child's welfare

independent.co.uk
High Court judge rules Tory benefit policy is unlawful and causes 'real misery for no good purpose'
The Government has been dealt a huge blow as the High Court ruled its benefit cap is unlawful and illegally discriminates against single parents with young children. Conservative ministers are now likely to be forced to change or scrap one of their flagship welfare policies, which limits the total amount of benefits a household can receive to £23,000 a year in London and £20,000 elsewhere. The ruling was made in response to a judicial review brought by four lone parent families who said the cap would have a severe and disproportionate impact on them.

I can’t think of a single Tory welfare so-called “reform” that hasn’t been pointless (in terms of saving money) and nothing but a source of misery. All have caused fear, poverty, hunger, suicides and many other deaths. 

2

Genie was born in 1957 in California. Her father determined that she was mentally disabled and therefore not worthy of his attention or care. He isolated her from everybody - locking her alone inside a room until she reached the age of 13. While inside this room, he kept her strapped to a toilet or enclosed in a crib. Due to her isolation, she was incapable of communicating or walking when she was finally rescued by Los Angeles child welfare authorities on 4 November, 1970.

Her father would beat her with a plank wood each time she attempted to communicate with her family and would bark and growl at her like a dog to intimidate her - this instilled a severe fear of dogs which continued after she was freed. He even grew his fingernails; the sole purpose being so he could scratch at Genie is she ever “misbehaved.” After she was freed, she was often used as a case study for psychologists, linguists, and scientists.

Genie was sent into care and while there seemed to be a series of breakthroughs in the beginning, there were also major setbacks - she was exploited and also abused by those who were supposed to be caring for her - she was sent to an extremely religious foster care home in which she retreated and in 1977, she managed to tell a children’s hospital that her foster parents had physically punished her when she had been sick. Following this, her speech never recovered and nobody knows for sure what became of her other than she was sent to an institute for the mentally undeveloped in Southern California in 2008.

Some thoughts about the “DC sex trafficking ring” stuff spreading all over FB this week:

You know statistically, it’s very likely that missing kids are runaways/throwaways (50%), or that they’re reported missing due to a simple miscommunication (38%), or were taken by a non-custodial parent, which typically happens as a kinda revenge against the custodial parent (7%). That’s 95% of cases right there.

Underage people who run away or are kicked out have an increased chance of entering the sex industry, but a study conducted in NYC showed that extremely-few underage sex workers are even pimped: for some kids, doing sex work is actually preferable to whatever shitty things were keeping them trapped at home. I don’t wanna argue about the “ethics” of underage sex-working or whatever, it’s just a reality of what some teenagers do to survive in nearly-impossible circumstances.

Which brings me to another concern about how we ignore the systemic, and much more difficult to address, reasons why kids end up missing. It’s rarely stranger-danger, and more likely something like abuse (physical, mental, sexual, etc.), or a broken child welfare system, or queer kids feeling unsupported at home or whatever.

Politicians and law enforcement and whatever other opportunists love to jump on whatever new sex trafficking panic rears its head (which happens routinely in different forms) as a way to crack down on already-marginalized communities (poor ppl, poc, sex workers, illicit drug users). They arrest a buncha of adult streetworkers and massage girls, tossing em into the inherently-VIOLENT carceral system, and get pats all around for “at least doing SOMETHING”.

And ppl point to sketchy-but-more-benign magazine-salesperson recruitment posters and stuff as proof of trafficking (pix of which a number of folks on my feed have been passing around this week), thinking that that’s what trafficking looks like, just out in plain sight like that (believe me ive had some sketchy jobs like that and so have my friends but they were technically legal and non-sexual! There are tons of ways to economically exploit highschoolers that won’t get you thrown in prison bc “free market” n shit).

— 

-a woc friend who is shy and wants to remain anonymous.

but just a reminder: the stats around trafficking are deliberately vagued up by antitrafficking orgs who stretch the definition of youth and the definition of trafficked, but the info we have gives us no reason to believe that sexual exploitation numbers differ materially from sexual abuse and rape numbers; that is, two thirds of sexual abuse and assault are committed by people known to the survivor or even their family.

if you want to support kids and survivors of sexual violence, you need to be supporting the creation and funding of youth shelters, day centers, drop in centers, the renewal of RHYA and the inclusion of LGBT in the population services it funds, and a total overhaul of the child welfare system AND the DHS: adults in foster homes and developmentally disabled adults are exponentially more likely to be sexually exploited and abused than almost any other category of adult.

