chromosome 1

anonymous asked:

What causes a corgi to be a fluffy

Fluffy is a standard Mendelian recessive allele (as is tricolor). It won’t be expressed unless you have two copies, one from the dam and one from the sire.

Different variants of the same gene are called “alleles”. Let’s call the dominant regular-coat allele “N”, and the recessive fluffy-coat allele “f” [recessives are usually denoted in lower-case letters]. You get one allele from each parent (unless it’s on the X chromosome; males get only 1 maternal allele because the Y is largely empty).

NN = regular coat [“homozygous dominant” for biology majors]
Nf = regular coat (fluffy carrier) [“heterozygous”]
ff = fluffy coat [“homozygous recessive”]

Medelian ratios:

NN x NN –> 100% regular-coat pups, no carriers (this result is CERTAIN; all following percentages are PROBABILITIES only)
NN x Nf –> 100% regular-coat pups, 50% carriers
Nf x Nf –> 75% regular coat pups (NN and Nf), 25% ff Fluffies. Medelian 3:1 ratio. It’s actually a 1:2:1 ratio: 25% NN regular coat (“clear”) 50% Nf regular coat (“carriers”), 25% ff fluffies
Nf x ff –> 50% Nf carriers and 50% ff fluffies
ff X ff –> 100% ff fluffies (this result is CERTAIN).

In real life, it’s more complicated because many alleles are imperfectly dominant or recessive. They talk about “incomplete penetrance”. F'rinstance, the sable allele is thought to be an incompletely dominant red-color allele that lets a little black show in sable/tricolor heterozygotes. The blackheaded tri allele is thought to be recessive to the regular tri allele, which itself is recessive to red.

But the 100% true and real answer is that FLUFFIES ARE AMAZEBALLS GIFTS FROM THE HEAVENS HERE TO BLESS US WITH EPIC MOMOS AND FLOOFY LOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOVEEEEEEEEEEE!!! Also, they don’t shed but a fraction of what non-fluff corgs do.  Just sayin’.

friskerart  asked:

I'm gonna add to the cat confusion. A calico is a cat with at least 3 colours and that must include white. Tortoiseshell is without the white, the same sex rules apply, you only get males when they have XXY chromosomes because the colour responsible only exists when 2 X chromosomes are present. With Ginger cats the reverse exists, there must be at least 1 Y chromosome for a cat to be a ginger tabby.

I never imagined my little horn comic would become such a lesson in biology haha (it’s interesting though..) so basically almost all calicos are female and most tabbys are male.

anonymous asked:

How does balding on T start? Does it happen below 3 months and is it likely to bald at sixteen when male on my mothers side started balding in their twenties? (My dad's side doesn't bald at all, js.) I'd really appreciate if you answered because it's the only thing keeping me from starting! Haha thanks dude. :)

I can’t tell you if you’re going to develop male pattern baldness, when it will happen, how fast it’ll happen if you develop it, etc. These are questions that no one can answer for you unless they’re a specially trained physician and even then there might be a lot of guessing. I can give you some information about MPB and I can tell you that trans men are no more likely to develop MPB than cis men, but that’s about it.

The single gene most strongly associated with baldness is on the X chromosome. Some have hypothesized that because the tendency toward MPB resides on the X chromosome, trans men with XX chromosomes must then have a higher rate of baldness, but this has not been proven and the second paragraph here explores that a little more. In fact, research has shown that not all of the baldness-related genes are on the X chromosome - there are 11 other genetic sequences of varying importance identified so far, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 17, 18, and 20. You inherited these chromosomes from both your mother and father, who inherited them from their mothers and fathers. All these genes interact in complex ways that we don’t completely understand to increase or decrease the chance of male pattern baldness. So simply having the baldness genes on your X chromosomes is no guarantee of going bald, and not having them isn’t a sign you’re safe either.

Everyone is always told to look at their mothers side of the family to assess whether or not they will go bald, but this does not apply to us. This applies only to cis men/people with XY chromosomes. They only have one X chromosome which is inherited from their mom, and a great deal of ‘balding genes’ rest on this chromosome, so if their maternal grandfather is bald then there is a good chance they will be bald. However we carry XX chromosomes - one from our mother and one from our father, so we have to look at both sides of our family. If the men on both sides of your family are bald, assume that there’s a good chance you will be too. If only one side is, consider yourself at a 50% chance, and if neither are, your chances are less. I say less because genetics only account for around 80% of balding.

