chromosome 2

Consider this: You can see less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum and hear less than 1% of the acoustic spectrum. As you read this, you are traveling at 220 km/sec across the galaxy. 90% of the cells in your body carry their own microbial DNA and are not “you.” The atoms in your body are 99.9999999999999999% empty space and none of them are the ones you were born with, but they all originated in the belly of a star. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, 2 less than the common potato. The existence of the rainbow depends on the conical photo-receptors in your eyes; to animals without cones, the rainbow does not exist. So you don’t just look at a rainbow, you create it.
—  NASA Lunar Science Institute, 2012
My class if full of the stupidest people I ever want to know. Here are some things they said over the year.
“Do we breath helium and hydrogen?”
“Can someone have 2 Y chromosomes?”
“Why can’t we end poverty by printing more money?” (This one needs to learn some history, specifically before WWII)
“What’s an ionic compound?” (Normally, I wouldn’t say anything, but we took a test on them the day before)
“Why do helium balloons float up?”
“How do we even know if dinosaurs were real?”
“Why are there 118 elements, what, 20 weren’t good enough?”
The Lore of Filthy Frank

Part 0: Before Chin Chin

On June 15th 2008, a college student by the name of George “Joji” Miller started a YouTube channel under the username “DizastaMusic” where he posted vlogs of him and his friends’ quirky lifestyle through the years 2008 and 09. At this point in time, the universe was in a stable, normal state.

Part 0.5: Omniverse

Joji stopped posting videos after “Never trust a horse.” Sometime between the years 2009 and 2011, there was an apocalypse caused by the arrival of a dark deity, that deity being Chin Chin.

Note: In the alternate reality of the show, the universe is some kind of multiverse (dubbed the Omniverse by certain characters) where everything is divided into multiple universes known as “realms,” which in turn are divided into dimensions. Planet Earth alone was divided into many Realms, but most of it ended up on Realm 6.2, which is where the majority of the videos take place. In the Omniverse, there exists an element named Chromosomes, which is a measurement of time, currency, and sustenance.

When Chin Chin arrived, he infected Chromosomes throughout the Realms. Most humans died, went into hiding or found a way to flee the Omniverse altogether, which caused most Realms to become abandoned.

Pictured: Pink Guy, the most iconic Lycra entity.

Most of the humans who decided to stay within the Omniverse were infected by Chin Chin’s chromosomes and mutated, becoming a species known as Lycra People, weird beings who cannot generate their own Chromosomes. Since any living thing in the Omniverse requires Chromosomes to survive, most Lycra People prefer to stay close to some unmutated humans, since they can generate their own Chromosomes by performing the most cancerous acts possible. Since Chin Chin now rules the Omniverse, he requires all of the unmutated humans to sacrifice a certain amount of Chromosomes to him every day.

Part 1: Filth

Pictured: two unmutated humans, Filthy Frank (right) and Pookie (left).

The two unmutated humans that the series revolves around are Filthy Frank and Pookie. Filthy Frank has befriended many different Lycra People who feed off of the Chromosomes he produces by performing cancerous acts on the DizastaMusic channel, after George Miller handed over ownership of it to him in 2011 after Chin Chin entered the Omniverse. Pookie is a cringey internet rapper and weeaboo so he produces plenty of Chromosomes for himself as well.

Pictured: George Miller under his identity as PinkOmega cooking some dumplings.

As for the original owner of the DizastaMusic channel, George Miller has gone into hiding, posing as one of the Lycra People to get by. He continues to follow his passion for making music under the pseudonym PinkOmega.

After his entrance into the Omniverse, Chin Chin would disappear for 2000 Chromosomes (approx. 2 years in Earth time).

Pictured: the first appearance of Filthy Frank on the DizastaMusic channel in 2011.

Filthy Frank used the DizastaMusic channel inherited from George Miller to generate Chromosomes for himself and his Lycra People allies by posting videos of him doing cancerous things on YouTube. These videos provided a Chromosome gold mine and as a result, many Lycra People set out to hunt Frank down for the intense amount of Chromosomes he was generating daily.

Pictured: one of the many villainous Lycra People Frank encounters in the series, Weeaboo Jones, hailing from Realm 9.12.

