chemical reactions


Preparation of a 2-bromobenzoic acid derivative from an anthranilic acid derivative using the Sandmeyer reaction.

The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. It is named after the Swiss chemist Traugott Sandmeyer. The reaction is a method for substitution of an aromatic amino group via preparation of its diazonium salt followed by its displacement with a nucleophile, often catalyzed by copper(I) salts.

ArN2+ + CuBr → ArBr + N2 + Cu+

On the picture and gifs the solution of copper(I)-bromide is being added to the chilled, freshly prepared diazonium salt solution and as the the two reactants mix, almost instantly nitrogen gas forms and the reaction starts. 

Interesting thing is that the copper(I)-bromide is a colorless, nearly insoluble solid when pure, however when mixed with hydrobromic acid it dissolved rapidly and gives a deep purple colored solution as seen on the pictures.

Extracting Bismuth from Pepto Bismol!

So today I extracted bismuth from pepto bismol with the chemistry teacher and my partner for a project.  I have pictures explaining each step.  Enjoy!

So I went out and bought 180 pepto bismol pills (obviously not all of them are shown here).

Then we put them in a mortar…

…and ground them with a pestle:

When we were done grinding them we had a beautiful beaker of powdered Pepto Bismol.

Then we got to the fun part.

We dissolved the powder in a solution of six parts water and one part muriatic acid (also known as hydrochloric acid (HCl)).  While we were trying to dissolve it we got this (Ignore the NaOH it was on the flask originally and has nothing to do with this project):

You can see that we got a lot of foam. It even overflowed and we had to put it into separate flasks so we wouldn’t lose our work.  I found this to be hilarious.

I know the flask only shows a little bit of overflow but there was a lot more after! The end result of the dissolved pills was a foggy white solution with foam still present but the powder was dissolved.  Then we filtered it.

This type of filter was not sufficient enough so we switched to a coffee filter which was faster but it was still filtering slowly.  While the solution was being filtered the chemistry teacher was curious and wanted to know if the next step worked so he took some of the filtrate and put the aluminum foil in and it worked!

The black stuff that you see is the bismuth powder which formed as a result of the reaction between the aluminum and the filtrate! We filtered that too but it is not done yet but it probably will be done by tomorrow.  I will post an update if I can.  I hope you enjoyed this post as much as I enjoyed doing this experiment!

I don’t know how to explain it, but his existence is just so shocking to me. He is like a chemical reaction to my system, something that looks pretty but heats up and burns something fierce. It is not something to inhale, but you’re going to anyways; he is that intense. He is the air that fills your lungs with sweetness until you can no longer breathe anything but him, and by then it is too late. You have already been poisoned. He is poison. Sweet, painful poison.
—  excerpt from a book i’ll never write

Chemical reactions as art

ASOTM (A Splitting Of The Mind) REACTION (Major Spoilers!!!!)

Before reading it



Beginning chapter 1:

Chapter 1:

Chapter 2:

Chapter 3:

Group session:

Ben falls off chair:

Chapter 4:

Roof falls

Rest of the chapter:

End of the chapter:

Chapter 5-8:

Chapter 9-17:

Chapter 18:

Chapter 19:


Mikey: “It’s not batman! It’s my brother. It’s Gee-rard”.


Gerard crying:


Mikey *hugging Gerad*: “What-What-whatever you did, everyone forgives y-y-you”


Before starting chapter 20:

Frank visiting Gerard:

Skull and Jasper and Them:

Finishing  Chapter 20:

End of Chapter 20:


The last frank-gerard encounter was a hallucination:

After finishing:

Me Right Now: