Greek Bronze Chalcidian Helmet, Late 4th Century BC

Formed of a single heavy sheet, the domed crown with tall crest-holder, short flaring neck-guard, helmet and cheekpieces edged with a separately-applied moulded band, similar separately-applied brows with bud-like terminals, rivet with attachment ring at front, two attachment sockets either side, back of helmet and cheekpieces pierced once


Canadian sniper holds the record for longest confirmed kill once again with the C15.

McMillan TAC-50 C15 .50 BMG

The McMillan Tac-50 is a manually operated, rotary bolt-action rifle. The large bolt has dual front locking lugs, and its body has spiral flutes to reduce weight. The heavy match-grade Lilja barrel is fluted to dissipate heat quickly, reduce overall weight and is fitted with an effective muzzle brake to reduce recoil. The fiberglass McMillan stock is designed to be used with a bipod. The buttstock is adjustable for length of pull with rubber spacers and can be removed for compact storage.

Manufacturer: Mcmillan

Model: TAC-50 C15

Calibre: .50 BMG

Action: Bolt

Trigger Type: Adjustable, set at 3.5 lbs.

Barrel Specifications: 29" Fluted Match Grade Free-Floating Barrel Threaded with Muzzle Brake

Twist Rate: 1:15"

Sights: 5" 30 MOA Picatinny Action Rail

Finish: Matte Black

Stock Description: Adjustable Stock in Olive Drab with Black Marble

Capacity: 5 Round Detachable Box Magazine

Weight: 12 Kg

Overall Length: 57"

Classification: Non-Restricted

Accessories Included: These rifles come with 1 x 5 round magazine, bipod, Pelican case, optic rail and QD buttstock with adjustable integral cheekpiece. 

Additional Features: Extra-long bolt handle to clear large optics

A sniper with Canada’s elite special forces in Iraq has shattered the world record for the longest confirmed kill shot in military history at a staggering distance of 3,540 metres.

The Canadian Armed Forces confirmed Thursday that a member of Joint Task Force 2 made the record-breaking shot, killing an Islamic State insurgent during an operation in Iraq within the last month.

“The Canadian Special Operations Command can confirm that a member of Joint Task Force 2 successfully hit a target at 3,540 metres,” the forces said in a statement. “For operational security reasons and to preserve the safety of our personnel and our Coalition partners we will not discuss precise details on when and how this incident took place.”

The elite sniper was using a McMillan TAC-50 sniper rifle while firing from a high-rise during an operation that took place within the last month in Iraq. It took under 10 seconds to hit the target.

“The shot in question actually disrupted a Daesh [Islamic State] attack on Iraqi security forces,” said a military source. “Instead of dropping a bomb that could potentially kill civilians in the area, it is a very precise application of force and because it was so far way, the bad guys didn’t have a clue what was happening.”

The military source said the JTF2 operation fell within the strictures of the government’s advise and assist mission.

“As stated multiple times in the past, members of the Canadian Special Operations Task Force do not accompany leading combat elements, but enable the Iraqi security forces who are in a tough combat mission,” the statement said. “This takes the form of advice in planning their operations and assistance to defeat Daesh through the use of coalition resources.”

The kill was independently verified by video camera and other data, The Globe and Mail has learned.

“Hard data on this. It isn’t an opinion. It isn’t an approximation. There is a second location with eyes on with all the right equipment to capture exactly what the shot was,” another military source said.

A military insider told The Globe: “This is an incredible feat. It is a world record that might never be equalled.”

The world record was previously held by British sniper Craig Harrison, who shot a Taliban gunner with a 338 Lapua Magnum rifle from 2,475 metres away in 2009.

Previously, Canadian Corporal Rob Furlong had set the world record in 2002 at 2,430 metres when he gunned down an Afghan insurgent carrying an RPK machine gun during Operation Anaconda.

Weeks before, Canadian Master Cpl. Arron Perry briefly held the world’s best sniper record after he fatally shot an insurgent at 2,310 metres during the same operation. Both soldiers were members of the 3rd Battalion Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry.

JTF2 special forces are primarily tasked with counterterrorism, sniper operations and hostage rescue. Much of the information about this elite organization is classified and not commented on by the government. The unit’s snipers and members of Canadian Special Operations Regiment, who are carrying out the main task of training Kurdish forces, have been operating in tough conditions in Iraq.

The Trudeau government pulled CF-18 fighter jets out of Iraq in 2016 but expanded the military mission, which will see the number of Canadian special forces trainers climb to 207 from 69 in an assist, train and advise mission. Canadian commandos are not supposed to be involved in direct combat, but are authorized to go up to the front lines on training missions with Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and to paint targets for coalition air strikes.

For operational security reasons, sources would not reveal the names of the elite Canadian sniper and his partner, nor the location where the action took place.

A sniper and his observer partner are often sent to remote and dangerous locations to hunt down insurgents while having to carry heavy equipment. Once they have located the target, snipers follow the same methodical approach before each shot. Breathe in, out, in, out, find a natural pause and then squeeze the trigger.

Canada has a reputation among Western military forces for the quality of its snipers, despite the small size of the Canadian Armed Forces compared to the United States and Britain.

“Canada has a world-class sniper system. It is not just a sniper. They work in pairs. There is an observer,” a military source said. “This is a skill set that only a very few people have.”

The skill of the JTF2 sniper in taking down an insurgent at 3,540 metres required math skills, great eyesight, precision of ammunition and firearms, and superb training.

“It is at the distance where you have to account not just for the ballistics of the round, which change over time and distance, you have to adjust for wind, and the wind would be swirling,” said a source with expertise in training Canadian special forces.

“You have to adjust for him firing from a higher location downward and as the round drops you have to account for that. And from that distance you actually have to account for the curvature of the Earth.”

U.S. Sergeant Bryan Kremer has the longest confirmed sniper kill shot by a U.S. soldier. He killed an Iraqi insurgent with his Barrett M82A1 rifle at 2,300 metres in 2004.

Also I am blessed with the fact that Tug and Keeta can wear the same bridle on the same holes. I don’t know how long that will last since Tug is only 4. However, Keeta’s western bridle doesn’t look nearly as good on him as it does her. I do like the cheekpiece style on him. This was also the first time with a metal bit instead of a happy mouth but besides him chewing a bit (it was a bit chilly so the metal was cold and I didn’t think to warm it in my hands first) he did very well.

I think I will try Keeta’s english bridle on him today or tomorrow sans flash strap. It’ll be the first time with a noseband but I am sure he will take it in stride.


Rare Greek Apulo-Corinthian Helmet, C. 450 BC

A very rare ancient Greek Apulo-Corinthian helmet, damaged and adapted for dedication in ancient times, dating to the 5th century BC.

Helmets of this type originated in modern-day south Italy. They were hammered from a single sheet of bronze and consist of a shallow dome, large neck-flange at the back, very close or fused cheekpieces, closely set “eye holes” and a central nosepiece. Such stylized helmets were made to be worn on the top of the head, as a cap, with a chinstrap holding it in place.

Extraordinarily, the frontal opening of this piece has been entirely obscured in ancient times, with ominously placed bronze bars that seem to anonymize or neutralize the helmet. The modification of ancient helmets and weapons is known from antiquity, at sites such as Olympia, and was usually performed as part of an act of dedication, most often at a temple as a votive gift to the gods. It is probable that this helmet was damaged in battle, perhaps by an impact to the rear, then taken by the victor and modified for dedication to the gods.


ok so first things first - a snaffle bit does not use leverage. There is no shank. I see a ton of western people especially calling something like a tom thumb bit a snaffle, because it has the single broken mouthpiece. But what makes the snaffle is the lack of leverage.

There are two components that really determine how harsh a snaffle is and what cues it’s giving to the horse: mouthpiece, and cheek piece.

Let’s talk cheek pieces first. General you’ve got your D/Dee ring, O ring/Loose ring, full cheek, and eggbutt. There’s some crossover here between english and western. I rarely see western riders using an eggbutt, but otherwise there’s a lot of overlap, and often the difference is in aesthetic (western bits tend to be a little more decorative) and not in function.

So here are your basic cheekpieces. Generally (and I’ve heard a lot of different opinions on this) the larger cheekpieces are used for a horse that needs more lateral pressure (on the cheeks/side of the face). This could be a horse that is brand new to bits and is used to lateral pressure from a bitless bridle (common in many western traditions), or a horse that isn’t responding to action on the inside of the mouth who needs some lateral pressure for clarification.

Full cheek is the ultimate in lateral pressure. When you pull on one side, the long cheekpiece presses on a lot more surface area on the side of the face. On a scale of more to less lateral pressure, it goes full cheek, D ring, eggbutt (which is more about being fixed and stable than it is about lateral pressure), then loose ring. The loose ring as I understand it is used the most in dressage training because the loose rings require the horse to stabilize the bit in their own mouth by seeking contact - these other bits have a lot more of a fixed position. (If anybody more involved in dressage wants to clarify this point go ahead, there is a ton of mixed info out there). (another note - there is also the hanging cheek/baucher bit but I’m not gonna include it right now because I wanna keep things simple.)

These cheekpieces generally aren’t more or less harsh. Some horses will have a preference (just like some horses prefer the bit held higher or lower in the mouth or need a fatter or slimmer bit just based on the shape of their mouth) but the cheekpieces themselves are fairly neutral.

Then we get to the mouthpieces, and here is where things get complicated and can be crazy harsh.

Usually with snaffles, you have two types of mouthpiece. Single joint, and double joint.

This is a nice illustration. On the left you have your single joint, on the right, a double joint. It’s generally agreed that the double joint is softer because it lies flatter over the tongue, whereas the single joint can have a ‘nutcracker’ effect when that joint is poking into soft tissues.

Note that both of those bits above are, aside from the joints, smooth. They aren’t abrasive and they have limited pressure points. Other mouthpieces, not so much.

