chief jackson

I realize that when most people think about interpreters, they either confuse them with translators or just imagine them as boring people who sit in a box all day and repeat the boring speeches politicians give at conferences. Somehow I doubt that most people have ever thought about how important interpreters have been for the way we communicate and how the world today would not be the same without them. And I also doubt that people have ever viewed interpreters as badass or as heroes. Therefore, I’d like to tell you about:

The Interpreters at the Nuremberg Trials

I guess most of you already know what the Nuremberg Trials were, but here’s a short explanation for those who don’t: The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after the Second World War. They took place in the city of Nuremberg and they were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the Nazi leadership. As the people involved with the trial were American, British, French, German and Russian, it had to be conducted in four different languages. Which is why they needed interpreters.

I recently went to an exhibition about those interpreters and even though it was a really small one, it was super impressive- because of what I learned about them.

Here are some of the most interesting and impressive facts:

·         Before the Nuremberg Trials, simultaneous interpreting did not exist. Before the trials, people believed that the human brain was not capable of something like that. The simultaneous interpreting equipment used for the trials was the very first of its kind.

In this video you can see a demonstration of the simultaneous interpreting system. Later you can also hear some of the interpreters’ interpretations:

·         None of the interpreters had ever worked as a simultaneous interpreter before. (The reason was, of course, that this profession had not existed before the trials.) Some were translators, consecutive interpreters or linguists, and others were ordinary people who had grown up bilingually, or people who had fled from Germany before the war and lived abroad for a while. The bar was set very high and they had to pass difficult and complex tests, including mock trials, before they were allowed to interpret at the tribunals. Since none of them had any kind of experience with simultaneous interpreting, they had to train themselves in a very short time.

·         Without simultaneous interpreting, the Nuremberg Trials would have taken much longer or might not even have been possible at all. Before the trials, only consecutive interpretation was used. (With consecutive interpretation, the speaker stops every few minutes and the interpreter repeats what he said in the target language.) Since there were four court languages (English, German, French and Russian), using this interpreting technique would have prolonged the trials significantly. As the Cold War started soon after the end of the tribunals, it is unclear whether they could have been finished, had they taken any longer.

·         Simultaneous interpreters were not the only language professionals working at the trials. If a witness spoke neither of the four court languages, consecutive interpreters were brought in to interpret their testimony- which was then interpreted again by the simultaneous interpreters. There were also interpreters sitting behind the judges to help them communicate. The American and the British judge were seated next to each other, so they could exchange their thoughts, but if they wanted to talk to the French and Russian judge, they needed the help of their interpreters. Translators also worked at the trials. They translated the notes taken by the court reporters in shorthand. These translations were then compared to recordings of the simultaneous interpreters’ interpretations, to make sure that they hadn’t made any mistakes which could influence the outcome of the trials.

·         In total, the team consisted of approximately 50 interpreters, 200 translators and 100 people who compared the interpretations with the court reporters’ shorthand. Of course, this generated a lot of paperwork. One photo taken by the American military photographer Ray D’Addario shows employees in the court’s document room standing literally ankle-deep in translation paperwork.

·         Interpreters at the trials worked 85 minute shifts on their own. (In contrast, simultaneous interpreters today work in teams of two and take turns in shifts of up to 30 minutes.)

·         Sometimes, interpreters were not able to finish their shift- not because of exhaustion, but because they could no longer handle the psychological strain and could no longer force themselves to listen to what was being said. The trials dealt with the worst atrocities committed by the Nazis- war crimes, genocide, mass murder and crimes against humanity. Many interpreters had to be replaced -either because they left or because they returned to the translation department- and later many said that they had nightmares because of those trials. One interpreter, however, also said that he didn’t really catch all the details of what was being said, because he was always way too focused on getting the grammar and the vocabulary right. (And yes, that happens. A lot.)

·         One of the most famous photos of an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials does not actually depict an interpreter. The photo in question shows a young woman in a red suit wearing headphones and explaining the simultaneous interpreting system to the press. However, she was not actually an interpreter, but a lawyer’s secretary. The reason she was chosen as a model for this photo was that she always had the most fashionable suits, because her mother was a tailor.