This post is getting long, so for the short answer on how balding starts, it has to do with DHT - a metabolite of testosterone - and the hair follicles sensitivity to it. DHT causes the hair follicles to shrink, resulting in a shorter lifespan of a hair and abnormal production. If balding is a worry for you, you can discuss this with your doctor and have them assess your hair during visits to see if you are developing early onset MPB when you’re on testosterone. If this beings to happen, there are a number of treatments available to both block and reverse the effects. The main treatment are 5α-reductase inhibitors, which blocks the process of testosterone being converted to DHT. There are many options available.

super accurate zodiac signs !!!1!1!!!1 (99.81% accuracy)

Aries: breathes usually
Taurus: blinks with their eyes
Gemini: will die if they don’t eat
Cancer: is always an infant at one point
Leo: cant survive being thrown into sun
Virgo: exists
Libra: either has feet or doesnt have feet
Scorpio: has at least 1 x chromosome
Sagittarius: is reading this right now
Capricorn: dies at some point
Aquarius: has 2(to) drink water usually
Pisces: if alive they always have 1 brain (at least)

anonymous asked:

All of your GENETICS posts🔍👀👌👏💖 do you have other theories about their physiology or anatomy?Like why the sclera turns black when the kakugan is activated? why ghouls can only absorb nutrients from human raw meat, is it because of some enzymes?

This may end up being about genetics, so I am sorry if I sound so drown in this field, but all anatomical or physiological functions are dictated by genetics and genes. Without understanding the genetic basis, the physiology cannot be inferred.  Again, I am not sure how carefully Ishida-sensei thought this through, so the following is simply my humble opinion about the matter.

The Sclera

The sclera, the white outer coat of the eye, usually acts as a tough protective layer for eye, weakening the impact of injuries. Additionally, it provides attachment for the extra-ocular muscles [red muscles in the middle panel) that move the eye. 

Any change in the color of the sclera is usually a sign of disease [like Jaundice for example - the sclera turns yellow, signifying that the liver is dying].
I don’t think that is the case in Tokyo Ghoul. As such, any change in the color of the sclera must be a sign of a change in anatomy/function. 

Phenomenon: When the kakugan is activated, suddenly the sclera turns black. 

Possible Explanation:

  1. Actual change in color.
  2. Fake change in color.

My Explanation: Fake Change in color.

As the Kakuhou is activated, the whole body of the ghoul becomes alert. All organs undergo changes, including the eyes. The eyes are crucial for the ghoul’s awakened perception. The ghouls need their eyes to be extremely sharper as they fight their opponents. Hence, the eyes require more blood flow. This creates tension on the eyes and may weak them. To prevent so, the thick sclera thins and the underneath Choroid becomes apparent. The choroid has a dark bluish color. The eyes appear black. 

Now.. how does this work?

The first phenomenon to occur is the activation of the Kakuhou. It could be, and this is the case for most of human reactions, that when a ghoul feels threatened, certain physiological changes arise and they affect gene expression. This can be triggered by neuronal reactions. It can also be a conscious activation of the Kakuhou.

Keep reading

A Rare Disease That Takes your Bones!

A lot of people assume doctors know everything - kind of like how I believe taxi drivers know where everything is. However I think it is impossible for anyone to know the entire world of medicine. So I’ve always cut the ER doctors some slack when they finally have to ask my sister: “So… what exactly is TAR syndrome?”

Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome is a very rare disease caused by a mutation of the RBM8A gene. The gene codes for a RNA-binding motif protein used in many cells. The disorder can be caused by having 2 copies of the mutated gene - like typical recessive disorders. However most people with TAR syndrome have only one copy of the gene and a deletion of the other chromosome arm that removes the gene completely. 

Both genetic combinations cause various seemingly unrelated symptoms. These symptoms are not present in all people with TAR syndrome. There are only two symptoms that are always present in individuals with TAR syndrome. These symptoms separate TAR sufferers from other similar disorders and are where TAR syndrome gets its name. 

When the child is born the long bone of each forearm (the radius) is missing but the thumb is still present. This results in stunted and curved forearms, no wrist, and usually deformed hands. Babies usually have a surgery early in their lives to straighten their forearms and fuse the wrist bones to their other forearm bone (the ulna). This is done by inserting a metal pin into the forearm for an extended period of time. For many people the thumb is useless. Some doctors recommend removing the thumb and moving the ring finger to act as a pseudo-thumb. 

Figure 1: An x-ray showing the forearm of an individual with TAR syndrome. Only one bone is present in the forearm.

As the name implies TAR babies are born with thrombocytopenia - meaning low blood platelets. Platelets are important in the clotting process. These babies are prone to hemorrhaging and normally wear helmets to prevent a tiny fall from turning into a bleeding brain. Luckily most people with TAR grow out of this complication when they reach 2 years old. 

Other individuals may be missing their upper arm bone and ulna as well - their hands positioned on their shoulders. They may also be born with bowed legs and holes in their spines. Some individuals are even missing the small bone in their lower legs. Randomly, most people with TAR syndrome have a milk allergy. But symptoms can have much more severe results than having to drink soy milk. Many TAR sufferers also have heart defects and horseshoe shaped kidneys. These symptoms can lead to fatalities.

Figure 2: Horseshoe shaped kidney.

The effects of TAR syndrome are not only cosmetic but can also be disabling. However, I have never seen the “disability” of TAR syndrome. My sister finds her own unique way to complete tasks as do many individuals with TAR (just look on youtube!). Finding ability in their disability is one of the greatest strengths of TAR patients. 

