Prognathism is well recorded as a trait of several historical individuals. The most famous case is that of the House of Habsburg, among whom mandibular prognathism was a family trait; indeed, the condition is frequently called “Habsburg Jaw” as a result of its centuries-long association with the family. Among the Habsburgs, the most prominent case of mandibular prognathism is that of Charles II of Spain, who had prognathism so pronounced he could neither speak clearly nor chew as a result of generations of politically motivated inbreeding.
Charles was born on 24 February 1500 in Ghent, Belgium,as the son of Philip of Burgundy and Joanna of Spain, and he inherited the thrones of the Habsburg posses-sions, Spain and the Netherlands.
As Holy Roman Emperor Charles V made a last attempt to revive the medieval universal empire. His opponennts were therefore the European national states; especially France; the German princes; the Turks; but also the Pope.
In 1525 Charles defeated Francis I of France; two years later Rome was sacked and the pope imprisoned, but now new dangers emerged from the East when the Turks laid siege to Vienna (1529). Eventually, the pope, Francis, and Charles agreed to a truce, but Charles’s league with the pope drove the Protestants to rebellion.
Charles defeated the German Protestants in 1547, but when France made an alliance with the North German rebels four years later, Charles’ empire was shattered. Disappointed, Charles divided the empire between his son (Philip II of Spain) and his brother (Emperor Ferdinand), retiring to the monastery of Yuste in Spain in 1555.
The King and Queen of Spain visit The Bodleian Libraries
On the final day of their State Visit to the UK, King Felipe and Queen Letizia of Spain were hosted by the Bodleian Libraries for a visit to the Weston Library.
The Bodleian’s librarians hosted their majesties for a presentation of treasures from the libraries’ collections, including the Ulm Ptolemy, a woodcut map of the world that dates from the 15th century and contains the first printed modern map of Spain; a rare first edition of Cervantes’ Don Quixote; and the Codex Mendoza, which was commissioned by Antonio de Mendoza, the first Viceroy of Mexico (1535-1550), for presentation to the Emperor Charles V of Spain.
The King and Queen also heard about the vital work being done at the library in conserving special collections and were shown the Book of Constellations of the Fixed Stars, which dates from 1170, as an example. Bodleian conservators have stabilised the manuscript’s fragile paint layers and damage caused by corrosion of copper green pigment.
Afterwards, their majesties also met some children from Tyndale Community School, part of the Oxford for Oxford scheme which gives local schools access to the resources of the University.
Richard Ovenden, Bodley’s Librarian, said ‘We are deeply honoured to have hosted His Majesty King Felipe VI of Spain and Her Majesty Queen Letizia at the Weston Library.
‘Our curators and conservators took great pleasure in showing the King and Queen a selection of the Bodleian Libraries’ greatest treasures that speak to the rich history of Spain, and providing a glimpse of the masterful conservation and research that takes place within the Library to care for our historic collections.’
Ok, gave in and made a mood board to post in time for Spain’s birthday! I started with 6 tiles then it became 9 after all. :3 The cosplay pics were taken by Tessa Rene.
Some groups were asking for APH Spain promotion today… Sorry this is not a manifesto, but at least I can leave some history notes about the pics I chose:
Fun fact about sherry: the English had always enjoyed it, but Drake stealing a lot of casks in 1587 to bring home was what really made their love for it grow, which Shakespeare even characterized.
The Santísima Trinidad was a first-rate ship launched in Cuba which eventually became the flagship of the Spanish fleet for a good while before finally wrecked in the Battle of Trafalgar. There is a life-sized replica in Alicante.
The Cross of Burgundy was used by Habsburg Spain from 16th to 18th centuries and also represented their overseas empire.
The Seville Cathedral is where Columbus is buried. Despite it all, his voyage was a significant point of Spain’s history that marked the start of their New World conquests.
“Plus Ultra” (“Further Beyond”), the national motto of Spain, dates back to Charles I / Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor.