  See, this is the kind of Republican/Conservative bullshit that pisses me off!
  First, they think it’s impossible to care about more than one thing at a time. Like no one could possibly care about Americans AND refugees.
  But, the deeper issue – the issue they’re trying like hell to cover up – is that they don’t give a flying frak about our homeless children either! If they did, they wouldn’t be cutting welfare, food stamps, unemployment, and disability! They wouldn’t be fighting so hard against raising the minimum wage! They wouldn’t be cutting education spending – from pre-school to college! They wouldn’t be cutting money for housing! They wouldn’t be killing the Affordable Care Act (ObamaCare)! They wouldn’t be cutting funding for Planned Parenthood! They wouldn’t be cutting funding for veterans! They wouldn’t continually blame the poor for being poor! They wouldn’t be spending 8-14 BILLION dollars on a wall the majority of Americans don’t want, and most experts say won’t work, instead of helping either Americans or refugees!
  These hypocritical chuckleheads cry “America First,” but their actions have made it all too clear they don’t care about Americans either! Well, unless those Americans have the word “millionaire” after their name.

I want to know why people who think that sex work is bad think that sex work, the act of exchanging sex for something of concrete value, is so much worse than casual hookups, people having sex to procreate, drunk sex, breakup sex, sex you have because you want to feel closer, and all the other weird reasons people have sex–sex to just get losing your virginity over with!–so much worse than all these reasons and ways of having sex.

Talking to other sex workers and people in harm reduction, we keep encountering the idea that sex work is more “high risk” than any other kind of sex except gay sex.

This is demonstrably untrue, however. When sex workers are given the tools to have safer sex, we have exponentially lower rates of sti infection that the surrounding population of civilians of pretty much any age.

Sex workers need protections from civilians, not the other way around.

I understand that a lot of people think sex should ONLY be had in the context of a loving and committed monogamous romantic relationship, but relationships end. At a certain point (say, 2017) divorce rates and breakup rates and hookup culture all combine to make the censure of sex work seem truly hypocritical and ludicrous. So many people are having so many kinds of meaningless sex for stupid reasons, but it’s adult women, trying to leverage the one thing society agrees that we have of value, that need to be protected from themselves.

But take it to the logical legislative conclusions.

Can we really be sure that drunk co-eds can be trusted to make good decisions about who to have sex with? what if in two weeks they find out the person they were sleeping with was LYING to them and sleeping with other people? what if he was doing it without condoms? That’s pretty fucking rude and unethical, shouldn’t we protect young women from this all too common scenario? CAN we? what does that look like?

What about a couple having sex to get pregnant when neither of them is really feeling it but they both want a baby?

Under Oregon law, a stay at home housewife having sex with her husband who pays her bills and mortgage, is trafficked.

And it’s frankly shameful that people criminalise adults under the guise of concern trolling about sexually exploited children when they aren’t lobbying even close to as hard to a total reboot of the child welfare system–Texas’s CPS system recently made international headlines after human rights abuses so bad they make Minnesota’s or Oregon’s look fine. (I’m being bitterly hilarious, the abuses of different cps systems are never fine).
People are willing to support misogynist and racist abuses overseas and at home (TPP, H&M, Goodwill) and they’re willing to close their eyes to child abuse in the the very system made to protect them, but they love to jerk off to the idea of exploited people and being the magical white saviours of fragile exploited women and children. it’s this ONE SPECIFIC CONTEXT they love to circle jerk about.

They don’t give a damn about other kinds of slavery, they don’t publicise instances of it, they don’t organise against it, they don’t support sex workers trying to organise to aid vulnerable people. they genuinely JUST care about this one aspect of sexuality, regardless of how interconnected all misogynist and racist abuses are and the realities of survival under global capitalism.

I think it’s amazing. Just amazing. In one hundred years, nothing has changed except to become worse for poor people around the world, but the middle class is still more concerned about legislating adult women’s sexuality than real change that would protect vulnerable people.

