reason for the demolition was a bit hard to pin down. Foreign Policy writes: “It appears the school was destroyed without any prior warning to parents — who had already paid their children’s tuition for the year. The school was on land that belonged to a church, and the school was destroyed without warning on Saturday over a land dispute, though exact details of the dispute weren’t made immediately clear.”

Why Are Kids Sitting At Their Desks In The Middle Of The Road?

Photo: Moses Muoki/Kenya’s Capital News

*My mother* “We should go see a film together. Make an evening of it. Look up something. Something we’ll both like.”

*Me looking up cinema listings*

“Fifty Shades Darker”

*Me* “Fuck if I am ever watching this film in person with my mother.”

*Moonlight*

*Me* “I’m keen to see it, but the ‘gay Muslim black guy trying to find himself’ thing wouldn’t play well with a strict older catholic lady who still goes to church.”

*LA LA LAND*

*Me* “I don’t care about this hipster nonsense.”

*LOGAN*

*Me* This is what, the 10th Wolverine movie? My mother doesn’t understand the Xmen timeiine. I don’t understand the Xmen timeline. No one understands the Xmen timeline.”

*John Wick 2*

*Me* “Oh, thank fuck. It’s just Keanu Reeves casually killing people and loving puppies. This will do.” 

MENA people really seem to not give a crap about ethnic and religious minorities within their region tbh. A lot of them cry about Islamophobia in the West (and rightfully so) but don’t really care that many Muslim majority countries pretty much treat non-Muslim minorities as second-class citizens. How Coptic Christians get treated in Egypt, for example, is awful. There is growing religious intolerance and a rise of sectarian violence. Many moved to the west as a result. Armenians and Kurdish minorities face persecution in Turkey, and there are still many political prisoners. In Iraq, the Shia prime minister pretty much only cares about protecting his own sect and disregards everyone else. Many Iraqis are also really racist against Kurdish people and see them as inferior, and often uphold the stereotype that they have low IQ and are not intelligent enough to be able to even run their own country, so that is often used to say that the Kurdish shouldn’t have their own sovereignty. In Saudi Arabia, they literally do not allow churches there, even though it’s the land of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) - he clearly taught that Christians and their places of worship should be respected. Lets not even get started on the anti-Semitism, and how under the ba'ath Saddamist regime in Iraq, so many Iraqi Jews were displaced and forced to move to Isr**l. Today there are only four Iraqi Jews living in Iraq.

When all of this is said, MENA people tend to scream “This is Western propaganda!” No it isn’t, sit down.

I found the promised land 
in an absent space, 
in the places where he is not 
and she dreams on

the corner of her mouth
haunts me, the way 
it ticks upward 
just before she leans in 
for a kiss


where her hips meet thigh
is an abandoned place,
the junction of not enough
and too much
for a heretic like me


I would worship in her valleys
and climb her peaks to sing praises,
but she is an empty pew 
in a church on a Tuesday-
she is not here


and I am not sure
I will ever know her
or God
when the promised land 
still feels like a hollow Amen

—  hallowing a memory || O.L.
Distant Hearts

Pairing: Tom Hiddleston x Reader

Word Count: 1159

Warning: Fluffffff

Tom was away on another movie shoot.  One of the downfalls of being so popular in Hollywood these days.  As much as you wished you were with him, you needed to work to pay your bills.  Not that Tom hadn’t offered to help you many times over the last year, so you could quit your job.  However, you loved being a nurse; you loved working with laboring mothers and their newborns.  It made you smile each and every day.  Though it did not help the ache, you had in your chest, every moment that you were away from him.  You had been dating for just over a year.  Meeting in the hospital when he had come to visit the children in the pediatric ward dresses as Loki.  It was an odd thing that you were actually down on the pedi floor helping a mother with breastfeeding of her sick two week old.

