Derrida is hard to read; his real object of investigation is classical philosophy. Yet he is less dangerous when understood than the first-world intellectual masquerading as the absent nonrepresenter who lets the oppressed speak for themselves.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Can the Subaltern Speak?
The cautions I have just expressed are valid only if we are speaking of the subaltern woman’s consciousness – or, more acceptably, subject. Reporting on, or better still, participating in, antisexist work among women of color or women in class oppression in the First World or the Third world is undeniably on the agenda. We should also welcome all the information retrieval in these silenced areas that is taking place in anthropology, political science, history and sociology. Yet the assumption and construction of a consciousness or subject sustains such work and will, in the long run, cohere with the work of imperialist subject-construction, mingling epistemic violence with the advancement of learning and civilization. And the subaltern woman will be as mute as ever.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Can The Subaltern Speak?
6 remarkable Indian women who have enriched science with their pathbreaking studies.
Field of work: Organic Chemistry
Darshan Ranganathan is renowned for her research and study of protein folding, supramolecular assemblies, molecular design, and chemical simulation of key biological processes. She has also shed light on synthesis of functional hybrid peptides and synthesis of nanotubes. With her husband she edited Current Highlights in Organic Chemistry. Her life was cut short at 60 by breast cancer.
Field of work: Botany, Cytology, phytobiology, evolution studies, ethnobotany and phytogeography
Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal was a revolutionary Indian botanist and geneticist who spearheaded the research on chromosome of a wide range of garden plants, vegetables and medicinal plants from the rainforests of Kerala. She later showed interest in the medicinal plants of Himalayas. Through her dedication and hard work she finally succeeded in throwing light on evolution of species and cross –breeding of plants in wild. She was a Founder Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1935 when the institution was set up by C.V. Raman.
Field of work: Organic chemistry, phytomedicine
Asima Chatterjee is noted for her contribution to the research on Vinca Alkaloids and for the development of anti-epileptic and anti-malarial medicine. Apart from this, she has written many articles and books on medicinal properties of plants found in the Indian sub-continent, in addition to carrying research on the chemistry of plant products and synthetic organic chemistry. Asima Chatterjee is the first woman recipient of Doctorate of Science by an Indian University.
Field of work: Oceanography, Meteorology
Born in a country where economy and livelihood is highly affected by the Monsoon rains, Sulochana Gadgil dedicated her life to study the rainfall that decided the fate of many farmers in large part of India. Instead of depending totally on Monsoon, she came up with strategies in collaboration with the farmers that allowed them to deal with rainfall variability and modeling ecological and evolutionary phenomena. Her research included – Monsoon dynamics, Ocean dynamics, Ocean-atmosphere coupling and Rainfall variability and its impact on agriculture.
Field of work: Theoretical Epidemiology, Writer
Sunetra Gupta’s interests are a rare amalgamation of science and literature. Whereas on one hand she works as a Professor of Theoretical Epidemiology in the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford and sits on the European Advisory Board of Princeton University Press, on the other hand she wins Sahitya Akademi Award for her novel. Her research and study of the evolution of diversity in pathogens, with particular reference to the infectious disease agents that are responsible for malaria, influenza and bacterial meningitis are noteworthy. Widely popular as one of the greatest Indian female scientists of all time, she uses simple mathematical models to generate new hypotheses regarding the processes that determine the population structure of these pathogens.
Field of work: Genetic engineering, Molecular biology
Maharani Chakravorty is a pioneer in the field of science. She did her PhD on microbial protein synthesis from Bose Institute, Kolkata, her post-doctoral training in enzyme chemistry in the laboratory of B.L Horecker at the New York University School of medicine and ‘bacterial genetics and virology’ at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island in U.S.A. One of her most recognized contribution is establishment of the membrane complex of Salmonella typhimurium of having a sedimentation constant of 1000S, which is the site of not only DNA synthesis but also of RNA synthesis. After being recognized for her work in USA, she returned to India to continue her research and work in her motherland. She organized the first laboratory course on recombinant DNA techniques in Asia and Far East in 1981.
Preface To Concerning Violence (Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak)
Frantz Fanon was born on the Caribbean island of Martinique in 1925, and grew up a gentleman of the French Empire. He realized, when he came from the island of Martinique to the mainland of France in Europe,
through involvement in the French army elsewhere, that his class
privilege among his own black people did not mean anything in the
country of the colonizing masters—he was nothing but a black man. In a
famous chapter in his book Black Skin, White Masks (rejected as a
dissertation by a French university), he mentions his shock when a
white French child cries out to her mother—”Mama, see the Negro!” But
Fanon moves from just this shock into an attempt to understand
colonization all over the world. In this very book, in the last chapter,
he walks us through a reading of the European philosopher Hegel’s
famous chapter on “Master and Slave,” and turns it to his own use. As we
watch the film Concerning Violence, we remember this in the
freedom fighters’ invocation of the named states of Mozambique and
Angola, borders established by the imperialists. Fanon’s lesson was that
you use what the masters have developed and turn it around in the
interests of those who have been enslaved or colonized. In this he is
with great leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois and Nelson Mandela. Fanon did not
stop at thinking colonization, but wanted to do something about it. He
gave his time and skill to the healing of those who suffered from
He went to an African country that spoke French—as the resisters in
this film speak Portuguese—creolizing the master’s language as their
very own. Such thinking is shared by great writers such as Assia Djebar
of Algeria, Njabulo Ndebele of South Africa, and Syed Abdul Malik of
India. Receiving no response from Senegal, he went finally out of
sub-Saharan Africa into Algeria in North Africa, where he, as a trained
psychiatrist, worked in the Blida-Joinville Psychiatric Hospital, and
developing a radical theory of colonial psychopathology, helped those
who fought against French colonialism with the FLN, the National
Liberation Front of Algeria, joining the party himself in 1954. My
friend Assia Djebar, whom I have already mentioned, worked with him in
Tunisia, and has shared with me in detail the actual experience of his
work—to heal the effects of violence, rather than to condone violence as
Fanon died at 36, and we would have gained greatly if this man of fire and resolution had lived long enough to give us his wisdom when the
colonized nations regularly fell into internal violence and internal
class struggle and internal greed after so-called liberation. The issue
of colonization is a greed shared by humankind. No one is better than
anyone, every generation must be trained in the practice of freedom,
caring for others, as did Fanon, and that is what colonization stops.