Part 2: The Return of the Dark Lord/The First Sacrifice

Pictured: The Dark Lord Chin Chin in his first physical appearance in the series.

2000 Chromosomes after Frank inherited the DizastaMusic channel (2013 in our time), Chin Chin reappears and demands Frank for his daily sacrifice of Chromosomes. Since Frank missed a day, Chin Chin abducts one of Frank’s Lycra allies, Salamander Man, and demands a ludicrous amount of Chromosomes in return. This leads into the first Chin Chin Sacrifice, where Frank reached out to his viewers in our universe for them to perform cancerous acts and sacrifice personal belongings to sate the Dark Lord.

Note: In the original cut of the first video Chin Chin appears in, Frank reveals he holds another unmutated human captive in his cupboard to generate Chromosomes for him on the side. It’s unsure whether this fact is canon anymore however, as Frank deleted this version of the video and reuploaded it with the Chromosome slave edited out on the request of one of his friends, who was unhappy with his portrayal in the video.

Pictured: one of Filthy Frank’s fans sacrificing the legendary 1st Edition Holographic Charizard Pokemon Card, which goes for $150-$274 on eBay currently.

After submitting his fans’ sacrifices to Chin Chin and Salamander Man demonstrating his Ass Flute skills, Chin Chin lets him go and returns Frank to his normal schedule of daily Chromosome sacrifices, with an annual mass sacrifice from his fanbase that would go on in 2014 and 2015.

Part 3: The Third Sacrifice/The Rice Fields/The Fake Realm

After the demise of Dade, one of the two Chocolate Men, in 2014 (3000Ch) as well as the annual fanbase sacrifice of that year, when the time of the 2015 (4000Ch) sacrifice came, Frank delivered them too late. As a result, Chin Chin sends Frank to Realm 0: The Rice Fields and transports all of Frank’s Lycra allies to a fake realm, with a fake version of Frank (the Frank in the Rice Fields will now be addressed with real!Frank and the Frank running TVFilthyFrank will be addressed as fake!Frank). real!Frank was carrying Salamander Man’s flute when he was sent to the Rice Fields, and upon playing it, Salamander Man finds him and is now trapped in the Rice Fields along with him. Together, they begin journeying out of it and back towards home.

Meanwhile in the fake realm, fake!Frank continues posting videos to a new channel, TVFilthyFrank as normal. Most of real!Frank’s friends are convinced by his facade, but Pink Guy and Red Dick, two of real!Frank’s closest allies, know what’s going on.

Pictured: Pink Guy and Red Dick making gourmet Sriracha Shrimp during Meme Machine.

Pink Guy and Red Dick come to the realization that in order to lead real!Frank to the fake realm, they must use the scent of Red Dick’s Sriracha Shrimp. They begin cooking it, and as planned, real!Frank and Salamander Man detect the scent and understand their plan. Both of them trek towards the fake realm now.

In the end of fake!Frank’s latest video, “I HATE VEGANS,” a vegan Lycra Person he encounters detects that he isn’t the real Filthy Frank. fake!Frank initially denies this, but gives up and says that “there will be a war.”

Part 4: Where We Are Now/Chin Chin Sacrifice 2016

This war fake!Frank alludes to is the event that will happen when real!Frank finds his way to the fake realm and confronts fake!Frank and Chin Chin. As the 2016 Chin Chin Sacrifice hasn’t happened yet this year, I have reason to believe that this confrontation will be the 2016 (5000Ch) Chin Chin Sacrifice.

Inspired from “My understanding of Filthy Frank’s lore.” on /r/FilthyFrank

anonymous asked:

Hi mam i was just wondering WHY would you say Trans dad when you are biologically a female your chromosomes consist of two X chromosomes so please just reconsider yourself.

Let me start off by saying that I have reconsidered myself. Quite often, actually! Every time I think about it, I become more comfortable in my identity as a transgender man.

I have a few things I would like to talk about with you.
Firstly, how do you know I was biologically female? Or that I have 2 X chromosomes? If you delve deeper into biological sex and chromosomes, you will find that it’s far more difficult than just XX or XY. Some people have three chromosomes, some have one. Some have XX, some have YY. Some people have XX chromosomes and develop male sex organs, or vice versa. It is inconsiderate, irresponsible, and frankly ignorant of you to have almost no understanding of biological sex. Do your research before you make a fool of yourself.

