celtic tribe

The Ancient, Fierce Celtic Women & the Romans who fought them.

“Here the women met them holding swords and axes in their hands. With hideous shrieks of rage they tried to drive back the hunted and the hunters. The fugitives as deserters, the pursuers as foes. With bare hands the women tore away the shields of the Romans or grasped their swords, enduring mutilating wounds.”

“A Celtic woman is often the equal of any Roman man in hand-to-hand combat. She is as beautiful as she is strong. Her body is comely but fierce. The physiques of our Roman women pale in comparison.”  
-Unidentified Roman Soldier

“The women of the Gauls are not only like men in their great stature, but they are a match for them in courage as well." 
-Diodorus Siculus

"The women of the Celtic tribes are bigger and stronger than our Roman women. This is most likely due to their natures as well as their peculiar fondness for all things martial and robust. The flaxen haired maidens of the north are trained in sports and war while our gentle ladies are content to do their womanly duties and thus are less powerful than most young girls from Gaul and the hinterlands.”
-Marcus Borealis

whole band of foreigners will be unable to cope with one [Gaul] in a fight, if he calls in his wife, stronger than he by far and with flashing eyes; least of all when she swells her neck and gnashes her teeth, and poising her huge white arms, begins to rain blows mingled with kicks, like shots discharged by the twisted cords of a catapult.”
-Ammianus Marcellinus


Some brief but interesting background info about the cites where the following English models come from, as knowledge is also beautiful…

Doncaster is in Yorkshire, an was founded about 1,900 years ago, beside a Roman fort. Candy factories opened in the 1800s, an a castle is nearby. In fact the famous chocolate biscuit-bar Kit-Kat was invented locally.

London is the capital of the United Kingdom, as was founded in 43 A.D as an international trading city - which it still is today, 2000 years later. It became the capital of England after the anglo-saxons reclaimed it in 927.

Kent is a county founded by the Jute anglo-saxon tribe and the Cantuci - a Celtic tribe from over 3000 years ago. Queen Anne Boleyn was born here. Kent is known as the garden county an has castle an a major seaport. Link

Liverpool was the worlds first truly international city, as its docks catered for global shipping on a grand scale. The Beatles pop-band originated here as did other bands. Two premiership football clubs are based here.

Sheffield is where modern steel production was founded in the 1800s, with stainless steel being invented here in 1771. Silverware is still made here. In this city originated famous bands like the Human League an Def Leppard.

Bath is a quaint city, which was named after a volcanic spring that was harnessed into a giant public bath house in 60 AD by the Roman empire. This city is considered very picturesque with quaint buildings an streets.

Essex was founded by the eastern Saxons over 1600 years ago. It is the home of Fords European research center, an the band Depeche Mode. The county has a modern city feel to it in the west an countryside to the east.

The “Newcastle” part of the hometown derives from it being the location of a ‘new castle’ in the 12th century. The “Lyme” section refers to the Forest of Lyme that covered the area with lime trees in the medieval period.


a (growing) List of Water Deities

A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water. Water deities are common in mythology and were usually more important among civilizations in which the sea or ocean, or a great river was more important. Another important focus of worship of water deities were springs or holy wells.

As a form of animal worship, whales and snakes (hence dragons) have been regarded as godly deities throughout the world (other animals are such as turtles, fish, crabs, and sharks). In Asian lore, whales and dragons sometimes have connections. Serpents are also common as a symbol or as serpentine deities, sharing many similarities with dragons.

As stated above, this is a GROWING list of water deities that I will be adding to periodically as research and time permits.  I advise that if you become interested in any deities, you check to make sure that their culture is not a closed one.  **AKA: Don’t appropriate.

If you would like to see the list, click below!

Keep reading


Tre’r Ceiri Iron Age Hill fort, Llyn Peninsula, North Wales, 29.4.17. This has to be one of the most impressive prehistoric sites of the UK given its scale and location. The Iron Age hill fort sits atop a peak and features more than 150 hut foundations and two perimeter walls, in places just under 3 metres in height. The peak of the fort also features a Bronze Age cairn. The entrances to the fort are still visible are as the different shapes of the huts, shelters and roundhouses that emerged over generations. The earlier huts are to a circular, wheel shape with room compartments under one roof whilst later structures are smaller and more oblong with one or two room spaces. At its height, it was thought to be the home for over 400 people. Excavations have found large traces of Roman pottery and it is thought that the Celtic tribes that occupied the site may have traded with the Romans and used the fort as a refuge from Irish invaders. 