·         Interpretations and Translations could influence the outcome of the trials. The fact that recordings of simultaneous interpretations were checked against the translations of the court reporters’ shorthand limited the risk of communication mistakes, but could not eliminate it completely. Many Nazis, like Göring for instance, tried to use this to their advantage- which, of course, put the interpreters under immense pressure to get everything exactly right. Richard W. Sonnenfeldt, the lead interpreter for the prosecution, remembered Göring asking him: “Could you find me a good lawyer? Although I might need a good interpreter even more than a lawyer.” After the trials, some defendants claimed that they had only been found guilty because of translation or interpretation mistakes. Interpretation or translation mishaps could also negatively affect the prosecution, though. A mistranslation of the word “Freimachung” (translated with “liberation” instead of “clearing”) caused a big problem for chief prosecutor Robert H. Jackson during his first confrontation with Göring in court. Of course, some words also have more than one meaning. And sometimes, one meaning was more incriminating than the other. Those words quickly became bones of contention.

More about the equipment

·         Unlike interpreters today, the interpreters at the Nuremberg Trials did not have soundproof booths. Therefore, they had to be careful to not be distracted by ambient noise all the time. Their booths were nicknamed “the aquarium” because they were made of glass. However, those booths were not even closed glass boxes. There was one big glass panel in front of them, and smaller glass panels were used to separate the booths. The headphones were not soundproof either, and probably also not very comfortable.

·         Everyone had to wear headphones, except for the guards. There were more than 300 headphones in the court room at all times.

·         Each interpreter had a sign which said “slow”. They would hold it up if they wanted the speaker to talk more slowly. If a speaker did not see this (or ignored it), either the interpreters or a technician could push buttons which would light up differently coloured lights on the speaker’s table. The orange light told the speaker to slow down and the red light was a signal that there was a technical problem and the session had to be suspended until this problem was fixed.

What influence did those interpreters have on the future?

·         Together with other interpreters who worked at the trials, Colonel Léon Dostert, the head of the interpreters at the tribunals, founded the United Nations Interpretation Service. The technology used in Nuremberg became the basis of modern interpreting technology and ever since the Nuremberg Trials, simultaneous interpreting has become an integral part of international politics and diplomacy. Without simultaneous interpreting, international institutions like the UN, NATO, the EU or the WTO would look completely different today.

These interpreters did something that was considered to be impossible before the Nuremberg Trials. People believed that the human brain was not capable of simultaneous interpretation and yet those interpreters did it. In a short time, they taught themselves how to do it. They worked with newly developed equipment that was far from perfect: Uncomfortable headphones, people tripping over cables and no soundproof booths. They worked shifts which were nearly three times as long as shifts today, and all the time they had to listen to descriptions of the horrific atrocities committed by the Nazis. But even though they were constantly faced with these horrors, even though they were under immense pressure- the interpreters, translators, and other language professionals involved with the trials still did their job. They all put themselves through immense stress, psychological strain and possibly trauma, to make the trials happen and to make sure that Nazi war criminals received the punishment they deserved. Without those interpreters and translators, it would not have been possible. The simultaneous interpreters in particular were pioneers of their profession. Without them, simultaneous interpreting might not even exist. And without simultaneous interpreting, international institutions like the UN or the EU would look completely different today. The world might look completely different, too. After all, during the Cold War, fast communication with people who spoke different languages was essential. Who knows what might have happened without interpreters?

So, yeah, I don’t want to hear people calling interpreters boring ever again.

