Chauvet Cave, located in southern France, is a cave that contatin the earliest—and best preserved cave paintings in the world. The images are from the Upper Paleolithic period and are at least 37 000 years old, but aside from the intricate paintings, the cave was also discovered to contain the fossilized remains of various extinct animals and plants.
One of the larger cave painting sites, Chauvet Cave is embedded into limestone cliffs and the sheer quantity of paintings and artwork is in itself spectacular, nevermind the size and quality of the pictures (which are themselves remarkable). What the images depict is also unique compared to other finds of this nature. As opposed to specifically painting typical herbivores (likely the quarry of prehistoric human hunters), the cave also depicts predatory animals as well, such as cave lions, panthers, bears, and hyenas. All told, there are at least 13 different species depicted in the paintins, including rhinoceroses. These images do not exist outside of context, however, and many of them depict complex scenes or interaction between species and other artistic and more abstract depictions (such as red ochre reliefs of hands, and other lines and dashes).
Chauvet Cave recently re-entered the public eye just this past March when a researchers recently claimed that the cave depicts various volcanic eruptions and that such paintings are the first time humans recorded and depicted those eruptions in history. Splashes of red ochre and what appears to be an impromptu dive into deeply abstract imagery (a notable departure from some fairly realistic animals) would seem to support this hypothesis.
The cave is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but unfortunately has been off limits to the public since 1994. As with the caves in Lascaux, frequent human activity inside the cave slowly cultivated a species of mould which could have damaged the paintings. A replica was opened to the public in April, 2015.