The women of the Celtic tribes are bigger and stronger than our Roman women. This is most likely due to their natures as well as their peculiar fondness for all things martial and robust. The flaxen haired maidens of the north are trained in sports and war while our gentle ladies are content to do their womanly duties and thus are less powerful than most young girls from Gaul and the hinterlands.
—  Marcus Borealis

Roman Balsamarium in the Form of a Celtic Aristocrat, 1st-2nd Century AD

A bronze balsamarium in the form of a bust of a Celtic male with coils of lime-washed hair, handlebar mustache and closely cropped beard; eyes inlaid in silver; torc around neck with terminal inlaid in silver; hinge and loops to the top of the head, separate lid in the form of hair. 11cm

The Celtic tribes were divided into different classes or castes of hierarchical nobility. Their society was quite complex with a king or queen at the top of society and a warrior aristocracy below them, with merchants and peasants forming further subdivisions of society; the religious sect formed a separate class that was divided into Druids, Bards and Ovates and who not only dealt with religious matters but also formulated the laws. Classical authors, such as Caesar and Strabo, describe the Celtic aristocracy as dyeing their skin with blue paint and washing their hair in lime so that it formed spikes. Another feature of the aristocracy was the wearing of neck torcs, something that was only reserved for the royal family and the warrior aristocracy, as well as the gods, as it was seen to have divine connotations.

The 6 Celtic Nations and Gallaecia

These 7 regions are the native lands of the modern Celtic tribes. 6 of the 7 native Celtic lands are officially recognized as Celtic Nations.

Scotland, Ireland & North Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany are officially recognized as Celtic Nations by the Celtic League. Recognition is received for having strong cultural, and genetic ties to the ancient Celts, as well as having a native Celtic language.

The cultural region of Gallaecia (Galicia, Asturias, Norte, and sometimes Cantabria, and León) however, is not officially recognized as Celtic Nation. This is mainly due to the fact that Gallaic, the native language of the Gallaecians, has been extinct for over 1000 years. Despite being qualified in nearly every way, the lack of a speakable native Celtic language is what prevents each part of Gallaecia from becoming a Celtic Nation.

(The map pictured above was drawn for me by, princessbevry. Please do not remove the original caption. Thank you!)

So going through the Horizon: Zero Dawn tag on tumblr, and I have a huge problem with a lot of what I see.

First off, let me say that this game, is absolutely amazing.  Not only do they take Science fiction to a whole new level AND give us a heroine that we can relate to, and is human, but they also made a beautiful story that has me on the edge of my seat.  This game, has become my top favorite.  I have a poster already put up in my room, and adore every single aspect of it, from doing the override for a mount, to shooting the bow.  It’s just absolutely perfect.

But lets get to the points that I hate.  I hate, that almost every single time that I get on that tag, someone is bitching because they either are supposedly Whitewashing the game, although they are basing the tribes off of CELTIC tribes, or are mad/confused that Aloy isn’t part of the LGBTQ+.  

I would think, by this time of age, and a whole new generation in thousands of years, the labels for one would be gone. I would also think, that SOME people would realize that Aloy is a wonderful fucking character the way she is.

Also, the game is NOT white washing.  I saw that one of the originals, was a muslim.  I ran into Asians, I ran into so many Black people! The war chief, was a black woman, who had spunk.

Aloys story is truly well done, well written, and fascinating feminist dialogue all on its own.

So who the fuck cares if she is a red haired, pale girl with dreads? It’s NOT important to the story.  You know what is? Trying to figure out who the hell woke up Hades, and saving the fucking world. 

But you guys just can’t appreciate nice things can you? Unless it meets your agenda.  

Life isn’t a protest.

*I am a feminist, I am a Liberal, I have gone to the protests, but I do not think that someone should get offended over such non existent things.  Just enjoy the damn game.*

Bergamo is located in Lombardia 40 km northeast of Milan, pop: 120,000. The foothills of the Alps begin just north of the town. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. From the 6th century on, it was the seat of one of the most important duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, and Cividale del Friuli. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. In 1428 it fell under the control of the Venetian Republic, remaining part of it until 1797. In 1815, it was assigned to the Austrian Empire. Giuseppe Garibaldi freed it in 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, when it became part of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 20th century Bergamo became one of Italy’s most industrialized cities.

