ceremony of chiefs


which means it’s time to eat welshcakes, sing songs about saucepans, stand in a circle and slap your knees, pin leeks to your clothes, try desperately to remember the parts of your heritage that weren’t erased by centuries of anglocentric history, and watch someone be crowned the poet king on a wooden chair while a druid does sick sword tricks over their head

Dydd Gŵyl Dewi hapus, pawb!!!!!


KAYAPO COURAGE: “The Amazon tribe has beaten back ranchers and gold miners and famously stopped a dam. Now its leaders must fight again or risk losing a way of life.” ~ Chip Brown.  photography by Martin Schoeller - full story & gallery via National Geographic (January 2014)

  • “YNHIRE expresses his identity as a warrior with a headdress of parrot feathers.”
  • “BEPRO wears the beads and cotton-wrapped earrings that boys receive as part of their naming ceremony.”
  • “ROPNI, an internationally known chief, is one of the few Kayapo who still wear the mahogany lip plate.”
  • “PHNH-OTI has an inverted V shaved into her scalp, a ceremonial female practice.”
  • “BEPRAN-TI wears an impressive display of feathers for his betrothal ceremony, a Kayapo rite of passage.”
  • “MEKARON-TI, the great chief, speaks Portuguese and is a powerful advocate for his people.”

anonymous asked:

Could you please do an analysis on how S3 talked about Hiccup's leadership a lot more than in other seasons? In other seasons it seemed like decisions were made as a group now we get 2 epi's of Fishlegs and Snotlout wanting to prove themselves to him

Hiccup’s increasing leadership is extraordinarily interesting. Technically, Hiccup has led the dragon riders before in an official role; when they acted together as the Dragon Academy, Hiccup was placed in charge. Hiccup has also acted as a leader in moments like Dawn of the Dragon Racers and Dangers of the Deep when he is acting chief. However, it is to note that, increasingly throughout RTTE, Hiccup becomes more and more leader-like. The group initially acts as more of a team with Hiccup as the cement, but by S3, there’s no doubting who has taken control of the Edge.

In RTTE S1, especially the first half of the season, Hiccup and the youths often act together and make decisions together as a group. For instance, they seek out potential “base” island candidates together. In “When Darkness Falls,” everyone cracks out their own ideas about how to construct their base. While Hiccup does try to insert in his voice and tell people to prioritize, Snotlout criticizes this as “Princess Outpost Hiccup” rather than a good assertion of authority. And when Hiccup comes up with a solution to the problem, he presents the idea to the entire team which is reacted to with enthusiasm. This is a situation in which the group works together and decides on a solution as a team. Hiccup is not acting as a strict authority figure in these sorts of moments.

Other moments in RTTE S1 can be listed as Hiccup being more of a smart, oft-heeded voice in the group rather than the set leader. For instance, in “Reign of Fireworms”, when the twins become the “real leaders,” Hiccup goes with it. When everyone is trapped in the cell, Hiccup is then asked if he will do something about it. While this does suggest the youths still see Hiccup as a leader, it is to point out it’s not Hiccup going around asserting his authority at this point in time. What he does in “Reign of Fireworms” is eventually decide to stop a problem when it gets too out of hand.

Still, there are cases in which Hiccup demonstrates leadership even in S1. “Crushing It” is a great example of Hiccup acting as a natural leader without thinking it. Stoick starts to give instructions to the youths about how to handle a dangerous wild Rumblehorn, but Hiccup jumps up and tells everyone where to head. And they all heed him. Stoick is left, wordless, standing in the background and analyzing his son. Stoick realizes - even if Hiccup does not - how well his son handled this situation as a leader figure.

But Hiccup’s authority becomes more pronounced, regular, and outwardly acknowledged as the youths’ time on the Edge progresses. In “The Zippleback Experience” from S2, Hiccup is demonstrated as having some authority to assign shifts. At the start of the episode, Hiccup tells the twins, “Since you two seem so eager to spend some time away from the group, you get to pull the first two shifts of patrol duty.” That is a command, not a suggestion. Furthermore, the twins respond not with protests, but with a comment about Hiccup acting in power. Ruffnut says, “He’s really become a tyrant,” and Tuffnut responds, “Power will do that to you.” This is, technically, an indicator that Hiccup is taking the leadership role. And if that’s not enough, when Hiccup gets decked in fish and thinks it’s the twins’ fault, he shouts out, “Ruff! Tuff! Ohhh, I’ve got another shift with your names on it!” Hiccup is assigning shifts, no one is questioning him on it, and we can point to that as a feature of him leading the youths on the Edge.