Tom saw you and he smiled. You were unable to stop the pounding of your heart when you saw him.  The two of you talked for a bit that day and before he left he asked for your phone number. After your first date it was obvious you belonged together. When you had the time off you would fly off to see him on whatever shoot or accompany him to the next premiere. If he were off for some amount of time, he would fly in to spend time with you, making you feel like the only important thing in the world.

Normally you were mostly all right with him being away.  Your bed felt cold but he would always call, text, or Skype with you daily.  Today was just a bad day at work.  It was one of the sadder days of your career and you wished more than anything Tom was there to hold you and tell you tomorrow would be better.  It was 9 pm and you were already in your pajamas waiting on his call.  There was a glass of wine in your hand as well; it was one of those days.  So there you sat watching a rerun of NCIS nursing the glass of wine.  You had been off in your own world when your phone started to vibrate.  The movement made you jump but you grinned happily seeing that it was Tom.

“Hey baby.  I am so glad you called.  I needed to hear your voice.”  You sighed relaxing back onto the couch .

“Hello, my love.  I missed you.  Are you all right? You sound a bit down.”  You had never been able to hide anything from him.  He could tell just be hearing your voice if something was off.  You frowned not wanting to ruin your daily call.

“It’s okay.  It was just a bad day at work, that’s all.  One of those days that makes it difficult to do what I do.  But I will be all right in the morning.  I am talking to you and I have my glass of wine.”  There was a silence on the other end for a moment.  “Tom?  Are you there?”

“Oh yes, darling.  Can I call you back in just a moment? Something I need to do quickly.” Now Tom was the one who sounded off.

“Sure.  Love you.”  

“I love you too.  I will call back I promise.  It will just be a few minutes.”  The line went dead.  You were not sure what was going on with him but you remembered he was in a time zone that was twelve hours ahead of you.  Meaning he was probably on the set at this point.  Feeling like an ass for taking him away from his work, you picked yourself up off the couch and headed into your bedroom.  There was another twelve hours of work ahead of you starting at ‘way too early o’clock.’  As you climbed into bed, your phone vibrated again.  This time with a Skype call from Tom.  You never minded seeing his face.

“Now what do I owe the pleasure of seeing your face?”  The smile on your lips growing to light up your face.  The love you had for the man never ceased to amaze you.

“I thought I could do something to cheer you up before you slept.  You trust me?”  You laughed.

“Of course I do.  What do you have up your sleeve, Tom?”  That signature laugh of his escaped as he looked like he was getting comfortable on a couch.

“Are you in bed? Looks like you are.  Are you comfortable and ready to sleep?”  Biting your lip, you snuggled down farther into your bed and pulled the blanket over you just how you liked it.

“Umm, yes.  I am now.  What are you going to do, tell me a bedtime story?”  Tom smiled at you through the phone.  Oh how you wished he were beside you.  Two weeks.  He would be home in two weeks and then you would be able to enjoy time with him.

“Something like that darling.  Now just lay there and listen. Ready?”  You nodded watching him intently.  His voice went low as began.

“Of all my loves this is the first and last 
That in the autumn of my years has grown, 
A secret fern, a violet in the grass, 
A final leaf where all the rest are gone. 
Would that I could give all and more, my life, 
My world, my thoughts, my arms, my breath, my future, 
My love eternal, endless, infinite, yet brief, 
As all loves are and hopes, though they endure. 
You are my sun and stars, my night, my day, 
My seasons, summer, winter, my sweet spring, 
My autumn song, the church in which I pray, 
My land and ocean, all that the earth can bring 
     Of glory and of sustenance, all that might be divine, 
     My alpha and my omega, and all that was ever mine.”

 

A tear streamed down your cheek as you remembered to breathe. Wiping it away, you beamed at the man through the phone.  “That was… it was beautiful.  Tom, thank you.  I love you.” He grinned from ear to ear.

“I’m glad you enjoyed it.  I meant every word.  I love you, my darling. It is Shakespeare’s In Praise of Beauty. I’ve wanted to recite that to you for ages.  Tonight seemed perfect.  I hope you are feeling even a bit better.”  You nodded to him with that silly grin still plastered to your face.