That being said, yes, I am biologically female. That is my sex. I encourage you to do us all a favor and look up the definitions of sex and gender. They’re actually quite different! Sex is biological factors, typically to do with chromosomes. Gender is a social construct that is entirely about expression. That is why I am a trans man. My sex is female, my gender is male. It’s as simple as that!

Lastly, I urge you to reconsider YOURSELF. I am happy as I am, and I don’t need to hide under the cowardice of anonymity to tell someone I disagree with them or their views. I am intensely curious as to what you think you will gain from sending a rather rude message anonymously to a person you have never talked with before. If you’d like to come off of anonymous, I encourage you to send me a private message. I would be more than happy to talk with you about this issue, as I know it is confusing and it might be too complicated to wrap your head around.

I do hope you reach out to me. Prove to me and my 2,500 adopted kids that you are not as ignorant as you come off as.
Mason Parker, also known as Trans Dad

I hope you never let people like this get the best of you. This person isn’t brave like you are; you share your identity, your hopes, your fears, and more with me, anonymously or not. You tell me your names and you make me so proud of your courage and perseverance. You come here looking for a community and looking for help, and you end up becoming a beacon of hope for so many.
This person isn’t brave enough to tell me anything about themselves, or even be willing to have a conversation.
I am so proud of each and every one of you! Always take things step by step and go through life with the grace these people don’t show you.
Love always,

harukaze87  asked:

Regarding why Furuta is one-eyed and Rize a ghoul, I'm thinking they bred ghoul/one-eye along ghoul/human. It could explain why Rize was special and what would theoretically result if Kaneki and Touka had kids for example

I assume this ask came as a reply to this post of mine [x].
I will reply to the second part of your ask in a separate post, as I will have to talk about Epigenetics. In this answer, I will talk about Genetics.
Since I am a geneticist and I am currently working in the field, I decided to use my expertise to explain and reflect on this suggestion of yours. Hence, I made sketched and explanations that I will include under the cut. I am not sure if Ishida-sensei bothered to look at some literature on Biology or Genetics when he started the concept of ghouls/half-ghouls/RC cells/ghoul types… but I assume he consulted basic references as his work seems to fit major guidelines in this field.

It’s useless to go into complicated stuff, so I will only stick to basic genetics. As such, your assumptions of Touka and Kaneki’s children is false.
Before I explain why, I will offer a short Genetics 101:

Because the story involves humans, then their genome (set of chromosomes bearing genes) is diploid (double copy of each gene). This is illustrated by this top figure. For every chromosome, there is a duplicate that looks like it. As such you have homologous chromosomes.

Each gene, say eye color, has 2 copies in the genome, one occuring on each homologous chromosome. However, these 2 copies need not to be the same. They can be different. Both belong to the same gene, and contribute to this gene… they are called alleles. Example: a Black Allele will give black eye color, while a Blue Allele gives a blue eye color. The eye color you see is called a phenotype (the outcome of the 2 alleles in a gene). Genotype is the set of alleles you have at a specific gene.

Here a bunch of useful terms:

  • Homozygous genotype: the gene has the exact same alleles: blue and blue.
  • Heterozygous genotype: the gene has 2 different alleles: blue and black.
  • Recessive Allele: the allele is weak and will not show the phenotype unless the gene is homozygous for this allele: blue and blue => blue eye color.
  • Dominant Allele: the allele is strong and can show the phenotype whether the gene is homozygous or heterozygous for this allele: black and black, or black and blue => Black eye color.
  • Codominant Alleles: both allele show a distinct phenotype when they are together in a heterozygous state: AB blood type (Allele A and allele B)

In the world of Tokyo Ghoul, and based on Ukina and Kuzen’s story, and the emergence of Eto as a one-eyed ghoul, the gene responsible for ghoulness has CODOMINANT ALLELES.

Keep reading

So I notice there is some confusion

to answer these

I have to dive into a lot of science and genetics that I would rather just have you look up yourself if you would like.

As for what I see this is the best I can do

Now mine is not this bad because I know that the green and red isn’t brown but I don’t see a difference in the colors that are there. So I only see one shade of green, red, blue, yellow, and I think there is a grayish color after the blues.

