“Between 1918 and 1928, Alexander Vasilievich Chayanov(1888-1937) wrote and published (at his own expense) five short Gothic-fantastic tales in separate volumes with print runs of no more than 300 copies, mostly under the whimsical pseudonym “Botanist X.” In his lifetime and until the 1990s, Chayanov was better known as an expert in agricultural economics, particularly peasant labor – and his objections to Stalin’s program of forced collectivization caused his arrest in 1930, exile from Moscow to Kazakhstan, and eventual execution.”

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The complexity of Chaynov’s relations with the Bolshevik leadership lay in the fact that whilst he joined in the common endeavor, he maintained his independent views and openly criticized everything in Bolshevik policy which he considered to be incorrect, mistaken, harmful or simply unnecessary…
—  Viktor Danilov on Alexander Chayanov in his introduction to Chayanov’s The Theory of Peasant Co-operatives