Black History Month 2017

Planned Parenthood strives to create a world where sexual and reproductive health care is accessible, affordable, and compassionate — no matter what.

Black women have always championed reproductive freedom and the elimination of racism and sexism as an essential element of the struggle toward civil rights. This Black History Month, Planned Parenthood honors the resilience of Black women like Dr. N. Louise Young and Dr. Thelma Patten Law,  two of the first Black women health care providers at Planned Parenthood — and the resistance of women like Angela Davis who continue to fight for the full dignity, autonomy and the humanity of all women.

In commemoration of Black History Month each year, we lift up and celebrate those who have defied their time and circumstances to become Dream Keepers and freedom fighters. #100YearsStrong of Planned Parenthood could not be possible without the vision, tenacity and determination of those who have kept and protected the dream of reproductive freedom, justice and autonomy.

The 2017 Dream Keepers

Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Journalist, Civil Rights Activist

Ida B. Wells-Barnett was the most prominent Black woman journalist of the late 19th and early 20th century. Her research and reporting around the lynching of Black people helped to bring national attention to the crisis and pushed federal legislation to hold mobs accountable.

Marsha P. Johnson
Activist, Stonewall Rioter

Marsha P. Johnson, co-founder of the Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (STAR), is credited with being one of the first people to resist the police during the Stonewall Riots of 1969. On the commemorative anniversary of the riots in 1970, Johnson led protesters to the Women’s Detention Center of New York chanting, “Free our sisters. Free ourselves,” which demonstrated early solidarity between LGBTQ rights and anti-prison movements.

Former Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm
Black Feminist, Former Presidential Candidate

In 1990, Shirley Chisholm — along with former Planned Parenthood Federation of America president Faye Wattleton, Byllye Avery, Donna Brazile, Dorothy Height, Maxine Waters, and Julianne Malveaux (among others) — formed the group African American Women for Reproductive Freedom to show their support for Roe v. Wade, doing so with what we now call a reproductive -justice framework. The former New York representative was the first African American woman elected to Congress. During her seven terms, Rep. Chisholm pioneered the Congressional Black Caucus and was an unwavering champion for women’s reproductive rights and access to health care, including abortion. In 2015, President Obama awarded Rep. Chisholm with the Presidential Medal of Freedom Award.

Dr. N. Louise Young

Dr. N. Louise Young, a gynecologist and obstetrician, opened her practice in Baltimore in 1932. She later operated a Planned Parenthood health center that was opened with the assistance of the local Urban League and other community partners.

Dr. Thelma Patten Law

Dr. Thelma Patten Law becomes one of the first Black women ob-gyns in Texas. She provided health care for more than 25 years at the Planned Parenthood Houston Health Center, which opened in 1936.

Faye Wattleton
Author, Advocate for Reproductive Freedom, Former President of PPFA

In 1978, Wattleton became the youngest individual at the time and the first African American woman to serve as president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA). During Wattleton’s 14–year tenure, PPFA became one of the nation’s largest charitable organizations. Under Wattleton’s leadership, the organization secured federal funding for birth control and prenatal programs; fought against efforts to restrict legal abortions; and, along with reproductive health allies, helped to legalize the sale of abortion pill RU-486 in the United States.

The Coiners of Reproductive Justice

Black women’s existence has inherently challenged the “choice vs. life” argument. However the creation and coining of reproductive justice ushered in a new framework where women of color could express all of the ways their sexual and reproductive autonomy is systemically limited.

Dr. Dorothy Roberts
Author, Scholar, Professor

Dorothy Roberts is an acclaimed scholar of race, gender and the law. Her books include Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-first Century (New Press, 2011); Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare (Basic Books, 2002), and Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty (Pantheon, 1997) — all of which have shaped and informed scholarship around reproductive justice.

@DorothyERoberts


Monica Roberts
Historian, Founder and Editor-In-Chief of TransGriot

Monica Roberts, aka the TransGriot, is a native Houstonian and trailblazing trans community leader. She works diligently at educating and encouraging acceptance of trans people inside and outside the larger African-American community and is an award-winning blogger, history buff, thinker, lecturer and passionate advocate on trans issues.