“I feel a million times better. Thank you.”

“Good, sleep well, love.  I have to go for now.  Call me when you wake?”  

“Of course.  I love you. Have a good day on set.”  Tom blew you a kiss.

“I love you too, [Y/N].  Good night.” The call ended and you were still smiling.  He always knew how to make you feel better.  You fell asleep not long after, dreaming of the time he would be home with you again.

@bol
flickr

Bamberg is a town in Oberfranken, Bayern (Bavaria) on the river Regnitz. Its historic center is a UNESCO world heritage site. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch, which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese. The purpose was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined. Pope John XVIII granted papal confirmation the same year. Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated in 1012. From the mid-13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In the 1200′s, the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran. The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld to the Franconian Forest, and possessed estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau (now Upper Palatinate), in Thuringia, and on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory was reduced nearly one half in extent. 

The witch trials of the 17th century claimed about 1000 victims in Bamberg - the famous Drudenhaus witch prison is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded. Bambrzy (Posen Bambergers) are German Poles, descended from settlers in villages around Posen in the 1700′s. When the secularization of church lands took place (1802) the diocese had a population of 207,000. Bamberg lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. It was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, which has been an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following WW1, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for 2 years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units. The first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg. In 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated its 1000th anniversary. 

Saint John the Baptist Church - Jordan River, Jordan

The church is located on the site believed by some to be where Jesus was baptised by Saint John.

“Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan to be baptised by him” (Matthew 3:13)

anonymous asked:

This might be dumb, but I had a question on the relationship between Burr and Monroe. Did they have a falling out? Because it seemed like they were friends at one point, being stationed together and Burr stopping Monroe from dueling Hamilton, but I remember reading a letter that Burr sent to his step son when Monroe was running for president basically saying Monroe was the WORST possible choice and that everything he ever did sucked.

The first thing ever found of a mention from Aaron Burr about James Monroe is that at parties at Valley Forge, James Monroe–who was an aide de camp for general Stirling–the primary duty of Monroe was to “fill his lordship’s tankard.” Stationed together, both Burr and Monroe became two of Theodosia Prevost’s “youthful admirers” (Isenburg 66); Theodosia was ten years Burr’s senior and twelve years Monroe’s. Monroe even wrote letters to Theodosia. The tone of the two men’s letters to the older woman were both echoing the same thoughts. 

Both Monroe and Burr held equally respectable positions in the Continental army–Burr was an aide to both Montgomery and Putnam and Monroe an aide to Lord Stirling. Both sported battle scars. 1776, Monroe received a severe wound during Washington’s raid of Trenton on Christmas day that went close to costing him his life. Burr’s health suffered when he succumbed to heat exhaustion at the Battle of Monmouth. 

During the 1790s, Burr was the “eyes and ears” to Jefferson, Madison and Monroe of the recently rising Democratic-Republican party. Burr ended up a large shareholder of the Pennsylvania Population Company and leader Nicholson relied on Monroe (who was involved) in his land deals. When Aaron Burr greatly lost the presidential election of 1796 to George Clinton (another Democratic-Republican) Monroe cautiously assured him that it was Burr’s youth that was costing him the elections. Though the Virginian had supported George Clinton, he still considered Burr an “attractive possibility”, adding to a letter to Madison, “I should not hesitate to aid Burr in opposition to Adams. If he could succeed, it might have its good effects and could not possibly do any mischief.”

They were both fellow Republican senators and they both made a point of befriending one another. Monroe’s respect for Aaron Burr also stemmed from his admiration of Theodosia and his respect for her. In 1791, Burr encouraged Theodosia to travel from New York to Philadelphia with Monroe, who like Burr, had to commute  if he was going to see his wife (Elizabeth Monroe lived there with her family). Burr, in turn, did favors for the Virginian. After Elizabeth’s father died, Burr represented Monroe and his wife in a case before the New York Chancery that concerned her father’s estate. 