S3 is where Hiccup’s authority really gets pronounced. It is far more pronounced than the previous two seasons. For starters, there’s “Follow the Leader,” and entire episode in which Fishlegs looks to be a leader when Hiccup is gone. Hiccup explicitly puts Fishlegs in charge of the group when he and Astrid are away; the fact Hiccup is designating who the leader is when he is gone is a clear demonstration of Hiccup being the natural leader when he’s present. While the youths question Fishlegs being a leader, no one questions the fact Hiccup’s the leader. Snotlout’s qualm is, “Why would Hiccup put you in charge of anything,” not, “Hiccup’s not in charge.” Throughout the episode, and Hiccup provides feedback about how Fishlegs is doing. This is an episode that might be about Fishlegs’ character growth, but it firmly settles Hiccup’s leadership role on Dragon’s Edge.

“Turn and Burn,” the very next episode, also has an element of Hiccup being a leader embedded in it, too. The episode compares Hiccup and Snotlout’s comparative positions with Stoick and Spitelout’s. The big takeaway Hiccup and Stoick get is that Snotlout and Spitelout are trying to impress their leaders. This again puts Hiccup in the leadership role.

“A Grim Retreat” has an entire premise focused around the idea that Hiccup has been overworking his companions. The dragons and all the teenagers are at work because Hiccup wants them to be productive. Everyone expresses the desire for a break, including Astrid, Snotlout, Tuffnut, and Ruffnut. In fact, the conversation proceeds where Hiccup says, “Guys, I - I get that you’re all tired, but remember why we’re all doing this.” Snotlout says, “Oh, because you told us to.” Later, Astrid and Fishlegs come to Hiccup’s hut and say, “We object.” “Everyone could use a break.” Only when Hiccup concedes they can have a break do they go on a break. This is Hiccup’s decision, and everyone has to convince the one leader to get the vacation. This obviously shows the power structure on the Edge if five to one isn’t enough to go on a vacation… until the one in charge says, “Fine”.

Within “Defenders of the Wing Part 1,” Hiccup himself declares himself the leader. It’s not just him acting as a leader we get in this season, but an outright verbal declaration of him being so.

When the youths invite Heather to Dragon’s Edge, it is Hiccup’s choice and leadership that brings her officially into the gang.

So yes. Yes, yes, yes. S3 demonstrates Hiccup as The Edge’s Big Leader through and through.

What is interesting about this is how it occurs. In Riders of Berk and Defenders of Berk, Hiccup starts the Dragon Academy and is given authority by Stoick. While Hiccup becomes confident in the role of leader, it is an official establishment with a title. There was no such official designation on the Edge in RTTE. Hiccup became that leader naturally, in part because he has led the youths in the past, and in part because he continues to make a great leader in the present. Even if he did not start the adventure thinking, “I’m totally the leader of these folks,” but the time of “Defenders of the Wing Part 1,” he will outright declare, “I am the leader.”

It’s also to note that the youths accept this. In a way, they expect it. Since they expect Hiccup to stand up and stop the nonsense in “Reign of Fireworms,” you can see they clearly look up to Hiccup for guidance and decision-making. He’s still got that influence from the Dragon Academy years. Everyone is fine with him continuing to act that way, even if they have moved on and they are no longer Dragon Academy students. Hiccup being the leader, as the youths see it, is the natural course of events.

As Hiccup grows, he becomes more and more a natural leader. He takes his first steps in HTTYD when he comes up with a “crazy idea.” In ROB and DOB, he works as a leader in the Dragon Academy, making decisions when he and his friends are in danger. In RTTE, he goes from being an unofficial leader to one who clearly takes charge of the team and acknowledges it. Now he’s doing it in an island that is unsupervised by anyone else. It’s still leadership focused in areas of his personal interests and in dangerous little-choice scenarios, but he’s growing in his span of leadership. By HTTYD 2, Hiccup still might not see himself as a leader because his leadership positions have been restricted to: 1) tight situations, 2) a very small group of people, 3) doing it during recreation when he wants to, and 4) not doing any of the official sorts of duties, acts, and ceremonies a chief does, but he’s gained a lot of the experience and skills needed to become Berk’s number one. In HTTYD 2, Hiccup transitions into someone who isn’t just making choices for a small band of riders. He becomes the chief of an entire tribe.