Living with such a rare deformity makes people with TAR a prime target for people to stare. My sister avoids many places because she doesn’t want people to stare. Individuals will follow her through a store to get a good look.

I have always been fascinated by TAR syndrome - its interesting heredity and wide range of symptoms. Unfortunately its rarity and low fatality rate have resulted in few support groups and little information on the disorder (there isn’t even a hashtag on tumblr for it).The lack or research and knowledge surrounding rare diseases is frustrating for the patient and the family. Maybe in my research I will be able to take a look at what makes TAR syndrome tick!

“8 reasons why transgenderism is wrong, according to social media`”

1. “Your chromosomes are still the same, no amount of surgery will change that.”

Congratulations, doctor. You caught us. But we’re already aware of our genetic makeup. Doesn’t make anything feel more comfortable.

2. “Transgender people just have a mental disorder and need to see a doctor.”

Well the funny thing about that is, I did see a doctor, two doctors. An internist and a psychologist. They both agreed I should start hormone replacement therapy and have surgery.

3. “God makes no mistakes.”

I never claimed for God to have made a mistake. In fact, I believe quite the opposite. God is standing right by me through this journey as He stands by you through yours. He leaves no one, including me. You can’t change that, as much as I know you’d love to.

4. “We were put on this Earth for reproduction, they can’t reproduce.”

Well neither can Mr. Sterile-At-Birth over there, but he’s not an abomination. He’s got an unfortunate medical condition. See #2.

5. “Transgender people just trick other people into thinking they’re male or female.”

This isn’t a magic show. This isn’t a trick. If I plan to engage in a relationship and/or sexual activity with you, I would be an asshole not to tell you. Checking out your groceries however does not require me to divulge what genitalia I possess.

6. “I don’t want my children exposed to ‘those people’“

I don’t plan to take my pants off around your child for many more reasons than exposing transgenderism. If you’re telling your six year old that I should be defined by my cisgender, you’re the one confusing them. Not me.

7. “Surgery doesn’t make you a man or woman”

No, but it surely made me feel great. I’ve only got X amount of years to be alive, I’m going to enjoy the way I look and the way I feel while I’ve got the time to do it. And peeing standing up is so much more convenient.

8. “She’ll never know what it’s like to be a real woman. Carrying a child, having menstrual cycles, or facing the oppression of men.”

You’re right, she’ll never do any of those things to the degree that you’ve had to, but she sure is happier. Why do you want to take that away?

We know how we were born. We know the biological factors that make us not exactly the same. We however, are uncomfortable. We have seen doctors for this, multiple doctors, and they SUGGESTED these changes. I’m not on disability for this, I work for my health insurance that pays for my doctor visits, I pay for my prescriptions with my hard earned money, I go to college to better my career choices, and I treat all those I meet with respect. I was raised that way. I wasn’t raised in boy’s clothing or to believe that gender was optional. I was raised in a very normal household. I don’t know why I’m transgender, but I do know that I’m much more comfortable now, and there is no reason that should hurt you. If in fact I’m committing sins, I hope you’ll overlook them as much as I overlook yours.

I wish you all well.

A living replica of Vincent van Gogh’s severed ear has been grown and put on display at a museum in Germany.

Artist Diemut Stebe used 3D printing and DNA samples from a family member to create the ear with the help of scientists.

It’s now being kept “alive” in a tank of fluid and could “theoretically last for years,” Stebe told The Associated Press.

The organ is on display at The Center for Art and Media in Karlsruhe through July 6.

Stebe used DNA from Lieuwe van Gogh, the great-great grandson of Vincent’s brother, Theo, to create the ear after failing to to acquire genetic material from the deceased virtuoso.

Lieuwe shares a Y chromosome and 1/16th of the same genes as the famous painter, according to the International Business Times.

Van Gogh cut off his ear in 1888 and reportedly gave it to a prostitute, who was his lover.

26278) My mother confronted me the other day. I want to tell you why I got so fat, she said. She had EDNOS when she was a bit older than I am now, so I got curious about genealogy of mental disorders. There’s research showing connections from EDs and chromosomes 1 and 10, so they can be transmitted between generations just like bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. This isn’t your fault, just like your eye colour and height isn’t your fault.

anonymous asked:

If males get their coloring from their mother, how does that work with calicos and tortoiseshells?

exactly - this is why it’s extremely rare for males to be calicos/tortoiseshells

the X chromosome determines coat color. 

females have 2 X chromosomes - 1 from the mother and 1 from the father. females can be orange AND black, because they get both genes.

males have 1 X chromosomes - inherited solely from the mother. this means they can only be orange OR black

calicos come into play when a cat has white spotting from their parents, which basically “masks” the other coat colors. so a female can be orange, black and white, while a male could only be orange & white, or black & white. 

male torties/calicos are about 1/3000, and their genetic makeup is XXY instead of XY, which also leads to why most are infertile.