Just in case you’re interested in hearing more about this topic from someone who has actually lived through all this; here’s a speech by Siegfried Ramler, one of the interpreters who worked at the Nuremberg Trials:

[Finally, I’m not a historian or anything like that; I’m just telling you what I learned at the exhibition and from a few articles about it, because i found it interesting and super impressive. So if there’s anything that’s not correct, I apologize. Please let me know and I’ll correct it at once!]


a) Maggie is my hero

b) Warren made me laugh for the first time ever

c) Writers are just pissing over everything for me at the moment

d) Griggs is cute but Arizona’s love story speech is basically the whole fandom!

e) Cross is still an idiot walking into doors and getting TB

f) Owen and Amelia have couple friends we didn’t know about. I nearly cried.

g) Jessica and Marika have exactly the same smile. It’s beautiful

h) April is tough af and army af

i) Jackson and Maggie are step siblings. Never forget.

j) Stephanie will either die of TB or give up being a doctor out of guilt

k) Bailey and Webber can bicker like no other

l) I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again, The Chief is Richard Webber. Forever and always. Sorry Bailey. Maybe I’ll change my mind by season 19?

m) DANCE PARTY WITH LADY CHIEF TRIFECTA. Basically my favourite moment of season 13 so far

n) I was saying to @superheroshepherdess just two days ago how Amelia and Meredith are ridiculously alike and everyone needs to catch up to this fact

o) I never want to live in a world without my mum

p) Alex had one scene? What the… Don’t even ask about Jo cos she was nowhere to be seen

q) DaLuca was so much more interesting when he was banging Maggie

r) Amelia basically said there’s a before and after. Meaning their marriage. I need a brick and somebody to throw it at. But I don’t know who should be on the receiving end of it. So I’ll probably write a fic instead.

s) This season is so bitty and disconnected it hurts

t) It would have been perfect if Amelia and Meredith were waiting by Derek’s grave

u) Arizona and Riggs are a little bit adorable. I like how quickly Arizona is ready to ditch Webber for the chance to gossip!

v) I can’t believe we’re all going to get TB and die guys.

w) Tiny human hearts need a minute to adjust to losing something. We are all tiny human hearts

x) Next week is apparently the plane episode so wave goodbye to any unresolved issues you have until the 27th April (my birthday!)

y) I’m not sure there were 26 points to make on this episode

z) Definitely not

Okay, but so apparently the last Disney movie to have a separate voice actor for speaking and singing was Mulan II, in which Mandy Gonzalez did the singing voice of Su. Moana also used this method, having Chris Jackson do the singing voice of Chief Tui. And all I’m saying is Disney is giving me the BeNina feels and I feel personally attacked.

I thought..

It would be fun to speculate on what we think happens between Thursday and the SF…

I’m almost always wrong, but it will be fun to take a stab at it, right?! :)

Here’s how it will work-
I’ll start with my top three speculations and then post… As you think of a speculation or speculations, reblog yours to keep it going!

Next week at the end of the SF, I’ll compile a list to see how VERY RIGHT or how VERY WRONG our speculations together were! :)

Here are my top three:
1. I speculate that Alex finds out Jo’s husband aka Mr. Shue from Glee, will be at the convention he is attending. He decides to confront him.
2. I speculate that there is an explosion outside or near that hospital that causes a fire. I believe that’s why the episode is titled “Ring of Fire.”
3. I speculate that the “good news” that Meredith shares with Nathan is that she’s pregnant. Is it realistic?! Not at all, but it’s the first thing that popped in my head!

Ok, now it’s your turn! Reblog away! :)

"ONE, TWO, BUCKLE MY SHOE" (1992) Review

“ONE, TWO, BUCKLE MY SHOE” (1992) Review

Twenty-five years ago, ITV’s “AGATHA CHRISTIE’S POIROT” aired an adaptation of Agatha Christie’s 1940 novel. Not only was “One, Two, Buckle My Shoe” considered one of Christie’s darkest novels, due to its political overtones, the 1992 television adaptation acquired the same reputation.

Directed by Ross Devenish and adapted by Clive Exton, “ONE, TWO, BUCKLE MY SHOE” centered on Hercule Poirot’s investigation into the death of his dentist, one Dr. Henry Morely, which occurred less than two hours after the former’s last appointment. Poirot’s police colleague, Chief Inspector Japp of Scotland Yard, believes that Dr. Morely had committed suicide, because another one of his clients had died from an overdose of anaesthetic. However, Poirot and Japp eventually discovered that both Dr. Morely and Mr. Amberiotis’ deaths may be tied to possible attempts on the life of a banker named Alistair Blunt, who also happened to be a client of the dentist. Other suspects in the case include a former actress-turned-missionary named Mabelle Sainsbury Seale, who knew Mr. Blunt and his first wife back in India, during the 1920s; a member of the British Blackshirts named Frank Carter, who also happened to be the boyfriend of Dr. Morely’s assistant; Mr. Blunt’s American sister-in-law, Mrs. Julia Olivera; and the latter’s daughter, Jane Olivera.

As I had stated earlier, many fans of Christie’s novel and the “AGATHA CHRISTIE’S POIROT” seemed to harbor a very high regard of this particular story. I must admit there is a good deal about this production that I found impressive. Rob Harris’s re-creation of 1936-37 London was superb. In fact, I would go as far to say that out of the many episodes and television movies that aired on “AGATHA CHRISTIE’S POIROT”, I would count Harris’ production designs as among the best. Harris’ work was ably supported by Barbara Kronig’s costume designs and Chris O'Dell’s photography. And I also had to compliment Andrew Nelson’s editing, especially in the sequence that featured the details that led to Dr. Morely’s murder. I thought the entire scene was well paced.

The performances also struck me as first-rate. David Suchet was in fine form as Belgian detective, Hercule Poirot. He was ably supported by Philip Jackson’s wry performance as Scotland Yard’s Chief Inspector Japp. I realize that many may have been a little upset by the lack of Arthur Hastings and Miss Lemon’s presence. But to be honest, I did not really miss them. Suchet and Jackson made a pretty strong screen team, as they have done in a few other productions.

Most of the supporting cast gave solid performances, including Joanna Phillips-Lane, Laurence Harrington, and Carolyn Colquhoun. However, there were times that I found the latter’s performance as Mabelle Sainsbury Seale to be a little ponderous. Peter Blythe did a good job in conveying both the charm and dignity of his character, Alistair Blunt, even if he came off as a bit smug toward Poirot, a man trying to prevent his murder. Helen Horton gave an amusing performance as Blunt’s American sister-in-law, Julia Olivera. And I am relieved that her portrayal as a middle-aged American woman did not collapsed into a cliche, even if Clive Exton’s screenplay gave her nearly every opportunity to do so. But I believe the best performance came from Christopher Eccleston, who portrayed one of the suspects - the boyfriend of Dr. Morely’s assistant and a follower of the British Union of Fascists. Not only was Eccleston’s performance brimmed with energy, he managed to inject sympathy into a character most would regard with disgust.

I wish I could say that “ONE, TWO, BUCKLE MY SHOE” was one of the best Christie adaptations I have seen. Many seemed to think so. I believe it had the potential to be one of the best. But I also believe that Clive Exton’s script was riddled with a few flaws. One, Clive Exton wrote a convoluted script, which is not surprising since it was based upon a convoluted novel. Two, Exton and director Ross Devenish should have never included that prologue in 1925 India. It literally made it easier to solve the murders. And three, the script never made it clear why Alistair Blunt was needed to maintain some balance within Britain and Europe’s political and economic climates. Why was it so important for Scotland Yard to discover who was trying to kill him? And three, the nursery rhyme chant that permeated the movie really got on my nerves. Why was it that every time ITV aired an Agatha Christie adaptation that featured a title from a nursery rhyme, it had to include an annoying and heavy-handed literary symbol into the production?

Despite a convoluted story and a prologue that made it easier to identify the murderer, I must admit that I still rather like “ONE, TWO, BUCKLE MY SHOE”. It has a lot of style. I thought it did a great job in re-creating mid-1930s London. And it featured some top-notch performances led by David Suchet, Philip Jackson and a young Christopher Eccleston.

anonymous asked:

hello, i vividly remember seeing an interview where darren wilson confirmed he didn't know about the "theft" mike committed, do you perhap have that? he was standing infront of a green hedge

I’m not sure which interview you’re talking about.

