Xunantunich is an Ancient Maya archaeological site in western Belize, about 80 miles (130 km) west of Belize City, in the Cayo District. Xunantunich is located atop a ridge above the Mopan River, well within sight of the Guatemala border – which is a mere 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the west. It served as a Maya civic ceremonial center in the Late and Terminal Classic periods to the Belize Valley region. At this time, when the region was at its peak, nearly 200,000 people lived in Belize.

There is evidence of Xunantunich being settled as early as the ceramic phase of the Preclassic period. The findings have been insubstantial to prove that Xunantunich was a site of importance. It was not until the Samal phase in AD 600-670 that Xunantunich began to grow significantly in size. Architectural constructions boomed in Hats’ Chaak phase (AD 670-750) when Xunantunich’s connection with the polity Naranjo solidified. Left in a state of abandonment at approximately AD 750 due to an unknown violent event (see Euan MacKie’s work in 1959-60, above, which may be relevant here), Xunantunich did not re-establish itself as a strong presence in the region until Tsak’ phase in AD 780-890.


Codz Poop

One of the most emblematic archaeological site of Kabah, Yucatan, by thehundreds of masks Chaak protruding divinity extremely importan. The site is part of the Maya area Puuc.

Uno de los edificios más emblemáticos del sitio arqueológico de Kabah, Yucatán, por los cientos de mascarones de Chaak que sobresalen, divinidad sumamente importante, en conclusión. El área forma parte del estilo arquitectónico Puuc.

Codex Dresden p. 60

The Codex Dresden / Dresdensis is one of only three surviving Maya manuscripts which date to before the Spanish conquest, likely between the 12th and 15th centuries. The codex depicts the religious beliefs of the Maya people and is written in a complex logosyllabographic script. 

The top image of this page depicts Pawhatun, wearing a tortoise shell, with two warriors wielding atlatls and darts. They are located on top of a platform containing a deer and a “hok-snared” glyph collocation. 

The accompanying text reads:

?? / / waxak-?-waj / ol / / ?-ha / / pa-wah-mak / / u-kab’-hi-tz’a-tan / ta / / tu-b’a-chaak? / cha-ki

On ? 8 Kumk’u Pawah-mak ?? under the auspices of ?? Chaak.

b’olon-ok-te’ / / ?? / / yah?-winik / winal-ki / / xul?-k’in-? / / tok’-pakal / / pa-wah-och

B’olon Yokte’ ? Damage to the people; end of days. Pawah-opossum’s flint-shield (warfare). 

The bottom image depicts a figure with a black stripe kneeling and supporting a throne on his shoulders. A figure rides the throne holding a spear and shield, accompanied by a fire serpent. The spear and shield designates this figure as a warrior and is read phonetically as tok’ pakal. The deity Xiuhtecuhtli stands next to this warrior, holding a spear tired to a captive with a dark black ring around his eye. 

The accompanying text reads: 

buluk-ahaw-ahaw-wa / / lahun-yax-k’in-ni / ne / / tzutz-yi / k’atun

The k’atun was completed on 10 Yaxk’in 11 Ahaw.

ah?-kimil-la / / yu-tun / ku’la’kab’ / nal? / ch’en?

The dead person; the shaking of the earth cave.

u-yax-k’’in-yu / / b’olon-ok-te’ / / ahaw-su-wa / / ya-ahaw-su

The first sun/day of the lord of Bolon Yokte’

yah?-winik / winal-ki / / yah?-kab’-ch’en?

Damage to the people, damage to the earth cave.