Dr. Iva Carruthers
Past President of Urban Outreach Foundation, General Secretary of the Samuel DeWitt Proctor Conference

Carruthers uses her ministry as a vehicle for addressing social issues, particularly those involving people of African descent both in the United States and abroad. She is past president of the Urban Outreach Foundation, a nonprofit, interdenominational organization that assists African and African-American communities with education, health care, and community development.

@IvaCarruthers



Rev. Dr. Alethea Smith-Withers
Founder and Pastor; The Pavilion of God, Washington, DC; and Chair of the Board of Directors for Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice

Rev. Smith-Withers has been an active advocate for reproductive justice for many years. She is currently serving as the chair of the board of directors of Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice (RCRC). She is the founder and pastor of The Pavilion of God, a Baptist Church in DC.  She hosts “Rev UP with Rev. Alethea”, a BlogTalkRadio show.

@RevAlethea


Rev. Dr. Susan Moore
Associate Minister at All Souls Church Unitarian

Dr. Moore’s ministry has focused upon the challenges facing urban America. An HIV/AIDS and teen pregnancy prevention educator and trainer, she has worked with several community and faith-based groups, including the DC Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Planned Parenthood, and AIDS Action Foundation. She actively advocates for a national, coordinated AIDS strategy to reduce racial disparities, lower the incidence of infection, increase access to care, and involve all stakeholders.


Bevy Smith
CEO and Founder of Dinner with Bevy

A Harlem native and New York fashion fixture, Smith is outspoken about women’s empowerment and social justice. She gives back by connecting and engaging a network of top leaders to promote social change.

@bevysmith


Mara Brock Akil
Screenwriter and producer and founder of Akil Productions

Mara Brock Akil is the co-creator of hit TV shows Girlfriends, The Game, and Being Mary Jane.  She is a tireless advocate of women’s health and rights.

@MaraBrockAkil


Tracy Reese
American fashion designer

Relentless PPFA supporter, Reese is a board member of the Council of Fashion Designers of America.

@Tracy_Reese


Kimberlé W. Crenshaw
Scholar, Professor at the UCLA and Columbia Schools of Law

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw is a feminist scholar and writer who coined the term “Intersectionality.” Kimberlé  is the co-founder of the African American Policy Forum, which developed seminal research on Black women and girls and the school-to-prison pipeline and policing, including, respectively: “Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected” and “Say Her Name.”

@SandyLocks

Angela Peoples
Co-Director of GetEqual

Serving as the Co-Director of GetEqual, Angela is working to ensure that Black lives and gender justice is a guiding force in LGBTQ work.

@MsPeoples


Jazmine Walker
Reproductive Justice Leader

Jazmine is a big fine woman who specializes in reproductive justice and agricultural economic development.

Her dedication to public scholarship and activism is driven by a passion to amplify feminist and reproductive justice discourse around Black women and girls, especially those in Mississippi and the broader South.


Amandla Stenberg
Actress, Author

This Black queer feminist makes us look forward to the next generation of feminist leaders and thinkers.

Her YouTube video, “Don’t Cash Crop My Cornrows,” clapped-back against the cultural appropriation of Black fashion and style and won our hearts.

@amandlastenbergs


Charlene A. Carruthers
National Director for Black Youth Project 100

Political organizer Carruthers is building a national network and local teams of young Black activists.  She is committed to racial justice, feminism, and youth leadership development.

@CharleneCac


Monica Simpson
Executive Director of SisterSong National Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective

At SisterSong National Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective, Simpson works to amplify and strengthen the collective voices of indigenous women and women of color to ensure reproductive justice through securing human rights. She has organized extensively against the systematic physical and emotional violence inflicted upon the minds, bodies, and spirits of African Americans with an emphasis on African-American women and the African-American LGBT community.

@SisterSong_WOC


Deon Haywood
Executive Director, Women With A Vision, Inc.

Haywood works tirelessly to improve quality of life and health outcomes for marginalized women of color.  Since Hurricane Katrina, Haywood has led Women With a Vision, a New Orleans-based community organization addressing the complex intersection of socio-economic injustices and health disparities.  

@WWAVinc


Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee
Congresswoman, D-TX 18th District

Congresswoman Jackson Lee has been a staunch supporter of Planned Parenthood and women’s health.