But on August 15, 2014, 6 days after Mike Brown was murdered, Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson said, “the initial contact between Darren Wilson and Mike Brown was not related to the alleged theft of cigars”. Chief Jackson said Wilson approached Mike Brown and Dorian Johnson for “blocking traffic”.

Darren Wilson and the police have changed their story many times since August 9, 2014, however.


I was trying to work out who of the Legends received the worst punishment. And, of course, in my unbiased opinion, it turns out to be my favorite, Rip Hunter. Now, before you object, hear me out.

Ray Palmer, the genius, has been reduced to working as a janitor. Instead of being the owner of a multibillion dollar tech company, he cleans its toilets. Upside, he still has access to the technology and he even gets to spend time playing video games.

Nate Heywood, the historian and (I suppose) the authority on several topics, is a conspiracy theorist to whom no one ever listens to. But still, he has the support of a loving mother (who makes awesome sandwiches).

Jefferson Jackson, our chief engineer with a heart of gold, is a domineering, self-important version of himself. If he was in his right mind, our sweetheart would probably hate the person they made him into. We don’t know that much about his life outside of what was shown, but based on how he treated Martin for wanting to spend time with his family, Jax’s family life is probably non-existent. Upside, he appears to be a high ranking official in Eobard’s company.

Martin Stein, the professor, works under the dominating and terrifying pressure of Jefferson Jackson. But he is still a genius, working on the science that he cares about, and he actually has a family.

Sara Lance and Amaya Jiwe are the runners up in this analysis. Amaya, because she is forced to work under the organization headed by the man that killed her lover, and Sara, because she works for Damien who actually killed her sister. These strong beautiful women were reduced to doing the bidding of a despicable man. Upside, they don’t remember who they used to be.

This brings me to Rip Hunter. He is left alone in his incapacitated timeship with his memories intact. That means he remembers everything and everyone. They took away everything he ever loved. His ship and his ability to travel are gone. He believes that his friends are probably all dead. Knowing our lovable mental health patient, he very likely blames himself for all that happened.  And they allowed him to remember.

So, yeah, I think, Rip had the worst deal. If you disagree, I don’t really care. 

April gets Chief Resident and Jackson helps her celebrate.

“Well, they’re gonna hate you again.” Jackson pointed out, smirking away from April who silently was trying to weigh up the repercussions of he just said. It had been a long day and an even longer shift. “It’s now your job to boss them around. I know how much they love that.”

“Oh, is that true?” April turned in her desk chair to face him slightly. He didn’t mean to rile her up, although sometimes that was a lot of fun, she truly looked horrified. “That’s true!”

“We should celebrate this,” Jackson uttered after a moment.

The suggestion was enough for stop the impending but not so unpredictable freak-out his best friend and newly appointed Chief Resident, April Kepner, was about to release upon him that night.

“What?” She gulped and turned her head from the pale grey office blinds so she was facing him again.  "After what you just said you can’t be serious, Jackson?“

"When have you ever known me to joke?” April gave him a look that by this point in all the time they’d known each other that he’d come to both love and hate.

“Please,” she retorted and turned back to the keyboard, quickly typing out something on the screen. “When aren’t you making up some smugly thing to say. You can be such a butthead sometimes.”

She reached out and poked him in the bicep for good measure but he wasn’t giving up.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Jackson Storm

Give me a character and I’ll answer!