Within the greed for capital formation, colonization allows already
existing ignorant racism to spread the markets in the name of
civilization or modernization or globalization, as it does today. This
film captures the tragedy of the moment when the very poor are convinced
in the name of a nation, that is going to reject it once it is
established on its own two feet, to offer themselves up for a violent
killing. The French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, himself a strong
anti-colonialist among the colonizers, read the book Fanon wrote in the
last 10 weeks of his life, knowing that he was marked for death by acute
leukemia, even as he was being hounded by the colonizing government of
France, as an endorsement of violence itself—not reading between the
lines, where Fanon insists that the tragedy is that the very poor is
reduced to violence, because there is no other response possible to an
absolute absence of response and an absolute exercise of legitimized
violence from the colonizers. Their lives count as nothing against the
death of the colonizers: unacknowledged Hiroshimas over against
sentimentalized 9/11′s. Here the lesson of Gandhi regarding the power of
passive resistance and the contrastive lesson of Israel in the exercise
of state legitimized violence drawing forth violence in extremism is
useful today. It is in this context that we remember that after the
struggle against Portugal, the new nations of Angola and Mozambique fell
into civil war, and disproved the dream of the very poor that
decolonization would bring a new day. Mozambique has joined forces with
capitalist globalization. This is the rule rather than the exception.
Fanon’s own warning is contained in A Dying Colonialism. Against
the grain of his optimism of the will, he writes: “it is no longer the
age of little vanguards,” an unintended description of the guerilla
warfare we will watch on the screen. Working within the problems created
by a postcolonial nation which brings back the pre-colonial problems
that the great historian Fernand Braudel called longue durée or
long term: “structures which lie invisible below the surface of social
activities,” many of us think that the real disaster in colonialism lies
in destroying the minds of the colonized and forcing them to accept
mere violence—allowing no practice of freedom, so that these minds
cannot build when apparent decolonization has been achieved. From the
example of mature leaders such as Du Bois and Mandela, we know or can at
least have the feeling that Fanon would have gone in that direction.
Unlike Gandhi, the early Du Bois, or yet Mandela, who worked for their
own nation-states—Fanon was not himself an Algerian, not a member of the
country which he helped. This is an important lesson for those of us
who want to think the world rather than, thinking from within a
nation-state, argue from identity, learning the lesson that mere
national liberation without the practice of freedom cannot in fact bring
a socially just world for the very poor. Fanon did not know the
language of the common people of Algeria—Arabic; he was not himself a
Muslim, the majority religion of Algeria. He could not know the power of
religion as a discourse of political mobilization in today’s world,
particularly after so-called independence in what is today called “the
Islamic world.” I was working the election booths in Wahran (Algeria) in
1991. It is within the context of the aftermath of colonialism—that
Fanon could not know—that the tragedy of what we watch in this film must
be carefully considered. This is a teaching text.
I add a word on gender. This film reminds us that, although
liberation struggles force women into an apparent equality—starting with
the 19th century or even earlier—when the dust settles, the so-called
post-colonial nation goes back to the invisible longterm structures of
gendering. The most moving shot of this film is the black Venus,
reminding us of the Venus of Milo with her arm gone, who is also a black
Madonna, suckling a child with bare breasts. This icon must remind us
all that the endorsement of rape continues not only in war but also,
irrespective of whether a nation is developing or developed—in women
fighting in legitimized armies. Colonizer and colonized are united in
the violence of gendering, which often celebrates motherhood with
genuine pathos. Here we have to promote our brother Fanon into a changed
mindset, but he, who would have been in his 80s today, is not there for
us. What I can recommend is that you also watch a video made by
Algerian women active in the revolution called Barberousse mes soeurs (Hassan Bouabdallah, 1985) if you can get your hands on it.
Here now is our film, a tribute to and an illustration of Frantz Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth.
I end it in Fanon’s own way, turning around for our own use what a
European philosopher wrote for the use of Europe over 200 years ago:
turning Kant around for our purposes as he did Hegel: “anything which
the people (i.e. the entire mass of subjects) cannot decide for
themselves and their fellows cannot be decided for the people by the
sovereign either.” The people under colonization have had no practice of
freedom. You cannot decide without practice. The ones you see on the
screen are a small part of the people, the poorest of the poor,
mobilized into violence by sovereign leaders: cannon fodder. This
practice goes on in all armies, all resistance movements, in the name of
nation and religion. Here Fanon would have been useful today. As for
gendering, we must ourselves gender “the people.” Our brothers Kant and
Fanon are not useful here. I thank Göran Olsson for setting us these