What sucks is that about 0.1% of the female population is color blind. This is because it is an X link trait so males only need 1 bad X but females need all 2 X chromosomes to be bad. I (a biological female) am color blind. My brother (a biological male) is not.

I hope this has helped!

anonymous asked:

My cis brother is 20 and already losing his hair, as well as really hairy bodyhair wise. I am really scared of taking T bc I dont want to lose my hair (its like the only good thing abt me) and I dont want extreme body hair but I wouldnt want to shave it either bc I do want some, just extreme would make me uncomfortable. Is my brother a good indicator for what I'd look like on T? Those traits def come from my fathers side. And also do 2 x chromosomes make hair loss more unlikely?

Kii says:

Two x chromosomes make hair loss more likely, because the gene for “male-pattern” hair loss is located on the x chromosome. The way your body hair and head hair is patterned on your brother might be an indication for how you will look, but it’s also possible that you will look nothing like that. There isn’t really a way to accurately foresee how you will look on T, because there are so many different genes that you could have gotten from either of your parents.

seelcudoom  asked:

alright but trans Xefros would explain why he was so happy Joey called him by his actual name


More proof: his quirk is reliant on X’s. The boys got 2 X chromosomes he’s trans also he’s gay

So I’m watching Hate Thy Neighbor on viceland and Jamali is interviewing a guy who is trying to tell the world that Asian people have slanted eyes and win gymnastics competitions because in the past their ancestors mated with cats.

1. That sir, is chromosomally impossible.

2. If that were a reality don’t you think there would be a lot of half men/half sheep combinations roaming the streets of Vermont?

I’m done.

“Before you judge others or claim any absolute truth, consider that you can see less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum and hear less than 1% of the acoustic spectrum. As you read this, you are traveling at 220 kilometres per second across the galaxy. 90% of the cells in your body carry their own microbial DNA and are not "you”. The atoms in your body are 99.9999999999999999% empty space and none of them are the ones you were born with, but they all originated in the belly of a star. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, 2 less than the common potato. The existence of the rainbow depends on the conical photoreceptors in your eyes; to animals without cones, the rainbow does not exist. So you don’t just look at a rainbow, you create it. This is pretty amazing, especially considering that all the beautiful colours you see represent less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum.“

The Holographic Universe


Mother Nature put on a show tonight.

“Consider that you can see less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum and hear less than 1% of the acoustic spectrum. As you read this, you are traveling at 220 km/sec across the galaxy. 90% of the cells in your body carry their own microbial DNA and are not “you.” The atoms in your body are 99.9999999999999999% empty space and none of them are the ones you were born with, but they all originated in the belly of a star. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, 2 less than the common potato.
The existence of the rainbow depends on the conical photoreceptors in your eyes; to animals without cones, the rainbow does not exist. So you don’t just look at a rainbow, you create it. This is pretty amazing, especially considering that all the beautiful colors you see represent less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum.” // We Originated in the Belly of a Star, NASA Lunar Science Institute, 2012

anonymous asked:

How does balding on T start? Does it happen below 3 months and is it likely to bald at sixteen when male on my mothers side started balding in their twenties? (My dad's side doesn't bald at all, js.) I'd really appreciate if you answered because it's the only thing keeping me from starting! Haha thanks dude. :)

I can’t tell you if you’re going to develop male pattern baldness, when it will happen, how fast it’ll happen if you develop it, etc. These are questions that no one can answer for you unless they’re a specially trained physician and even then there might be a lot of guessing. I can give you some information about MPB and I can tell you that trans men are no more likely to develop MPB than cis men, but that’s about it.

The single gene most strongly associated with baldness is on the X chromosome. Some have hypothesized that because the tendency toward MPB resides on the X chromosome, trans men with XX chromosomes must then have a higher rate of baldness, but this has not been proven and the second paragraph here explores that a little more. In fact, research has shown that not all of the baldness-related genes are on the X chromosome - there are 11 other genetic sequences of varying importance identified so far, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 17, 18, and 20. You inherited these chromosomes from both your mother and father, who inherited them from their mothers and fathers. All these genes interact in complex ways that we don’t completely understand to increase or decrease the chance of male pattern baldness. So simply having the baldness genes on your X chromosomes is no guarantee of going bald, and not having them isn’t a sign you’re safe either.