Philip II, King of Spain, was born at Valladolid on the 21st of May 1527. He was the son of the emperor Charles V and of his wife Isabella of Portugal. Philip received his education in Spain. His tutor, Juan Martinez Pedernales (Bishop of Cartagena), who latinized his name to Siliceo, and who was also his confessor, does not appear to have done his duty very thoroughly. The prince, though he had a good command of Latin, never equaled his father as a linguist. Don Juan de Zúñiga (grand-commander of Castile),
who provided a more systematic education, imparting piety and seriousness to his pupil as well as an extensive knowledge of history and an appreciation of scholarship, the arts, and politics. From his earliest years Philip showed himself more addicted to the desk than the saddle and to the pen than to the sword. The emperor, who spent his life moving from one part of his wide dominions to another and in the camps of his armies, watched his heir’s education from afar. The trend of his letters was to impress on the boy a profound sense of the high destinies to which he was born, the necessity for keeping his nobles apart from all share in the conduct of the internal government of his kingdom, and the wisdom of distrusting counsellors, who would be sure to wish to influence him for their own ends. Philip grew up grave, self-possessed and distrustful and was rigidly abstemious in eating and drinking.
Andrea Palladio, Villa Almerico Capra detta La Rotonda, Vicenza, 1566-1580 VS Pedro Machuca, Palace of Charles V, Granada, Spain, 1526 VS Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, “Prècis des leçons d'architecture", 1802-1805 VS Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Cimitière de Chaux, 1804 VS Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1823-1828 VS Bramante, Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Roma, 1502 VS Erik Gunnar Asplund, Stockholms stadsbibliotek, Stockholm, Sweden, 1928 VS Andrea Mantegna, House of Mantegna, Mantova, Italy, 1476 VS Oswald Mathias Unger, Hotel Berlin, 1977 VS Erik Gunnar Asplund, Woodland Chapel (Skogskapellet), Skogskyrkogården, Stocholm, Sweden, 1918-1920 VS Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Panaretheon, 1804 VS Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Maison de gardes agricoles pour le parc de Mauperthuis, 1790 VS Robert Adam, Syon House, London , England, 1762-1769 VS Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Barrière Saint-Martin, Paris, 1784-1788 VS Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Maison de campagne, 1773-1779 VS Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Pianta di Ampio Magnfico Collegio, 1750 VS Peter Zumthor, Gallery for the “360° I Ching” scultpure by Walter de Maria, Gallery Dia, Beacon NY, 2003 VS Jean Nouvel, Monolith, Expo 02, Morat, Switzerland, 2002 VS Andrea Palladio, I quattro libri dell'architettura, Libro Primo, cap. XVIII, scala a doppia elica del castello di Chambord, Francia VS Louis Kahn, Preliminary scheme of First Unitarian Church, Rochester, New York, USA, 1959 VS Philip Johnson and John Burgee, General American Life Insurance Company, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 1977 VS Jože Plečnik, Slovenian Parliament Building, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1947 VS Pier Vittorio Aureli, The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, 2014 VS Baukuh; Public building, 2008 VS Armando Brasini, Basilica del Sacro Cuore Immacolato di Maria, Roma, 1923-1951 VS Charles Holden, Arnos Grove tube station, London, England, 1932 VS George Bähr, Frauenkirche, Dresden, Germany, 1726-1743 VS Emilio Ambasz, Houston Plaza Center, Houston, Texas, USA, 1982 VS Paulo Mendes da Rocha e João De Gennaro, Gimnasio del Club Atlético Paulistano, São Paulo, Brazil, 1958 VS Oscar Niemeyer, Standpipe for the Ribeirao das Lages, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1941
Isabella was born the second of the children of Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife, Maria of Castile and Aragon. When her father died in 1521, her brother, John III of Portugal, negotiated a marriage with Catherine of Austria, sister of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. That marriage took place in 1525, by which time negotiations had arranged for Charles to marry Isabella. They were married in 1526.Isabella and Charles may have married for financial and dynastic reasons – she brought a large dowry to Spain – but letters of the time show that their relationship was more than just a marriage of convenience.During Charles’ absences from Spain in 1529-1532 and 1535-1539, Isabella served as his regent. They had six children, of whom the first, third and fifth survived to adulthood.Isabella died after giving birth to her sixth child, while Charles was away. Charles did not remarry, as was the usual custom for rulers. She was buried at Granada.Isabella’s and Charles’ son Philip II became ruler of Spain, and in 1580, also became the ruler of Portugal.