As of 2010, 85% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant groups come from other European nations (mostly Romania and Ukraine): 4.89%, Americas (mostly from Bolivia): 4.61%, sub-Saharan Africa: 1.59%, North Africa: 1.53%. Currently 1/5 of babies born in Bergamo has at least one foreign parent. 

Warrior Queen BOUDICA

Nearly 2000 years ago, Boudica was a queen of the British Iceni tribe, who led a significant uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in Britain. Boudica’s husband ruled his tribes region as an independent ally of the Romans, and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman emperor in his will. 

However, when he died, his death will was ignored, and his kingdom was stolen. His wife Boudica was then flogged after rightfully protesting, an her daughters raped. But in AD 60, when the Roman governor Gaius Paulinus was busy murdering the last of Britain’s spiritual leaders, Boudica led her Iceni tribe an others, in revolt against Roman oppression.

As a result, they destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester). Upon hearing of the revolt, the governor Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), which was the rebels next target. But the Romans, in having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend this city, an so Boudica raided Londinium. Below is Boudica an her husband, as from a Tv-Movie on this whole story…

Boudica then led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and other tibes, to fight London’s commander Legio Hispana, who then beat him, then burned and destroyed Londinium, an then later Verulamium (modern-day St Albans). An estimated 70,000 Romans were killed in these three cities. Below is a modern painting, that’s drawn to evoke her spirit and persona, rather than her realistic image.

Governor Paulinus later regrouped his forces in the West Midlands an defeated her rebel army in the Battle of Watling Street. This crisis caused Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain - until the victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of their province. Boudica and her daughters then hid from the Roman army, which is why they were never found after the battle ended. Below is a painting of a daughter of hers, (note the Celtic tattoos)

Interest in these heroic and momentus events were revived during the English Renaissance, well over a thousand years later, and later led to Boudica’s renewed fame in the Victorian era, resulting in an epic statue in central London, as shown below. Queen Boudica has since remained an important cultural symbol to the British people of the United Kingdom, an probably more-so the English, as she was born an lived modern-day eastern England.


Ancient Celtic Coin From Paris

Very rare and perhaps the finest known specimen, this stater was struck in the late 2nd to early 1st century BC by the Celtic Parisii tribe. The obverse shows a male head (probably Apollo) surrounded by beaded filaments, a star amidst his swirling hair and a cross on his cheek. The reverse has a horse with a curvilinear design, thought to be a wing (like Pegasus).

The late Iron Age village of Lutetia, located at the site of modern-day Paris, was the capital of the Celtic Parisii tribe. Its main settlement was on the Ile de la Cité on the River Seine (Sequana). With the Suessiones, the Parisii participated in the general rising of Vercingetorix. He was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar’s Gallic Wars in 52 BC. During the Roman advance in 52 BC the Celts burned their city, and the bridges that linked it to the banks on either side, but after Roman dominion was established it was rebuilt and named Parisii.

Warlord and queen of the British Iceni, an ancient Celtic tribe, Boudica led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. Boudica’s husband Prasutagus was ruler of the Iceni tribe, and enjoyed autonomy under a treaty with the Romans. However, when he died, the kingdom was annexed as if conquered. Boudica was flogged, her daughters were raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans. In AD 60 or 61, Boudica waited until the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales. She then launched a massive assault leading the Iceni, Trinovantes and other Britons in revolt against Roman population centers. She destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), and while the out-manned Roman garrisons attempted to flee, Boudica’s army of 100,000 engaged the Legio IX Hispana, decimating them, then burned and destroyed Londinium, and Verulamium (modern-day St. Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by Boudica’s armies. Despite these early gains, Suetonius regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and though heavily outnumbered, defeated Boudica’s advancing Britons in the Battle of Watling Street. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’s eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then killed herself so she would not be captured. She has since remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom, and is renown for her tactical use of the chariot on the battlefield by employing shock-combat to break enemy formations.


Cartimandua was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England. She came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome. She appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain.

Our only knowledge of Cartimandua is through the writings of Roman author Tacitus, who presents her in a negative light. He writes of her treacherous role in the capture of Caratacus, who had sought her protection, her “self-indulgence, her sexual impropriety in rejecting her husband in favour of a common soldier, and her "cunning strategems” during her rule. However, he also consistently names her as a queen, the only one such known in early Roman Britain.

Boudica was ruler of the Iceni people, a Celtic tribe, who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor Gaius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt.

Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight the Roman Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed several settlements in Britannia. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’s eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica’s fate is not known.

The two women are the only known female Celtic rulers of the age.

schnano  asked:

I recently found out that there is a small revival of Leukitanea, erm Lusitanian(sp?), in some places in Portugal (Lusitania and Galacia(?) i think) Since you're a language enthusiast and the ambassador for Portugal, I was wondering if you had any opinion on it.

Hello! This question was quite hard to answer due to several complications, but I’m really glad you decided to ask because it’s really, really interesting! And I’d like to thank you as well for sending me the links of the articles with this info, your interest is really flattering!

Anyways, I think I ought to explain some stuff about the pre-Roman and Roman history of Portugal before really getting to the bottom of the question. So without further due, let us discuss ~history~

First, about Lusitania and Gallaecia. These two regions were named by the Romans post-conquest after the tribes that occupied the regions. Gallaecia was named after the Gallaeci, a Celtic tribe, while Lusitania was named after the Lusitanians. About the Lusitanians, it’s still widely debated what type of culture and language they practised and spoke. Some argue that the Lusitanians were either a Celtic or a pre-Celtic tribe, while others defend that they were more closely tied to the Iberian (or Celtiberian) peoples of the peninsula and that their language belonged to the Italic language family.

As for the regions per se, Gallaecia incorporated most of northwest Iberia, that is, modern-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias, and the most northwestern parts of Castile and Léon; while Lusitania incorporated all of Portugal’s territory below the Douro river plus modern-day Extremadura and parts of the province of Salamanca in Castile and León. For a better insight, here’s a picture of Roman Iberia (Hispania) divided into its provinces:

Source: (x)

So now that we got that cleared up, let’s talk about the languages themselves! 


As above mentioned, there are no clear evidences that Lusitanian was either a Celtic or an Italic language. Our only records written in what we presume to be the ancient Lusitanian language are 5 sizeable inscriptions, plus the names of various locations and gods. Some of Lusitanian’s features are considered non-Celtic: for example, the inclusion of the letter “p” in positions where Celtic languages wouldn’t include it, as in the word porcom (meaning “pig”). Granted, several etymologists have labeled Lusitanian under the category of Italic language (interesting to notice that porcom is not that far way from the Latin word porcus, or the Portuguese word porco, both meaning “pig”). However, there is also the argument that this phenomenon isn’t necessarily non-Celtic and might possibly just be a specific Celtic dialect. This because a lot of personal and place names in ancient Lusitania are undoubtly of Celtic origin, according to several scholars. There’s also the fact that the phonology of the language is completely unknown, so who knows how they’d pronounce porcom? Maybe they kept the p as an archaism and weakened the sound. In the end, no one knows for sure and the debate is still very much active and will keep being active as long as no conclusive evidence is found.

Gallaecian (or Gallaic)

Now Gallaecian, the ancient langauge of Gallaecia, is a different story. Unlike Lusitanian, Gallaecian is in fact labeled as a (extint) Celtic language. Most of the debate surrounding Gallaecian comes down to the question of its relation with Lusitanian, that is, if they were closely related languages (given their geographic proximity) or not. Some of those who believe Lusitanian was a Celtic lanugauge usually group these two together. reffering to them as different dialects of the same language. And just like Lusitanian, written records of Gallaecian are scarce, but they definitely point out to a strong connection with Celtic languages.

As for the reconstruction of these languages, I’d like to thank you once again for providing the link and I’ll leave it here for anyone who’d like to check it out.

The Return of Gallaic?

So on to the bottom of the question! First of, it would be absolutely awesome if we could actually revive this one (two?) ancient language. Unfortunalety, as said above, records are scarce and its phonology is a mystery (which happens often with dead languages). However the source does mention some interesting proceedures as how they’re reconstructing the language. 

First, Gallaic is (or was) a Celtic language, and Celtic languages are still a thing today. This means we can look at the modern-day Celtic languages and use them as a key to unlock most of the aspects of the language such as word order for example, 

Second, Celtic influence is very present in Galican and Portuguese, specially in the northern dialects. It’s save to say that after Latin, Celtic languages were the 2nd most influencal group in creating Galican-Portuguese, which would later split into two distinct, albeit very similar languages. This means that thousands of words of Celtic origin, including place names, have entered the modern day languages and are still widely used in common vocabulary. So we can sort of fill the gaps with the vocabulary we have today, even if only in theory.

And finally, the modern-day languages can actually offer us some insight into the phonology of Gallaic. It’s said that one of the reasons why Portuguese sounds so different from Spanish is because of the deeper Celtic influence, which makes it sound more “rough”. In fact, I often see this description of European Portuguese going around and it goes “it sounds like Russians trying to speak Spanish”. It might sound weird for some, but apparently there’s a strong enough consensus among people who speak neither of them, as shown by stuff like this:

Source: (x)

Or this google search of mine:

To be honest I feel flattered. Russian is a lovely language.

So as a final note, the revival of Gallaic does sound good on paper, but for now we shouldn’t raise the bar too high given the limited resources. I’m still skeptic about this subject although I can see how the examples above can provide a lot of help. But then again, we can always end up finding more stuff and new ways to put the pieces together.

I hope this suffices and thank you once again for asking!


I completed a new page in my Grimoire. This is a summary of the Tuath De and the creation stories in Irish mythology. The beginning of Ireland is told in a series of invasion stories by various races of supernatural entities and the ancestors of modern humans. The Tuath De is the collective term for the entities people work with as deities through history and today.

There is way too much information to cram onto a single page. I hope I didn’t get anything terribly wrong. My friend Colette studied Irish mythology in university and I’m always afraid of offending her by getting something wrong. Studying Irish history would be easier if I spoke the language. I’ve traced my family in Ireland back to the 10th century so I feel obligated to be as careful with old Ireland information as I can while still including the American folk magick traditions we began picking up in the 17th century through the present.

Now my next page will be about my preferred deity, Brigid (actually pronounced a bit like Breet). Also my Grimoire is an evolution of old tradition into modern tradition that my family naturally developed down the centuries. Once we left Ireland, England, and Brittany, we began getting influenced by Scotch-Irish, German, Native American, and African traditions because we lived and married among those people here in North America.

A good witch, pagan, heathen, Wiccan, etc., needs the foundation of solid historical knowledge plus the understanding that magick and the spirit realm are always changing and evolving. Humans are always changing and evolving too. So my foundation comes from old Celtic tribes but I also have traditions absorbed from New England and central Missouri into the Ozarks.

Keep your foundation but allow yourself to evolve too.

The Signs as Powerful Female Rulers throughout History

1. AriesHatshepsut, Ancient Egypt, 1508 BC - 1458 BC

Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful women in the ancient world. She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and she ruled longer than any other woman in Egyptian history.

2. TaurusMaria Theresa of Austria, Central Europe, 1717 - 1780

Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as empress of the Hapsburg controlled lands of Central Europe in 1740. She made her son, Joseph II, coregent in 1765 after the death of her husband.

3. Gemini : Queen Amina, Nigeria, 1560 - 1610

Queen Amina headed the northern Nigerian Hausa city-state of Zaria. It is thought that perhaps the Hausa were matrilineal people at that time since having a woman as queen was not all that rare. She was also a great military leader.

4. Cancer : Empress Theodora, Cyprus, 500 AD - 548A D

Empress Theodora was one of the most influential and powerful women in the Early Middle Ages. She was the wife of Emperor Justinian I and joint ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

5. Leo : Queen Elizabeth I, England, 1533 - 1603

Even though past queens such as Empress Matilda, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I had all ruled England in their own right, Elizabeth was truly the first crowned queen to successfully rule with absolute power. She is also remembered for defeating the Spanish Armada and establishing Protestantism in England, replacing Roman Catholicism.

6. VirgoEmpress Wu Zetian, China, 625 AD - 705 AD

Empress Wu Zetian is considered to be one of the most powerful women in Chinese history. She lived during the Tang Dynasty and was born to a wealthy and noble family. She was also very well educated. When Wu Zetian was 13, she was sent to Emperor Taizong’s court to be one of his concubines.

7. Libra : Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, India, 1917 - 1984

As daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, politics was always a part of Indira Gandhi’s world. She joined her father’s Congress Party in 1938 and was jailed for awhile by the British for her support of India’s independence from Great Britain. After her father’s death, she was elected to Parliament in his place, becoming Prime Minister herself in 1966.