Here’s a waterford mouthpiece (on a loose/O ring). The waterford is sometimes said to be kind because of the way it’s flexible and drapes over the mouth. The chain mouthpiece often gets the same excuse. Unfortunately, all the balls in this mouthpiece become individual pressure points, grab the tongue, and scrape the bars. Chain or waterford mouthpieces wrapped up in sealtex can maintain some of that flexibility without being as abrasive (or so I’ve heard).

These two are both twisted bits. The first is twisted wire, which is pretty universally accepted as harsh, especially when it is thin. Every bump becomes a painful pressure point. The second is a slow twist. Many people will use a slow twist as a way to add a bit of ‘bite’ to an otherwise gentle snaffle. This will be especially harsh if the twists are pointed (like above).

And here’s the nasty cousin of the twisted wire bit, the corkscrew. It’s pointy, abrasive, and just plain nasty.

This is a mullen mouth. You can see that it’s got a smooth surface (nothing pointy or abrasive) and it has a curve to it meant to fit the shape of a horse’s mouth (similar to a double joint, but in a single piece). I’m not overly familiar with these, don’t seem them used a ton, but some horses apparently like them.

The mouthpiece is often the most important part of choosing a snaffle bit for your horse. Because horses vary so much in both temperament and mouth conformation, you may have to experiment to see if your horse likes something straight, something with a lot of drape, etc. 

There are many more variations on the snaffle but, these are some of the most common types. Hope some of you who are a little fuzzy on the snaffle get something out of this.


Roman Iron and Tinned Bronze Calvalry Helmet, 2nd Half of 2nd Century - Early 3rd Century AD

Stylized band of laurel around and over the crown, eagle wings on either side, a large eagle with outspread wings standing on a groundline in relief at the back above the neck-guard, flanked by architectural elements consisting of lozenge filled rectangles surmounted by triangles, the neck-guard flaring out horizontally, ear-guards riveted at either side, the ornate cusped cheekpieces with naturalistically modeled ears, each with a central boss surrounded by scallop shells, bordered by beading and stippled.

Greek Bronze Helmet, Crete, c. late 7th century BC

Two large confronting horses in repoussé decorate the sides of this bronze helmet. On each cheek guard is an incised standing lion that faces toward the opening for the warrior’s mouth. Images of strength and calm, these creatures lent symbolic protection to the warrior in battle. The horse’s mane consists of S-shaped locks with additional locks tumbling over its forehead and brow. Tracing indicates individual details of anatomy.

This helmet is a modification of a Corinthian type, having a profiled cheekpiece and lacking the usual long nose guard; originally, there was a separately attached visor. Two symmetrical halves are joined in the center by a riveted seam, along which the crest was fastened. The artist conceived the helmet in such a way that the two pieces of bronze swell in the back to give the head space, and then taper at the base to protect the neck.

Under the belly of the horse on the left side of the helmet is the dedicatory inscription “Synenitos the son of Euklotas [took this],” suggesting that the armor was captured as booty and offered as a dedication. Armor made in Crete during this period was often decorated with elaborate repoussé work, which might explain why they were often dedicated at Greek sanctuaries.

Roman Iron and Tinned Bronze Calvary Parade Helmet, Second Half of 2nd Century - Early 3rd Century AD

Formed of iron with tinned bronze overlay decoration including a stylized band of laurel around and over the crown, eagle wings on either side, a large eagle with outspread wings standing on a groundline in relief at the back above the neck-guard, flanked by architectural elements consisting of lozenge filled rectangles surmounted by triangles, the neck-guard flaring out horizontally, ear-guards riveted at either side, the ornate cusped cheekpieces with naturalistically-modeled ears, each with a central boss surrounded by scallop shells.


La Tène Copper Alloy Peaked Helmet, C. 50-150 AD

Found in England, made from beaten copper alloy sheet, the helmet is approaching the Roman coolus helmet in form, with a broad neck guard with La Tène style decoration. The left side of the headpiece is torn and dented, damage on the right side is slighter. The cheekpiece attachments are very fragmentary, and the cheekpieces themselves are missing entirely, but it appears that they were held in place by expanded rivets with scored heads. Rivet holes and a circular patch of dicolouration at the peak of the headpiece suggest the original presence of a plume holder or mount, now also missing.


Nafplion Archaeological Museum:

From the Mycenaean cemetery of Dendra, tomb 12 “the cuirass tomb”, a mycenaean bronze armour with a reconstructed boar’s tusk helmet with bronze cheekpieces . (end of 15th century B.C)

The Nafplion Archaeological Museum has a lot of beautiful and unique exhibits, but the most significant of them all is this complete mycenaean armour. It’s almost by a miracle that it is still on greek soil, since the tomb that it was found had been looted. The raiders probably didn’t notice, or recognize it, or perhaps thought it was too unappealing.

The Metropolitan Spangenhelm

A regal helmet with bird and grapevine patterns and Christian symbols around the brow band. Cheekpieces missing.

Crafted out of bronze and iron, with gold gilding.

Made in the 6th century at a royal workshop at Ravenna in Ostrogothic Italy and given away as a diplomatic gift. Discovered in a river at Trévoux in France. Currently held at the Metropolitan Museum.