After attacking Gouverneur Morris as ambassador to France, the senator from New York was now under consideration for a possible appointment as the next minister to France. Allies with both Monroe and Madison, it ‘twas them who proposed him for the job, though Monroe did raise concern when he learned that Burr’s old Princeton confidant, Federalist William Paterson, had expressed support for Burr in this instance. In the end, Washington selected Monroe. The two also led a campaign against Jay’s nomination to Europe. With Monroe abroad, Burr assumed a more visible leadership role among Republicans in the Senate. Both Monroe and Burr were in constant communication with one another, Burr forwarded newspapers and gossip, keeping the Virginian updated on the lasted developments on the national political scene. 

The two had strengthened their ties to each to each and  shared any mutual friends especially Albert Gallatin an immigrant rising star in American politics on the Democratic-Republican side. Burr had even suggested that his stepson, John Bartow Prevost, should act as Monroe’s personal secretary in France. Burr also worked closely many of Monroe’s other closest personal friends like Tazewell. Burr was introduced through Monroe to many others including Beckley’s agent James Swam, a Boston merchant who had met the Southerner in Paris and Monroe immediately introduced to Burr.  

Aaron Burr’s relationship with Democratic-Republicans was still growing stronger in 1797 and in June when James Monroe returned from his diplomatic position in France, Burr, in the company of Jefferson and Gallatin, came aboard ship to welcome him home. After his dismissal and ultimate embarrassment at being recalled by George Washington–then president–his political party held two dinners in his honor in Philadelphia and New York; Burr was present at both. 

In 1797, Alexander Hamilton in a fit of anger challenged James Monroe to a duel and Monroe was quick to agree with, “I am ready, get you pistols”. Burr was caught in the thick of it when Monroe asked him to serve as his second. At Hamilton’s confrontation and challenge, John Barker Church brother-in-law to the challenger was present. Burr had never been in a duel until the fall of 1799 when during a duel with Church, he survived when a bullet passed through his coat after the first fire (Hamilton had triggered the event by supplying Church with fake gossip concerning land syndicate purportedly offering a bribe). For whatever reason, while preparing for the second round, Church apologized, ending the duel. 

Burr, not wishing to have a duel of any kind, urged Monroe, “If you and Mulenburgh really believe, as I do, and think you must, that J. is innocent of the charge of any concern in speculation with Reynolds, it is my opinion that it will be an act of magnanimity and justice to say so in a joint certificate. To this, he also added, “Resentment is more dignified when justice is rendered.” Celebrating his reasonableness and generosity, Burr expressed a sensibility in him. To him, a gentleman had to be willing to admit publicly when he had wronged someone else. This was something Monroe and Hamilton alike refused to do (due to the fact that both believed they had done nothing wrong). The Hamilton-Monroe duel died a rather undignified death. From July 1797, when Hamilton appeared on Monroe’s doorstep until December of that year, letters changed hands. Burr refused to deliver several of Monroe’s angry letters, trying to keep it from escalating and was appalled by what he described as the “childish” behavior of both men. 

The challenge took a comical turn when neither men would take responsibility for their actions. This way, both Monroe and Hamilton convinced themselves they had not backed down; but it was a ruse, and everyone knew it. (After Hamilton published the infamous Reynolds Pamphlet, Monroe made Madison read the entire thing to make sure there was nothing insulting about him in it; but by this time Madison had grown tired of Monroe’s quarrel with Hamilton as well). In November, Jefferson and Madison organized a meeting of Republicans in Philadelphia to discuss what could be done. They consulted Burr, who concurred with the party consensus that the Hamilton-Monroe affair should end as quickly and as quietly as possible. The two men never dueled. This would not be the last time that Burr was involved in Hamilton’s “drama”. 

In a letter to Aaron Burr to James Monroe, Burr praised a man he had taken in as a prodigy, Burk. He even asked the Virginian to take the young man under his wing and protect him from any further prosecution after he had been sent to jail from writing in the press. Thomas Jefferson, frequently wrote of Burr to his own prodigy, Monroe. 

Over the many years, after the Democratic-Republicans turned on him and he was thrown from the Vice-Presidency and put on trial for treason, Burr wrote little of James Madison during his presidency though he certainly did not remain silent when he learned that James Monroe was next in line for the “throne”. In a November 1815 letter to his son-in-law, Burr launched into a wordful battle against Monroe, calling the man and his nomination “equally exceptional and odious.” Though Burr had equal hatred at this point for Madison and Jefferson, his real venom was bitten at James Monroe. He called the last president in the Virginian dynasty “naturally dull and stupid–extremely illiterate… indecisive… pusillanimous and of course hypocritical.” He was unsparing in his criticism of Monroe’s military career, observing that he had never “commanded a platoon nor was ever fit to command one.” He said Monroe was a sycophant. As the aide de camp to Lord Stirling who was “regularly drunk from Morning to Morning, Monroe’s whole duty was to fill “his lordship’s tankard and hear with indications of admiration his Lordship’s stories about himself.” This was damning stuff–and Burr was not even close to finishing. As a lawyer, Monroe was “far mediocrity” never rising to the “honor of trying a cause of the value of a hundred pounds.” But Monroe’s elevation, despite his lack of ability, was not anomalous, according to Burr. Rather his was a “character exactly suited to the View of the Virginian Junto,” which maintained itself on sycophancy, instead of recruiting men of “Talent and Independence.”

Burr hoped Andrew Jackson would beat Monroe to the presidency. This was the last account of something written on James Monroe by Aaron Burr. Monroe in his later years, never spoke of Burr, Burr had fallen out of his dialect and words around 1810 and he never spoke of him again. 

VOCAB WORDS

OH YA AP EURO MASSIVE SUMMARY

Ok so first this may seem scary but here are key terms and comprehensive definitions taken tom R.E.A’s AP Euro Crash Course edition book… so ya look at these and make sure you know at LEAST vaguely what each one means. Just for more credit they are literally verbatim from the R.E.A. book. No credit to me.

Key Terms—you have to know these

a.       Europe in Transition, 1450-1650

  1. Humanism: The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
  2. Christian Humanism: A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian Humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
  3. Vernacular: The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
  4. New Monarchs: European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
  5. Taille: A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
  6. Reconquista: The centuries-long Christian “reconquest” of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslin stronghold, Granada.
  7. Indulgence: A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.
  8. Anabaptist: Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of Church and State.
  9. Predestination: Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that Gad has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that “by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction.”
  10. Huguenots: French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
  11. Politiques: Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
  12. Columbian Exchange: The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.
  13. Mercantilism: Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. The favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
  14. Putting-Out System: A pre-industrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
  15. Joint-Stock Company: A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.

    b.       The Age of Kings, 1600-1789

  16. Absolutism: A system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power. Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
  17. Divine Rights of Kings: The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that “the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on Earth, for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon Earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself are called Gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers.”
  18. Intendants: French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. Intendants played a key role in establishing French absolutism.
  19. Fronde: A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. The Fronde played a key role in Louis XIV’s decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
  20. Robot: A system of forced labor used in eastern Europe. Peasants usually owed three to four days a week of forced labor. The system was abolished in 1848.
  21. Junkers: Prussia’s landowning nobility. The Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
  22. Scientific Method: The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
  23. Philosophes: Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
  24. Deism: The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
  25. General Will: A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
  26. Enlightened Despotism: A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known Enlightened monarchs.
  27. Enclosure Movement: The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.
  28. Agricultural Revolution: The innovations in farm production that began in eighteenth century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
  29. Physiocrats: Group of eighteenth-century French economists led by Francois Quesnay. The physiocrats criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade.
  30. Invisible Hand: Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to the self-regulating nature of a free marketplace. 