This year she has become a valuable champion as a member of the House Judiciary Committee, where she was vocal at both hearings displaying a clear understanding of the important role Planned Parenthood health centers play in the communities they serve. She also came to the floor on several occasions and attended a Planned Parenthood’s press conference, lending her voice in the fight against backwards legislation.

@JacksonLeeTX18


Del. Stacey Plaskett
Congresswoman, D-US-VI

Delegate Stacey Plaskett became a supporter of Planned Parenthood this year when she spoke out for Planned Parenthood health center patients during a Oversight and Government Reform hearing, where she is a member, commenting that she would like a Planned Parenthood health center in the Virgin Islands.

@StaceyPlaskett


Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton
Congresswoman, D-DC

As a fierce, passionate, Black feminist and reproductive health advocate, Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton has supported Planned Parenthood unwaveringly. She also sponsored the EACH Woman Act and, in 2015, held an event with young women on abortion access.

@EleanorNorton


Rep. Joyce Beatty
Congresswoman, D-OH 3rd District

Rep. Beatty has been an active supporter of women’s health during her tenure in Congress, cosponsoring legislation, signing onto pro-letters and always voting in the interest of women’s health.


Rep. Maxine Waters
Congresswoman, D-CA 43rd District

Since arriving in office in 1990, Rep. Waters has voted in the best interest of the health of women and communities of color, making a career of addressing these issues by closing the wealth gap.    

I can say very definitively that race is an invented political system; it is not a natural biological condition of human beings. The human species is a single race. It is not biologically divided up into distinguishable races.  - Dorothy E. Roberts (b. March 8, 1956) 

She is an internationally recognized scholar, public intellectual, and social justice advocate, she has written and lectured extensively on the interplay of gender, race, and class in legal issues and has been a leader in transforming public thinking and policy on reproductive health, child welfare and bioethics.

anonymous asked:

I have this friend/acquaintance of less than a year who is Hispanic like me and doesn't believe in Black lives matter. She is an "all lives matter" person. Her argument is, why do black people have to exclude themselves? Native americans, muslims, and Hispanics are also discriminated against. My question is, do you think I should continue to talk some sense to her or should I just stop talking to her and being her friend altogether? I would really value your input.

Well, you are not responsible for your friend’s willful ignorance. And yes, it is willful. But if you want to help a sista out, I assume she can read and use google. That’s literally all it takes–0.65 fucking seconds.

What is it about BLM that offends people? Should marginalized people make no efforts to strive towards equality and fairness?? Historically, it’s effective to have groups that target civil rights protections of specific groups in addition to groups that broadly address everyone’s civil rights. The more, the merrier. 

For example, targeted representation, in no particular order:

  • League of United Latin American Citizens? National Council of La Raza? Hispanic lives matter.   
  • Asian American Justice Center? Asian American Institute? Asian lives matter.
  • Anti-Defamation League? American Jewish Committee? Jewish lives matter.  
  • American Arab Anti Discrimination Committee? Council on American Islamic Relations? Muslim lives matters.
  • American Indian Movement? Native American Rights Fund? Indigenous lives matter.
  • National Organization for Women? League of Women Voters? Women’s lives matter.
  • Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)? Human Rights Campaign? Queer lives matter. 
  • Children’s Defense Fund? Children’s Advocacy Center? Kid’s lives matter.
  • International Organization for Migration? National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights? Immigrant lives matter.
  • American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today (ADAPT)? American Association of People with Disabilities? Disabled lives matter.

It needs to be understood that like Black Lives Matter, none of these groups is about exclusion. They’re about all of these marginalized groups right to INCLUSION, PROTECTION and EQUALITY. None would exist if the white male supremacy of the establishment hadn’t taken very deliberate actions across history to block our civil rights. 

Does your friend know literally anything about history? How about current events? Does she care to understand, contextualize and THEN form an EDUCATED opinion?

Examples of what these groups have fought/are fighting against:

And to reiterate:

Also, friendly reminder:

I’ll be fine.“ – For caregivers, it may translate to: I’ll be functional. I’ll be productive. I’ll make sure that life continues on as normal. I’ll be strong and people will see my strength.  I’ll be the rock. I’ll be the touchstone. Because I am the safety net and I cannot have holes; lest someone fall to me in the wrong moment and I fail them.