  • Do I like them: To be honest, I initially HATED Storm! Not only did he have no character arc, he was also a HUGE JERK! Like, who are you to tell McQueen to retire? Who are you to push my baby Cruz into the wall like that? But, I am warming up to him now. After reading a few fanfics and getting to write him in my own story, I feel like there is more depth to Storm than we all care to think about. I believe that I hated him because Pixar wanted me to hate him. Now that I’m looking at his character a little more, I can’t help but say that Jackson has a lot going on under the surface. I can’t wait to discover more about this poor misunderstood boy! 
  • 5 good qualities: 1) Although he doesn’t have the positive attitude of a champion, he sure wins like one. He may pose a threat to Lightning, but man, this dude can really drive! He is extremely talented in this area and I have to give Storm credit for his incredible racing success! 2) His taste in music! When he backed into his trailer and that dub step blasted through the speakers, I couldn’t help but smile. He really be JAMMIN’! 3) His voice! Armie Hammer really brought Jackson to life and you can tell that he had so much fun with the role. Plus he sounds even cooler with that deep voice of his lol! 4) His clap backs!! Jackson’s sass is so spicy! He really knows how to get under people’s skin and he does it with such sarcasm and sass. 5) He is FREAKIN AWESOME LOOKING!! My gosh! When I first saw him in one of the trailers, I instantly wanted to drive a car like that. Jackson is one sexy looking car! Lightning has to step up his game!  
  • 3 bad qualities: 1) He is such (as Armie put it) a gashole!!! He was way too much of a jerk in my opinion, and he is really vindictive when he doesn’t get his way. He longs to win and he will do ANYTHING to crush the spirits of his opponents (and I thought Chick was bad!). 2) He is super cocky! His pride really gets on my nerves cause he’s so full of himself. Him and McQueen may be tied for being extremely cocky. 3) He rarely smiles. I know that everyone is different, but Jackson literally never smiles unless other people are feeling bad. Which is way too bad because he has a great smile and a hilarious laugh!! 
  • Favourite episode/etc: I actually have 2 favorite Jackson moments: 1) The scene where he first met Lightning. This scene was too funny to me. He just came for McQueen’s life (especially with that stare before he said,”I think you heard me!”) and all Lightning wanted to do was congratulate him on his win!! He even tried to cover up his rudeness by playing nice in front of the cameras.That boy is something else! 2) The scene where he was training on the simulator and passed Lightning. His crew chief, Ray, told Jackson that he wanted to give him some competition. This was followed by some awkward silence and a burst of laughter. Storm’s laugh had me in tears! I wish I could hear it more often! 
  • Otp: Alright, I may be the odd man out, but I do ship Jackson with Cruz. This is an unpopular opinion, but I think they could work as a couple. I envision Jackson flirting with Cruz just to make fun of her or distract her from her racing career. At first he wants nothing to do with her, but once he gets to know her, he falls in love with her. I believe that Cruz’s personality is so strong that her optimism and goodness will be able to change Storm and show him that he could be a better person. They may be polar opposites in personality and enemies on the track, but never say never! It could work out! Lightning better prepare his shotgun lol! 
  • Brotp: Aside from his crew chief, I think Jackson has a great relationship with Gale! I think that she acts as a mother figure to him and she might be the only one he ever gets vulnerable with. I think they have nice, long, and emotional talks with each other on long drives. Jackson knows that he can talk to her about anything! 
  • Ot3: Maybe a love triangle between him, Cruz, and Natalie. After all, Natalie was ALL OVER his stats and was even rooting for him in the Florida 500. This might not prove much, but I’m seeing some sparks there. 
  • Notp: I do not ship Jackson with Lightning. I don’t know why this is a thing, but I don’t think they would work in a romantic setting. Both of their personalities are so strong that I can see them having lots of arguments. Plus, Lightning is old enough to be Jackson’s father! There’s no way these two can manage as a couple. 
  • Best quote: “I think I touched a nerve!”- Cars 3
  • Head canon: It’s a shame that Jackson was so one dimensional in Cars 3. He was just an obstacle for Lightning and Cruz to beat. He even DISAPPEARED when he lost the Florida 500! I believe that he and Lightning should’ve had a moment after that race. I could see Lightning going over to Storm’s tent (or trailer) and really giving him some words of wisdom and encouragement. At first, Jackson tells him to back off, but Lightning explains that he understands the pressures of being a champion and putting on a front for the media. McQueen lets him know that if he ever needs to talk or ask for advice, he will always be there for him. Although they had their differences, at least Jackson knows that someone in the racing world has his back. I wanted a scene like this in the movie, but sadly, it never happened.