    c.        Revolution and Reaction, 1789-1850

  31. Parlements: French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
  32. Girondins: A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France’s borders.
  33. Jacobins: A radical republican party during the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobins unleased the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a Jacobin.
  34. San-Culottes: The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
  35. Levee en Masse: The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
  36. Thermidorian Reaction: Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of the bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
  37. Legitimacy: The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.
  38. Balance of Power: A strategy to maintain and equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
  39. Liberalism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century advocated representative government dominated by the propertied classes, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
  40. Conservatism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century supported legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches. Conservatives favored gradual change in the established social order.
  41. Nationalism: Belief that a nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language. Nationalists argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. A person’s greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.
  42. Romanticism: Philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth—and early nineteenth—century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. Romantic artists, writers, and composers stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.
  43. Chartism: A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s. Chartist demands included universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons.
  44. Zollverein: A free-trade union established among major German states in 1834.
  45. Carbonari: A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in the 1820s.
  46. Luddites: A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. The Luddites believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. The Luddites responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
  47. Utilitarianism: A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Bentham argued that his principle should be applied to each nation’s government, economy, and judicial system.
  48. Utopian Socialists: Early nineteenth-century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Leading French utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that the property should be communally owned.
  49. Marxism: Political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They believed that history in the result of class conflict that will end with triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie. The new classless society would abolish private property. 

    d.       Toward the Modern World, 1850-1914

  50. Second Industrial Revolution:  A wave of late-nineteenth-century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States. Both the U.S. and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.
  51. Social Darwinism: The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
  52. RealPolitik: “The politics of reality”; used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part. Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of realpolitik.
  53. Syndicalism: A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions. Syndicalists endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage.
  54. Autocracy: A government in which the ruler has ultimate power and uses it in an arbitrary manner. The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of an autocracy.
  55. Duma: The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905.
  56. Imperialism: The policy of extending one country’s rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination.
  57. Sphere of Influence: A region dominated by, but not directed by, a foreign nation. 

    e.       The “Second Thirty Years’ War”: WWI and WWII, 1914-1945

  58. Fourteen Points: President Woodrow Wilson’s idealist peace aims. Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade.
  59. Bolsheviks: A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
  60. New Economic Policy (N.E.P.): A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Economic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
  61. Existentialism: Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths. Humans must accept responsibility for their actions. This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish. Existentialism reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the twentieth century.
  62. Relativity: A scientific theory associated with Albert Einstein. Relativity holds that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.
  63. Totalitarianism: A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
  64. Fascism: A political system that combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy. Fascist governments glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties.
  65. Kulaks: Prosperous landowning peasants in czarist Russia. Joseph Stalin accused the kulaks of being class enemies of the poorer peasants. Stalin “liquidated the kulaks as a class” by executing them and expropriating their lands to form collective farms.
  66. Keynesian Economics: An economic theory based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. According to Keynesian economics, governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth.
  67. Appeasement: A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler. 

    f.        The Cold War Era, 1945-1991

  68. Containment: The name of a U.S. foreign policy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy. Inspired by George F. Kennan, containment was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance.
  69. Decolonization: The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after WWII.
  70. De-Stalinization: The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union. As carried out by Nikita Khrushchev, de-Stalinization meant denouncing Joseph Stalin’s cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West.
  71. Brezhnev Doctrine: Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they say needed. The Brezhnev Doctrine justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  72. Détente: The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Détente was introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon. Examples of détente include the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and President Nixon’s trips to China and Russia.
  73. Solidarity: A Polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz. Solidarity contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish government.
  74. Glasnost: Policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Glasnot resulted in a new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies.
  75. Perestroika: An economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Meaning “restructuring,” perestroika called for less government regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture.
  76. Welfare State: A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.