But just like nets, I may need minor repairs. I may need another pair of eyes to watch and see where I am wearing thin. I don’t need you to fix me. I just need you to help me recognize my own damage.

—  “Someone Else’s Rock” - The book I’ve titled but might never write.
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[170531][Child Welfare & Protection week]
✩ Fanacc: A child asked Weizhou, “Are you a singer?” and he said yes. Then she asked why she hadn’t seen him on TV before? Zhouzhou said he had no way, but he’d (appear on TV) in the future.

→ Glad to see my warm-hearted baby kitten doing charity work ♡ You’ll be appearing on TV soon cuz you really deserve it bae

Department of Children and Families

Originally posted by ilskan

Between Harry being locked in a cupboard, Tom Riddle in an Orphanage, and Merope Gaunt being raised in squalor and being prepped for a life of incest, HOW THE FUCK DOES THE MINISTRY NOT HAVE A DEPARTMENT OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES?!?!? I mean, if they can have every magical child’s name on a list, shouldn’t someone be checking up on them? Come on Minister Granger. If I heard you’d started a house elf protection agency and not a child wizard protection agency, I’m going to be so disappointed in you. For fucks sake. You have a misuse of Muggle artifacts office but you don’t have child welfare.

Transracial adoption first became a controversial issue in the early 1970s. A heated public debate occurred about the transmission of Afri­can American cultural identity to Black children adopted into White middle-class families. The central question in these debates was whether or not White parents were capable of teaching their children African American culture and history, and inculcating them with the skills necessary for Blacks to survive in the racially unequal United States. Con­cerns over the transmission of identity have shaped public opinion and social policies regarding racial matching between children and parents since the 1970s. Transracial adoption became a contentious public issue after the National Association of Black Social Workers (NABSW) released a position paper in 1972 stating their opposition to the practice, citing their concerns about racial identity and survival skills as the basis of their objections (NABSW 1972).

The Black social workers’ critique of the ways Black children were treated in the child welfare system was a contestation of state-sanctioned regulations determining which families African American children would become part of, and thus be socialized by. Their protests against transra­cial adoption were largely motivated by a concern for the futures of African American children and a desire to strengthen Black families, and were often politically grounded in Black nationalism. Policy changes re­flecting these concerns gradually occurred at the state, county, and agency levels. While standards varied in different regions, in most areas of the country adoption agencies became committed to the goal of racial matching whenever possible. Many states drew up regulations governing how long agencies could spend searching for same-race placements.


Transracial adoption receded from public debate later in the 1970s, and received very little media attention until the early 1990s when it once again became the subject of fierce public discussion. While argu­ments against this practice continued to focus on racial identity, the political context of the 1990s had changed. Whereas in the earlier debate attention was focused on the importance of racial matching between children and parents, in the current political climate the debate has led to new federal policies promoting “color-blind” adoptions by prohibiting the consideration of race in the adoptive placement of a child. The public discourse concerning this issue goes beyond the specificity of transracial adoptees’ lives. Indeed, this policy dialogue has implications for political struggles over teenage pregnancy, “ille­gitimacy,” and welfare reform.


While the current public dialogue is explicitly concerned with issues of race, the linkage of transracial adoption with welfare reform, tax credits to adoptive parents, and the termination of (birth) parental rights reveals a more implicit agenda focusing on women. In fact, the 1996 law was explicitly designed to combat “illegitimacy” among wel­fare recipients. In a political context dominated by proponents of tra­ditional “family values” as the solution to the supposed “breakdown of the family,” celebrations of adoption as a panacea to the “epidemic of illegitimacy” among “underclass” women and the misfortune of infertility among primarily middle-class heterosexual couples must be viewed critically. This political dialogue sounds disturbingly similar to early-twentieth-century eugenic prescriptions for strengthening the White race by limiting the reproductive capacities of “undesirables”— namely, Black women, immigrant women, “imbeciles,” and “im­moral” women. In the shifting political alliances and commitments of the 1990s and beyond, adoption has become a curious battleground on which the social meanings of race and identity, gender and family, work and poverty, culture and nation are being constructed, contested, and enforced.

—  Sandra Patton, Birthmarks: Transracial Adoption in Contemporary America (2000).