Everyone is always told to look at their mothers side of the family to assess whether or not they will go bald, but this does not apply to us. This applies only to cis men/people with XY chromosomes. They only have one X chromosome which is inherited from their mom, and a great deal of ‘balding genes’ rest on this chromosome, so if their maternal grandfather is bald then there is a good chance they will be bald. However we carry XX chromosomes - one from our mother and one from our father, so we have to look at both sides of our family. If the men on both sides of your family are bald, assume that there’s a good chance you will be too. If only one side is, consider yourself at a 50% chance, and if neither are, your chances are less. I say less because genetics only account for around 80% of balding.

This post is getting long, so for the short answer on how balding starts, it has to do with DHT - a metabolite of testosterone - and the hair follicles sensitivity to it. DHT causes the hair follicles to shrink, resulting in a shorter lifespan of a hair and abnormal production. If balding is a worry for you, you can discuss this with your doctor and have them assess your hair during visits to see if you are developing early onset MPB when you’re on testosterone. If this beings to happen, there are a number of treatments available to both block and reverse the effects. The main treatment are 5α-reductase inhibitors, which blocks the process of testosterone being converted to DHT. There are many options available.

Dear Transphobic Assholes who try to call themselves feminists.

Here’s why you’re not a feminist…

Now go sit in the damn corner until you realize why you’re a special kind of awful.

This has been a PSA. 

tsukinopen  asked:

What about Kaneki being associated with the sterile male calico cat? Eto might be sterile too considering the length she is going to create half-ghouls. Maybe the Washuu provide genetic material because half-ghouls are sterile and cannot mate with each other?

I haven’t heard of Kaneki being associated with the sterile male calico cat tbh. 
This association, genetically, is false. 

I will be using some scientific terms in the following which meanings can be found fully explained on here [x]

  • From what we know so far, the ghoul phenotype is not due to a sex genotype ie the gene(s) responsible for ghoulification are not found on the X and Y chromosomes. If ghoulification was associated with XY chromosomes, we would have seen different phenotypes.
  • Calico cats’s fur phenotype is due to a sex genotype, ie the gene responsible for fur color is present on a sex chromosome, the X chromosome. Humans and Cats are similar in that females have XX, while males have XY sex chromosomes. Because the gene for fur color is only present on the X chromosome, males have only one copy of the gene, while females have 2 copies. Many alleles exist for fur color, including Black and Orange. Because males only have one gene, and hence one allele, they are either black or orange. Females, however, can have both colors if they have an orange allele on one X and a black allele on the other X chromosome. 
  • Fur color is not a co-dominant character ie if the alleles were on different chromosomes, the female calico cat will not be both orange and black. The reason why female calico cats have both colors is X-inactivation, a complex mechanism present in all females whereby certain tissues inactivate one copy of X while the other tissues inactivate the second copy of X. Hence the tissue that inactivated the black allele on X1 will have an orange color, while the tissue that inactivated the orange allele on X2 will have a black color. This can be generalized to all genes and their alleles on the X chromosomes. Hence, although females have 2 Xs: XX genotype, their phenotype is due to all genes present on the X chromosome that was not deactivated.
    You can read more about X-inactivation on here [x] or ask me about it since I taught the concept to sophomore students at the university I am working at.
  • The only reason you will get a male calico cat is an abnormality. A male calico cat has XXY as sex chromosomes rather than XY. The male is sterile not because he’s patched (has black and orange color), but because he has 3 copies of sex chromosomes rather than 2, and so reproduction is not successful. Humans born with XXY suffer from  Klinefelter syndrome and they are sterile. 

Because Kaneki does not have any ghoul genes in his germ-line cells, he can reproduce normally as a human. See explanation at the end of this post [x] Nonetheless, since genetics is more complex than just partitioning of genes, Kaneki may be sterile for other reasons, and this may depend on who he is mating with [human, half-ghoul, ghoul].

Eto, on the other hand, is a natural-born half-ghoul. Her system is different than Kaneki’s, so are her genes and their behavior. Although I partitioned all possible offspring outcomes for the possible mating between ghouls, half-ghouls and humans, again in this post [x], natural-born half ghouls may be sterile. Indeed, the issue that you are raising is worth thinking about. It is odd that Eto did not try to have her own children. 