8. Scorpio : Boudicca, East-England, ? - 60AD

Boudicca  was queen of the British Icini tribe, a Celtic tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.

9. SagittariusJoan of Arc Leader of the French Army, France, 1412 - 1431

Born into a peasant family, Joan became a French heroine by leading the army of Charles VII against the English and raising their siege of Orleans.

10. Capricorn : Chairperson and General Secretary of the National League for Democracy Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar (Burma), 1945 - present

Aung San Suu Kyi returned to Burma in 1988, after years living and studying abroad, only to find widespread slaughter of protesters rallying against the brutal rule of dictator U Ne Win. She spoke out against him and initiated a nonviolent movement toward achieving democracy and human rights. In 1989, the government placed Suu Kyi under house arrest, and she spent 15 of the next 21 years in custody. In 1991, her ongoing efforts won her the Nobel Prize for Peace, and she was finally released from house arrest in November 2010.

11. Aquarius : PM Baroness Margaret Thatcher, UK, 1925 - 2013

Margaret Thatcher was Britain’s first female prime minister, and first British prime minister in the twentieth century to win three consecutive terms. A lawyer, Margaret first entered Parliament in 1959, eventually serving in a variety of ministerial posts.

12. Pisces : Queen Victoria I, Britain, 1819 - 1901

Queen Victoria’s reign was the longest in English history. Called the Victorian age, it was a time when Britain was at the height of its colonial power. Victoria became a symbol of British expansionist foreign policy. She insisted on taking an active part in the decisions of the government, and forcefully backed those ministers she liked.

Sometimes the best parts of History are Herstory.

Silver Iceni Coin from the time of Boudicca, Britain, Late 1st Century BC

This is a  “face/horse” type coin. It shows a  Celticized head facing right; a branch behind. On the reverse, a horse prances right; a wheel above and a lozenge below. 

Boudicca was queen of the Iceni tribe, a Celtic tribe of Britain, who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.

The Iceni began producing coins c. 10 BC. They were a distinctive adaptation of the Gallo-Belgic “face/horse” design, and in some early issues, most numerous near Norwich, the horse was replaced with a boar. Some coins are inscribed ECENI, making them the only coin-producing group to use their tribal name on coins.




Limyra, Lycia, Turkey

ca. 270 BCE

After Alexander the Great had ended Achemenid rule - he passed through Lycia in early 333 BCE - much of Lycia was ruled by Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander’s successors, who had started a kingdom of his own in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphos, who supported the Limyrans when they were threatened by the Galatians (a Celtic tribe that had invaded Asia Minor). The grateful citizens of Limyra dedicated a monument to their savior, which was called the Ptolemaion.

5 Shows to Watch Now That REIGN Is Over
How many games of Hide & Seek can these grown-ass adults play per season?

Is the ghost that lives in the palace walls there to help Mary or hurt Mary, and hey it’s not a ghost it’s been a lovechild this whole time?

But my love for this show grew along with the tangle of plotlines, and over the last few years I developed a genuine affection for Reign. I’ve spent a good number of Friday nights watching and livetweeting and yelling at the screen when yet another episode has gone by without Mary getting a happy storyline, or without enough Catherine one-liners, or when they’ve killed off characters I’ve come to care for.

So where do we go from here? Where can we get that rare mix of adventure, romance, pseudo-history, and most importantly high-stakes costume drama? I’ve assembled a list of shows to help fill the void, where to watch them, and a semi-biased guide to appeal-level of each one.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Why did Russia not develop feudal contracts like the west?

Well, that comes from the different paths that the west and the east took.

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire’s authority, then the collapse of the Carolignian Empire meant that more power needed to be concentrated in the hands of the landholders who needed to defend the land from enemy incursion. Couple that with the traditions of the Germanic and Celtic tribes that were their precursors, and the western European powers built upon old traditions to address new concerns.

Russia, on the other hand, had influences from the Byzantine Empire and the Mongols (the latter of whom served as an overlord in an era called ‘the Tatar yoke’ in Russian history). Both of these exhibited far more absolutism in their style of rule, and so when Russia, first as the Grand Duchy of Muscovy and then the Russian Empire, built their nation, they did it using the traditions that were present from before.

So the culture and the traditions of the people built their respective style of government.

Thanks for the question, Anon.

SomethingLikeALawyer, Hand of the King