If we need to use an animal model as an example, calico cats are a bad choice, however mules are a good one. Mules are the offspring of a female horse and a male donkey. They are viable, but almost all of them are sterile. Sterility here is different from the sterility we know of. Mules do give birth but their offsprings die. Hence, a hybrid, the mule, is only viable in the first generation, while the offsprings of the second generation do not survive. This is also common to other animals. 
Here, the sterility is not due to having XXY chromosomes or less than 2 sex chromosomes. It is due to the fact that Horses and Donkeys are 2 different species with different sets of chromosomes and characters. One of the famous definitions for speciation or a species is: a population of organisms that can mate with one another and produce offsprings. Two organisms are no longer from the same species when their offsprings are non-viable. 
Humans and ghouls are different species. If Eto is indeed sterile, then this just confirms this conclusion. 

Eto obviously incorporated her kagune into many other ghouls. This incorporation is not mediated by mating, and it worked well. It was repeated with Kanou’s experiments using Kuzen and Rize. The CCG may be doing the same thing.

In very limited conditions, even if we assume Eto is sterile, some combination of genes and alleles may be just right to produce a single viable offspring. We are yet to see if this will ever happen. 

side note when jimin mentioned that calico cat thing lil cat fact for you nearly all calico cats are females (males are extremely rare, if there’s a male calico it means that he has 2 X chromosomes and one Y chromosome and more often than not they’re sterile) and i know jimbles prolly didn’t mean it literally (but what do we know anymore so like..) but if he did that means he is either a female or a v v v rare and sterile male just throwing in my useless two cents out there

Consider that you can see less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum and hear less than 1% of the acoustic spectrum. As you read this, you are traveling at 220 km/sec across the galaxy. 90% of the cells in your body carry their own microbial DNA and are not “you.”

The atoms in your body are 99.9999999999999999% empty space and none of them are the ones you were born with, but they all originated in the belly of a star. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, 2 less than the common potato.

The existence of the rainbow depends on the conical photoreceptors in your eyes; to animals without cones, the rainbow does not exist. So you don’t just look at a rainbow, you create it. This is pretty amazing, especially considering that all the beautiful colors you see represent less than 1% of the electromagnetic spectrum.
—  NASA Lunar Science Institute, 2012.
Genetic variant linked to better memory performance

People with a newly identified genetic variant perform better on certain types of memory tests, a discovery that may point the way to new treatments for the memory impairments caused by Alzheimer’s disease or other age-associated conditions.

In what the international research team is calling the largest study to date of human memory, an analysis of genomic data and memory test results from more than 14,000 older adults identified a location in the genome that was associated with better memory performance. The researchers noted that the gene has not been associated with cognition in the past.

The research team, led by IU School of Medicine post-doctoral researcher and medical student Vijay K. Ramanan, Ph.D., and Andrew J. Saykin, Psy.D., director of the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center and the IU Center for Neuroimaging, reported its results today in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

The genome-wide study found that better performance on tests of episodic memory was associated with a change in the DNA on chromosome 2 – a G instead of the more common A nucleotide in a gene known as FASTKD2. The genetic variant – known as a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP – was also associated with a larger hippocampus and more dense gray matter in the brain on magnetic resonance imaging scans. The hippocampus is a brain structure involved in storing and retrieving memory. The inability to recall a recent current event, a newspaper article or what one had for dinner is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and is also related to hippocampal atrophy.

The FASTKD2 gene is responsible for the production of a protein involved in apoptosis, a process of programmed cell death. The researchers also examined cerebrospinal fluid samples from 82 participants and found lower levels of proteins associated with cell death in the participants with the memory-protective G variant.

More research will be needed to determine whether drugs targeting the FASTKD2 gene could be used to protect against memory loss and related issues in Alzheimer’s disease, Dr. Saykin said.

“There is likely no single ‘memory gene’; we expect that memory is driven by a combination of multiple genes along with environment and lifestyle,” Dr. Saykin said. “Although the influence of FASTKD2 was modest, there are parallels to research in diabetes, cancer and hypertension that uncovered genetic variants with similar effects that turned out to be targets for drugs that are now commonly used.”